Special Issue "Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Laura Di Renzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Section of Clinical Nutrition and Nutrigenomic, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Interests: nutritional genomic (nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic); human body composition; metabolism; personalized nutritional assessment; food chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic and degenerative disease (CDD) are non-infectious and non-transmissible diseases of long duration and slow progression, including obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, neurodegenerative disease, and many cancers. The prevalence of CDDs is rising rapidly. In addition to a high mortality rate, CDDs are also disabling. A strategy is urgently needed to prevent and control CDDs.

The effects of diet compounds on metabolic pathways related to CDDs is currently under investigation, and is leading the traditional  nutritional counselling  to a  more complex approach based on -omic sciences, opening a new perspective in nutritional science.

I invite authors to submit original research and review articles that address the progress and current understanding of the response of CDDs to bioactive molecule intake, as well as the effects of gene polymorphism, gene expression, plasma lipidome, and different interactions on absorption, transport, and nutrient metabolism, to support the protective role of personalized diet in disease prevention and therapy.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Role of mediterranean diet in chronic non comunicable disease;
  • Role of chetogenic diet in chronic degenerative disease;
  • Nutrigenomic, nutripegenomic, and lipidomic approach in dietotherapy;
  • Personalized nutrition;
  • Beneficial effects of immunotherapy in cancer diseases;
  • Role of diet on gut microbiota;
  • Possible beneficial effects of bioactive molecule in chronic degenerative disease.

Dr. Laura Di Renzo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mediterranean diet
  • chetogenic diet
  • probiotic and prebiotic
  • anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound
  • gene expression
  • body composition

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041372 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Chronic degenerative diseases (CDDs), represented mainly by obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), inflammatory bowel diseases, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease (HD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic respiratory diseases, and many cancers, have been, up to now, the [...] Read more.
Chronic degenerative diseases (CDDs), represented mainly by obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), inflammatory bowel diseases, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease (HD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic respiratory diseases, and many cancers, have been, up to now, the most frequent causes of prolonged disability and death worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)

Research

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Article
Usefulness of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Minor Polar Compounds in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020581 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common chronic non-communicable degenerative diseases and it represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Mediterranean diet, in which extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main source of vegetal fats, [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common chronic non-communicable degenerative diseases and it represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Mediterranean diet, in which extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main source of vegetal fats, represents a nutritional-diet regimen that is useful for the treatment of CKD and its comorbidities. We tested two different EVOOs, characterized by a high (Synergy) and medium (Luxolio) content of minor polar compounds (MPCs), detected by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis, in 40 nephropathic patients, at a dose of 40 mL/day for 9 weeks. We evaluated the effects of these two EVOOs on renal function, body composition, oxidative stress, and inflammatory state, after 9 weeks of EVOOs consumption (T1) and after 2 months of wash-out (T2). We observed an improvement of renal function biomarkers (estimated-glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, azotemia, uric acid), lipid profile, oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) and in body composition at T1. These healthy effects were greater and persisted over time after the wash-out period in Synergy patients. The high MPC EVOO content seems to exert an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in nephropathic patients and these protective actions are maintained over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
The Mediterranean Diet in Osteoporosis Prevention: An Insight in a Peri- and Post-Menopausal Population
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 531; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020531 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Osteoporosis represent a widespread public health problem. The management and prevention of osteoporosis and related low energy fractures start with a correct lifestyle and proper nutrition. Several different nutrients are essential for bone and mineral metabolism, especially calcium. Nevertheless, a well-balanced nutrition, such [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis represent a widespread public health problem. The management and prevention of osteoporosis and related low energy fractures start with a correct lifestyle and proper nutrition. Several different nutrients are essential for bone and mineral metabolism, especially calcium. Nevertheless, a well-balanced nutrition, such as Mediterranean diet (MD), proved to be beneficial for several chronic diseases and also fragility fractures resulted lower in the Mediterranean area. A prospective observational study in a population of two hundred peri- and post-menopausal women (aged 30–80 years) was developed at Careggi hospital, Florence. Both MD adherence and dietary calcium intake were evaluated in occasion of a “first visit” and a “follow-up” visit, through validated questionnaires. From a descriptive point of view, although not statistically significant, in both visits a slight increase in calcium intake was observed for high adherence to MD diet. Moreover, a short nutritional interview (20 min) was applied in our population and demonstrated to be sufficient to significantly improve MD adherence level (mean score at T0 = 6.98 ± 1.74 and T1 = 7.53 ± 1.68), opening promising paths in osteoporosis prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Potential Effects of a Modified Mediterranean Diet on Body Composition in Lipoedema
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020358 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
Lipoedema is a subcutaneous adipose tissue disease characterized by the increase in the amount and structure of fat mass (FM) in specific areas, causing pain and discomfort. 95% of patients fail to lose weight in the lipoedema areas. The study was conducted to [...] Read more.
Lipoedema is a subcutaneous adipose tissue disease characterized by the increase in the amount and structure of fat mass (FM) in specific areas, causing pain and discomfort. 95% of patients fail to lose weight in the lipoedema areas. The study was conducted to evaluate body composition and general health status modification in a group of lipoedema patients (LIPPY) and a control group (CTRL) after four weeks of a modified Mediterranean diet therapy (mMeD). A total of 29 subjects were included in the data analysis, divided in two groups: 14 LIPPY and 15 CTRL. After the mMeD, both groups significantly decreased their weight and body mass index; the CTRL also showed a reduction of all the circumferences and all FM’s compartments. LIPPY showed a decrease of FM in upper and lower limbs. No significant differences in Δ% between the groups were observed for the lean mass (LM). In LIPPY, an increase in the patients’ ability to perform various daily physical activities related to the loss of arms’ and legs’ fat was observed. According to the European Quality of Life scale, the possibility for LIPPY subjects to perform simple daily activities with less fatigue, pain and anxiety is highlighted. Further long-term studies are recommended to confirm the mMeD as a good strategy for Lipoedema treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Functional Capacity and Muscle Oxygen Saturation in Patients with Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Pilot Study of a Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010149 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
The aim of the study was to verify the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on functional capacity (walking capacity; primary outcome) and calf muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) (secondary outcome) in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. Twenty-nine patients, of both sexes, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to verify the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on functional capacity (walking capacity; primary outcome) and calf muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) (secondary outcome) in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. Twenty-nine patients, of both sexes, were randomized (1:1) in a double-blind manner for administration of placebo (PLA, n = 15) or creatine monohydrate (Cr, n = 14). The supplementation protocol consisted of 20 g/day for 1 week divided into four equal doses (loading phase), followed by single daily doses of 5 g in the subsequent 7 weeks (maintenance phase). Functional capacity (total walking distance) was assessed by the 6 min walk test, and calf muscle StO2 was assessed through near infrared spectroscopy. The measurements were collected before and after loading and after the maintenance phase. The level of significance was p < 0.05. No significant differences were found for function capacity (total walking distance (PLA: pre 389 ± 123 m vs. post loading 413 ± 131 m vs. post maintenance 382 ± 99 m; Cr: pre 373 ± 149 m vs. post loading 390 ± 115 m vs. post maintenance 369 ± 115 m, p = 0.170) and the calf muscle StO2 parameters (p > 0.05). Short- and long-term Cr supplementation does not influence functional capacity and calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients with symptomatic PAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Effect of Phaseolus Vulgaris on Urinary Biochemical Parameters among Patients with Kidney Stones in Saudi Arabia
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113346 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The study purpose was to investigate the effect of Phaseolus Vulgaris (PV) on urinary biochemical parameters among patients with kidney stones. We conducted a randomized controlled study among 60 patients with kidney stones (size < 10 mm) in the nephrology unit of both [...] Read more.
The study purpose was to investigate the effect of Phaseolus Vulgaris (PV) on urinary biochemical parameters among patients with kidney stones. We conducted a randomized controlled study among 60 patients with kidney stones (size < 10 mm) in the nephrology unit of both government and private hospitals, Al-Ahsa. Urinary volume, calcium, magnesium, potassium, oxalate, uric acid, and power of hydrogen (pH) were assessed before and after the intervention of giving 250 g of PV consumption as an extract thrice weekly (2.2 L to 2.5 L per week) for 6 weeks, which was compared with control. A ‘t’ test was used with the significance at 5%. Mean score of age was 44.5 ± 10.16 in PV group and 43.73 ± 9.79 in control. Four (13.3%) and two (6.7%) had family history of kidney stones. Body mass Index (BMI) mean was 26.44 ± 2.7 and 26.36 ± 2.65 in pre and post-test, respectively, which were significant (p = 0.01017). There were significant changes (p = 0.000) in urine volume from 1962 ± 152.8 to 2005 ± 148.8, calcium 205.4 ± 11.99 to 198.4 ± 12.52, potassium 44.07 ± 3.66 to 52.15 ± 4.37, oxalate 37.12 ± 5.38 to 33.02 ± 5.71, and uric acid 6.88 ± 0.7 to 6.31 ± 0.58. In conclusion, PV is effective management for the patients with kidney stones as it increases the urinary volume and enhances the elimination of small kidney stones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Losing Weight after Menopause with Minimal Aerobic Training and Mediterranean Diet
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12082471 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5183
Abstract
Objective: It is a common belief that menopausal women have greater difficulty losing weight. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet (MD) to promote weight loss in postmenopausal women. All participants were prescribed a hypocaloric traditional [...] Read more.
Objective: It is a common belief that menopausal women have greater difficulty losing weight. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet (MD) to promote weight loss in postmenopausal women. All participants were prescribed a hypocaloric traditional MD, tailored to the individual. Subjects were asked not to begin any kind of physical activity. Body composition was measured at the beginning and after 8 weeks of treatment. In total, 89 women (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years, BMI 30.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, fat mass 31.6 ± 10.5 kg) were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of fertile women over 45 years of age, the second group consisted of those diagnosed as menopausal. All women had an improvement in body composition (fat mass −2.3 ± 2.1 kg, p < 0.001; protein −0.1 ± 0.7 kg, p = 0.190) and blood pressure values. No differences were found between the two groups except for a higher reduction of low-density lipoprotein in the menopausal group (p = 0.035). A positive significant correlation between plant to animal protein ratio and fat-free mass variation was found in the menopausal group. These data suggest that a high adherence to a traditional MD would enable menopausal women to lose fat mass and maintain muscle mass with no significant difference to younger women. Fat mass reduction provides menopausal women with improved cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Lower Energy Intake among Advanced vs. Early Parkinson’s Disease Patients and Healthy Controls in a Clinical Lunch Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12072109 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Unintentional weight loss has been observed among Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Changes in energy intake (EI) and eating behavior, potentially caused by fine motor dysfunction and eating-related symptoms, might contribute to this. The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in [...] Read more.
Unintentional weight loss has been observed among Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Changes in energy intake (EI) and eating behavior, potentially caused by fine motor dysfunction and eating-related symptoms, might contribute to this. The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in objectively measured EI between groups of healthy controls (HC), early (ESPD) and advanced stage PD patients (ASPD) during a standardized lunch in a clinical setting. The secondary aim was to identify clinical features and eating behavior abnormalities that explain EI differences. All participants (n = 23 HC, n = 20 ESPD, and n = 21 ASPD) went through clinical evaluations and were eating a standardized meal (200 g sausages, 400 g potato salad, 200 g apple purée and 500 mL water) in front of two video cameras. Participants ate freely, and the food was weighed pre- and post-meal to calculate EI (kcal). Multiple linear regression was used to explain group differences in EI. ASPD had a significantly lower EI vs. HC (−162 kcal, p < 0.05) and vs. ESPD (−203 kcal, p < 0.01) when controlling for sex. The number of spoonfuls, eating problems, dysphagia and upper extremity tremor could explain most (86%) of the lower EI vs. HC, while the first three could explain ~50% vs. ESPD. Food component intake analysis revealed significantly lower potato salad and sausage intakes among ASPD vs. both HC and ESPD, while water intake was lower vs. HC. EI is an important clinical target for PD patients with an increased risk of weight loss. Our results suggest that interventions targeting upper extremity tremor, spoonfuls, dysphagia and eating problems might be clinically useful in the prevention of unintentional weight loss in PD. Since EI was lower in ASPD, EI might be a useful marker of disease progression in PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Phase Angle: Could Be an Easy Tool to Detect Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation in Adults Affected by Prader–Willi Syndrome?
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2065; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12072065 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic inherited obesity syndrome. Obesity-related complications, mostly related to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation (LGI), are the commonest cause of mortality and morbidity in PWS adults. Phase angle (PhA) is an easy tool to screen a state [...] Read more.
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common genetic inherited obesity syndrome. Obesity-related complications, mostly related to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation (LGI), are the commonest cause of mortality and morbidity in PWS adults. Phase angle (PhA) is an easy tool to screen a state of LGI in healthy subjects and in subjects with obesity and is obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The aim of this study was to validate the PhA in PWS adults as a potential biomarker of LGI. In this single-center, cross-sectional study, fifteen PWS adults (six males, aged 19–41 years, and body mass index (BMI) 31.0–68.0 Kg/m2) and fifteen control subjects matched by gender, age, and BMI were evaluated. PhA values were significantly lower (p < 0.001), while high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in PWS adults compared with controls (p < 0.001), without a gender difference in the latter. After adjustment for gender, BMI, and waist circumference, significant correlation was found between PhA and hs-CRP levels (r = −0.69, p = 0.01). At the ROC analysis, the threshold value of PhA predicting the highest hs-CRP levels above the median value was found at PhA ≤ 4.8° (p = 0.01; AUC, 0.82; standard error, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.00). These results suggest that PWS adults had a significant higher degree of LGI compared with their counterparts. Moreover, our finding suggest that PhA is a valid biomarker of LGI also in PWS adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Effect of a Combination of Citrus Flavones and Flavanones and Olive Polyphenols for the Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: An Exploratory Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051475 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a food supplement based on a combination of grapefruit, bitter orange, and olive extracts administered for eight weeks (n = 51) versus placebo (n = 45) on reduction of cardiovascular [...] Read more.
A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a food supplement based on a combination of grapefruit, bitter orange, and olive extracts administered for eight weeks (n = 51) versus placebo (n = 45) on reduction of cardiovascular risk in healthy volunteers. Study variables included flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, thrombotic status, oxidative stress biomarkers, inflammation-related biomarkers, anthropometric variables, quality of life, and physical activity. The per-protocol data set was analyzed. In the active product group, there were statistically significant within-group differences at eight weeks as compared with baseline in FMD, systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL-C, LDL-oxidase, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, protein carbonyl, and IL-6. Significant between-group differences in these variables were also found. Significant changes in anthropometric variables and quality of life were not observed in the study groups. Changes in the level of physical activity were not recorded. Treatment with the active product was well tolerated. All these findings, taken together, support a beneficial effect of supplementation with a mixture of grapefruit, bitter orange fruits, and olive leaf extracts on underlying mechanisms that may interact each other to decrease the cardiovascular risk in healthy people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Sleep Quality in Obesity: Does Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Matter?
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051364 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
Obesity and unhealthy eating habits have been associated with sleep disturbances (SD). The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a healthy nutritional pattern that has been reported to be associated with better health and sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate [...] Read more.
Obesity and unhealthy eating habits have been associated with sleep disturbances (SD). The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a healthy nutritional pattern that has been reported to be associated with better health and sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate whether adherence to the MD is associated with sleep quality in a population of middle-aged Italian adults. This cross-sectional study included 172 middle-aged adults (71.5% females; 51.8 ± 15.7 years) that were consecutively enrolled in a campaign to prevent obesity called the OPERA (Obesity, Programs of Nutrition, Education, Research and Assessment of the best treatment) prevention project that was held in Naples on 11–13 October 2019. Anthropometric parameters, adherence to the MD and sleep quality were studied. Overall, 50.6% of the subjects were good sleepers (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) < 5) while 49.4% were poor sleepers (PSQI ≥ 5). Our results demonstrated that good sleepers, when compared to poor sleepers (p < 0.001) had significantly higher adherence to the MD as assessed by PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) score, lower BMI (body mass index) and waist circumference (WC). The higher PSQI, the higher the BMI (p < 0.001) and WC values (p < 0.001), thus suggesting that poor sleep was more common in subjects with obesity. In addition, a negative correlation between PSQI and the PREDIMED score (p < 0.001) was found. to the intake of the cluster of foods enclosed in the MD, rather than the intake of the single food, predicted PSQI. By performing a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we determined a cut-off value at a PREDIMED score < 9 as the threshold for screening poor sleepers. In conclusion, good sleepers had lower BMI and WC and higher adherence to the MD than poor sleepers. PSQI was positively associated to BMI and WC while it was negatively associated to adherence to the MD. The consumption of the MD dietary pattern rather than the intake of a single nutrient has a beneficial effect on sleep quality. Hence, the assessment of sleep should be taken into account in the management of obesity and promoting adherence to the MD could be a tool to improve SD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Article
Chronotype and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Obesity: Results from the Opera Prevention Project
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1354; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051354 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Chronotype is the attitude of a subject in determining individual circadian preference in behavioral and biological rhythm relative to the external light–dark cycle. Obesity and unhealthy eating habits have been associated with evening chronotype. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a healthy nutritional pattern [...] Read more.
Chronotype is the attitude of a subject in determining individual circadian preference in behavioral and biological rhythm relative to the external light–dark cycle. Obesity and unhealthy eating habits have been associated with evening chronotype. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a healthy nutritional pattern that has been reported to be associated with better health and quality of sleep. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of chronotype categories with adherence to the MD in a population of middle-aged Italian adults. This cross-sectional study included 172 middle-aged adults (71.5% females; 51.8 ± 15.7 years) that were consecutively enrolled in a campaign to prevent obesity called the OPERA (obesity, programs of nutrition, education, research and assessment of the best treatment) Prevention Project that was held in Naples on 11–13 October 2019. Anthropometric parameters, adherence to the MD and chronotype were studied. Chronotype was classified as morning in 58.1% of subjects, evening in 12.8% and intermediate in 28.1%. Our results demonstrated that individuals with evening chronotype, when compared to intermediate (p < 0.001) and morning chronotype (p < 0.001), were more prone to follow unhealthy lifestyle, performing less regular activity and being more frequently smokers. In addition, they showed the lowest adherence to the MD compared to morning (p < 0.001) and intermediate chronotypes (p < 0.001). The lower the chronotype score, the higher body mass index (BMI) values in the whole population (r = −0.158; p = 0.038), thus suggesting that evening chronotype was a common finding in subjects with obesity. In addition, positive correlations of chronotype score with age (r = 0.159; p = 0.037) and PREDIMED score (r = 0.656; p < 0.001) were found. The adherence to the MD, more than the intake of the single food items, was found to predict morning and evening chronotypes. In conclusion, evening chronotype was associated with unhealthy lifestyle and low adherence to the MD. Chronotype score was inversely associated to BMI and positively associated to age and adherence to the MD. Thus, the assessment of chronotype should be taken into account in the management of obesity and in the development of nutritional strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Etiology and Management of Pediatric Intestinal Failure: Focus on the Non-Digestive Causes
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 786; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030786 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
Background: Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as reduction in functioning gut mass below the minimal amount necessary for adequate digestion and absorption. In most cases, IF results from intrinsic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (digestive IF) (DIF); few cases arise from digestive vascular [...] Read more.
Background: Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as reduction in functioning gut mass below the minimal amount necessary for adequate digestion and absorption. In most cases, IF results from intrinsic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (digestive IF) (DIF); few cases arise from digestive vascular components, gut annexed (liver and pancreas) and extra-digestive organs or from systemic diseases (non-digestive IF) (NDIF). The present review revised etiology and treatments of DIF and NDIF, with special focus on the pathophysiological mechanisms, whereby NDIF develops. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search of published literature from January 2010 to the present by selecting the following search strings: “intestinal failure” OR “home parenteral nutrition” OR “short bowel syndrome” OR “chronic pseudo-obstruction” OR “chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction” OR “autoimmune enteropathy” OR “long-term parenteral nutrition”. Results: We collected overall 1656 patients with well-documented etiology of IF: 1419 with DIF (86%) and 237 with NDIF (14%), 55% males and 45% females. Among DIF cases, 66% had SBS and among NDIF cases 90% had malabsorption/maldigestion. Conclusions: The improved availability of diagnostic and therapeutic tools has increased prevalence and life expectancy of rare and severe diseases responsible for IF. The present review greatly expands the spectrum of knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms through which the diseases not strictly affecting the intestine can cause IF. In view of the rarity of the majority of pediatric IF diseases, the development of IF Registries is strongly required; in fact, through information flow within the network, the Registries could improve IF knowledge and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Review
Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Human Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010007 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5555
Abstract
Gut microbiota changes correlate with health status. Literature data on gut microbiota show that all dietary changes can induce the alteration of gut microbiota composition. Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with a reduction of all-cause mortality and in this review, we analyzed its [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota changes correlate with health status. Literature data on gut microbiota show that all dietary changes can induce the alteration of gut microbiota composition. Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with a reduction of all-cause mortality and in this review, we analyzed its interactions with human microbiota. In particular, we explored the modulation of the human microbiota, in response to MD adherence, focusing the attention on polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ω-3 and fiber. Evidences suggest that MD is able to modulate the gut microbiota, increasing its diversity. In fact, a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern is associated with specific gut microbiota characteristics. The available evidence, suggests that gut microbiota of subjects that follow a MD is significantly different from subjects that follow a Western diet model. In fact, the latter show an increased gut permeability, which is responsible for metabolic endotoxemia. For this reason, we can speculate that the gut microbiota of the subjects following a MD is able to prevent the onset of chronic non-communicable degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. However, in order to understand these correlations with dietary patterns, controlled intervention studies on the gut microbiota composition and activity are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Review
Diet as a Modulator of Intestinal Microbiota in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113504 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-driven inflammatory disease characterised by synovial inflammation, leading to progressive cartilage and bone destruction, impacting patients’ functional capacity and quality of life. Patients with RA have significant differences in gut microbiota composition when compared to controls. Intestinal [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-driven inflammatory disease characterised by synovial inflammation, leading to progressive cartilage and bone destruction, impacting patients’ functional capacity and quality of life. Patients with RA have significant differences in gut microbiota composition when compared to controls. Intestinal dysbiosis influences the intestinal barrier strength, integrity and function, and diet is considered the main environmental factor impacting gut microbiota. Over the last few years, researchers have focused on the influence of single components of the diet in the modulation of intestinal microbiota in RA rather than whole dietary patterns. In this review, we focus on how the Mediterranean diet (MD), a whole dietary pattern, could possibly act as an adjuvant therapeutic approach, modulating intestinal microbiota and intestinal barrier function in order to improve RA-related outcomes. We also review the potential effects of particular components of the MD, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), polyphenols and fibre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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Review
Dietary Acid Load and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113419 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
The Western, diet rich in acidogenic foods (e.g., meat, fish and cheese) and low in alkaline foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits and legumes), is deemed to be a cause of endogenous acid production and elevated dietary acid load (DAL), which is a potential cause [...] Read more.
The Western, diet rich in acidogenic foods (e.g., meat, fish and cheese) and low in alkaline foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits and legumes), is deemed to be a cause of endogenous acid production and elevated dietary acid load (DAL), which is a potential cause of metabolic acidosis. Multiple authors have suggested that such a dietary pattern increases the excretion of calcium and magnesium, as well as cortisol secretion. In addition, it is associated with decreased citrate excretion. All of these seem to increase blood pressure and insulin resistance and may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic disorders. However, there are inconsistencies in the results of the studies conducted. Therefore, this narrative literature review aims to present the outcomes of studies performed in recent years that investigated the association between DAL and the following cardiometabolic risk factors: blood pressure, hypertension, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid profile. Study outcomes are divided into (i) statistically significant positive association, (ii) statistically significant inverse association, and (iii) no statistically significant association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
Review
Dietary Intake, Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Caloric Intake in Huntington’s Disease: A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2946; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12102946 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Decades of research and experimental studies have investigated Huntington’s disease (HD), a rare neurodegenerative disease. Similarly, several studies have investigated whether high/moderate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and specific macro and micronutrients can decrease cognitive loss and provide a neuroprotective function to neurons. [...] Read more.
Decades of research and experimental studies have investigated Huntington’s disease (HD), a rare neurodegenerative disease. Similarly, several studies have investigated whether high/moderate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and specific macro and micronutrients can decrease cognitive loss and provide a neuroprotective function to neurons. This review systematically identifies and examines studies that have investigated Mediterranean Diet adherence, micro- and macronutrients, supplementation and caloric intake in people with HD, in order to identify if dietary exposures resulted in improvement of disease symptoms, a delay in age of onset or if they contributed to an earlier age of onset in people with HD. A systematic search of PubMed, Directory of open access journal and HubMed was performed independently by two reviewers using specific search terms criteria for studies. The identified abstracts were screened and the studies were included in the review if they satisfied predetermined inclusion criteria. Reference screening of included studies was also performed. A total of 18 studies were included in the review. A few studies found that patients who had high/moderate adherence to Mediterranean Diet showed a slight improvement in their Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale and Total Functional Capacity. In addition, people with HD who had high Mediterranean Diet adherence showed an improvement in both cognitive and motor scores and had a better quality of life compared to patients who had low Mediterranean Diet adherence. Furthermore, a few studies showed that supplementation with specific nutrients, such as triheaptanoin, L-acetyl-carnitine and creatine, had no beneficial effect on the patients’ Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale score. A few studies suggest that the Mediterranean Diet may confer a motor and cognitive benefit to people with HD. Unfortunately, there was little consistency among study findings. It is important for more research to be conducted to have a better understanding of which dietary exposures are beneficial and may result delaying age of onset or disease progression in people with HD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Degenerative Diseases)
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