Special Issue "Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Per Bendix Jeppesen
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus University, Dept. of Clinical Medicine, Palle-Juul-Jensens 165, DK-8250 Aarhus N, Denmark
Interests: phytochemicals; health; welfare diseases; clinical research
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phytochemicals and their metabolites are likely particularly important when it comes to improving human health status in relation to welfare disease. Over and above plant-derived components such as macro- and micro-nutrients, bioactive phytochemicals are further demonstrated to exert health beneficial effects. Compounds such as phenols, terpenes, phytosterols, and thiols are important for the prevention of chronic welfare diseases. The physiological effects of phytochemicals are influenced by microbiota and may in turn affect the gastro-intestinal microbiome. This issue aims to publish high-quality scientific papers investigating the effects of these bioactive plant compounds on human health, with a particular focus on clinical research investigating effects on welfare diseases, such as but not limited to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We will consider in vitro, in vivo, and human intervention studies, as well as reviews, systematics reviews, and meta-analyses. 

Dr. Per Bendix Jeppesen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • health
  • welfare diseases
  • clinical research

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ameliorating Effects of Coriander on Gastrocnemius Muscles Undergoing Precachexia in a Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Proteomics Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114041 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Coriander is a commonly used vegetable, spice, and folk medicine, possessing both nutritional and medicinal properties. Up to two-thirds of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit loss of body mass, predominately skeletal muscle mass, a process called rheumatoid cachexia, and this has major [...] Read more.
Coriander is a commonly used vegetable, spice, and folk medicine, possessing both nutritional and medicinal properties. Up to two-thirds of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit loss of body mass, predominately skeletal muscle mass, a process called rheumatoid cachexia, and this has major effects of the quality of life of patients. Owing to a lack of effective treatments, the initial stage of cachexia has been proposed as an important period for prevention and decreasing pathogenesis. In the current study, we found that cachexia-like molecular disorders and muscle weight loss were in progress in gastrocnemius muscle after only 5 days of RA induction in rats, although rheumatoid cachexia symptoms have been reported occurring approximately 45 days after RA induction. Oral administration of coriander slightly restored muscle loss. Moreover, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed that coriander treatment could partially restore the molecular derangements induced by RA, including impaired carbon metabolism, deteriorated mitochondrial function (tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation), and myofiber-type alterations. Therefore, coriander could be a promising functional food and/or complementary therapy for patients with RA against cachexia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Article
Momordica charantia L. Extract Protects Hippocampal Neuronal Cells against PAHs-Induced Neurotoxicity: Possible Active Constituents Include Stigmasterol and Vitamin E
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072368 - 10 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized to cause neurobehavioral dysfunctions and disorder of cognition and behavioral patterns in childhood. Momordica charantia L. (MC) has been widely known for its nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. To date, the effect of MC for the prevention [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized to cause neurobehavioral dysfunctions and disorder of cognition and behavioral patterns in childhood. Momordica charantia L. (MC) has been widely known for its nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. To date, the effect of MC for the prevention and handling of PAHs-induced neurotoxicity has not been reported. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of MC and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22); moreover, in silico analysis was performed with the phytochemicals MC to decipher their potential function as neuroprotectants. MC was demonstrated to possess neuroprotective effect by reducing reactive oxygen species’ (ROS’) production and down-regulating cyclin D1, p53, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expressions, resulting in the inhibition of cell apoptosis and the normalization of cell cycle progression. Additionally, 28 phytochemicals of MC and their competence on inhibiting cytochrome P450 (CYP: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) functions were resolved. In silico analysis of vitamin E and stigmasterol revealed that their binding to either CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 was more efficient than the binding of each positive control (alizarin or purpurin). Together, MC is potentially an interesting neuroprotectant including vitamin E and stigmasterol as probable active components for the prevention for PAHs-induced neurotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Article
Pancreatic β Cells Inhibit Glucagon Secretion from α Cells: An In Vitro Demonstration of α–β Cell Interaction
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072281 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 950
Abstract
Interactions between endocrine α and β cells are critical to their secretory function in vivo. The interactions are highly regulated, although yet to be fully understood. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of α and β cell co-culture on hormone [...] Read more.
Interactions between endocrine α and β cells are critical to their secretory function in vivo. The interactions are highly regulated, although yet to be fully understood. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of α and β cell co-culture on hormone secretion. Mouse clonal cell lines α-TC6-1 (α cell line) and MIN-6 (β cell line) were cultured independently or in combination in a medium containing 5.5, 11.1, or 25 mM glucose, respectively. After 72 h, hormone release was measured using insulin and glucagon secretion assays, the cell distribution was visualized by inverted microscopy and an immunocytochemistry assay, and changes in gene expressions were assessed using the RT-PCR technique. The co-culture of the two cell lines caused a decrease in glucagon secretion from α-TC1-6 cells, while no effect on insulin secretion from MIN-6 cells was revealed. Both types of cells were randomly scattered throughout the culture flask, unlike in mice islets in vivo where β cells cluster in the core and α cells are localized at the periphery. During the α–β cell co-culture, the gene expression of glucagon (Gcg) decreased significantly. We conclude that islet β cells suppress glucagon secretion from α cells, apparently via direct cell-to-cell contact, of which the molecular mechanism needs further verification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Article
Effects of Saffron Extract on Sleep Quality: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051473 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3053
Abstract
A saffron extract has been found to be effective in the context of depression and anxiety, but its effect on sleep quality has not been investigating yet using objective approaches. For this purpose, a randomized double-blind controlled study was conducted in subjects presenting [...] Read more.
A saffron extract has been found to be effective in the context of depression and anxiety, but its effect on sleep quality has not been investigating yet using objective approaches. For this purpose, a randomized double-blind controlled study was conducted in subjects presenting mild to moderate sleep disorder associated with anxiety. Sixty-six subjects were randomized and supplemented with a placebo (maltodextrin) or a saffron extract (15.5 mg per day) for 6 weeks. Actigraphy was used to collect objective data related to sleep quality at baseline, at the middle and at the end of the intervention. Sleep quality was also assessed by completion of the LSEQ and PSQI questionnaires and quality of life by completion of the SF-36 questionnaire. Six weeks of saffron supplementation led to an increased time in bed assessed by actigraphy, to an improved ease of getting to sleep evaluated by the LSEQ questionnaire and to an improved sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, and global scores evaluated by the PSQI questionnaire, whereas those parameters were not modified by the placebo. In conclusion, those results suggest that a saffron extract could be a natural and safe nutritional strategy to improve sleep duration and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Article
Thymoquinone, a Dietary Bioactive Compound, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis by Stimulating Expression of the Colonic Epithelial PPAR-γ Transcription Factor
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041343 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Here, we investigated thymoquinone (TQ), a naturally occurring phytochemical present in Nigella sativa, for anti-inflammatory effects in colonic inflammation. To address this, we used in vivo (mice) and [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Here, we investigated thymoquinone (TQ), a naturally occurring phytochemical present in Nigella sativa, for anti-inflammatory effects in colonic inflammation. To address this, we used in vivo (mice) and in vitro (HT-29 cells) models in this investigation. Our results showed that TQ treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and protected colon microscopic architecture. In addition, TQ also reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators at both the mRNA and protein levels. Further, TQ decreased phosphorylation of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) proteins and enhanced colon epithelial PPAR-γ transcription factor expression. TQ significantly decreased proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL-1 and IL-8), and mediator (COX-2) mRNA expression in HT-29 cells treated with TNF-α. TQ also increased HT-29 PPAR-γ mRNA, PPAR-γ protein expression, and PPAR-γ promoter activity. These results indicate that TQ inhibits MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and transcriptionally regulates PPAR-γ expression to induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of colon inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Article
Pathogenic Microenvironment from Diabetic–Obese Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipocytes Activating Differentiation of Human Healthy Preadipocytes Increases Intracellular Fat, Effect of the Apocarotenoid Crocetin
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1032; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031032 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
In diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), developed obesity is referred to as diabesity. Implementation of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean, prevents diabesity. Saffron is frequently used in this diet because of its bioactive components, such as crocetin (CCT), exhibit healthful properties. [...] Read more.
In diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), developed obesity is referred to as diabesity. Implementation of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean, prevents diabesity. Saffron is frequently used in this diet because of its bioactive components, such as crocetin (CCT), exhibit healthful properties. It is well known that obesity, defined as an excessive accumulation of fat, leads to cardiometabolic pathology through adiposopathy or hypertrophic growth of adipose tissue (AT).This is related to an impaired adipogenic process or death of adipocytes by obesogenic signals. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the pathogenic microenvironment and CCT, activating differentiation of healthy preadipocytes (PA). For this, we used human cryopreserved PA from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depots obtained from healthy and obese-DM2 donors. We studied the effect of a metabolically detrimental (diabesogenic) environment, generated by obese-DM2 adipocytes from VAT (VdDM) or SAT (SdDM), on the viability and accumulation of intracellular fat of adipocytes differentiated from healthy PA, in the presence or absence of CCT (1 or 10 μM). Intracellular fat was quantified by Oil Red O staining. Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay. Our results showed that diabesogenic conditions induce cytotoxicity and provide a proadipogenic environment only for visceral PA. CCT at 10 μM acted as an antiadipogenic and cytoprotective compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Review

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Review
Role of Herbal Teas in Regulating Cellular Homeostasis and Autophagy and Their Implications in Regulating Overall Health
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072162 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Tea is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide, and possesses numerous potential health benefits. Herbal teas are well-known to contain an abundance of polyphenol antioxidants and other ingredients, thereby implicating protection and treatment against various ailments, and maintaining overall [...] Read more.
Tea is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide, and possesses numerous potential health benefits. Herbal teas are well-known to contain an abundance of polyphenol antioxidants and other ingredients, thereby implicating protection and treatment against various ailments, and maintaining overall health in humans, although their mechanisms of action have not yet been fully identified. Autophagy is a conserved mechanism present in organisms that maintains basal cellular homeostasis and is essential in mediating the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer, type II diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer’s disease. The increasing prevalence of these diseases, which could be attributed to the imbalance in the level of autophagy, presents a considerable challenge in the healthcare industry. Natural medicine stands as an effective, safe, and economical alternative in balancing autophagy and maintaining homeostasis. Tea is a part of the diet for many people, and it could mediate autophagy as well. Here, we aim to provide an updated overview of popular herbal teas’ health-promoting and disease healing properties and in-depth information on their relation to autophagy and its related signaling molecules. The present review sheds more light on the significance of herbal teas in regulating autophagy, thereby improving overall health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
Review
Effects of Anthocyanin Supplementation on Reduction of Obesity Criteria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13062121 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 915
Abstract
Anthocyanins, water-soluble flavonoids that produce red-to-blue pigment in plants, have antioxidant properties and have been developed as a functional food to fight obesity. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a systematic review with meta-analysis (SR-MA) was used to investigate these anti-obesity effects. Using search [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins, water-soluble flavonoids that produce red-to-blue pigment in plants, have antioxidant properties and have been developed as a functional food to fight obesity. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a systematic review with meta-analysis (SR-MA) was used to investigate these anti-obesity effects. Using search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane-library, and CINAHL) and keywords (anthocyanins, BMI, WC, WHR, and inflammatory biomarkers), 11 out of 642 RCTs (28.3–500 mg/day of anthocyanins for 4 to 24 weeks) were included. The results showed a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (MD = −0.36, 95% CI = −0.58 to −0.13), but body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) did not change. Anthocyanins decreased BMI in the non-obese (non-OB) group in five RCTs (BMI ≤ 25; MD = −0.40 kg/m2; 95% CI = −0.64 to −0.16;) but did not affect BMI in the obese (OB) group. A subgroup analysis of six RCTs showed that fewer than 300 mg/day reduced BMI (MD = −0.37; 95% CI = −0.06 to −0.14), but ≥300 mg/day did not. A treatment duration of four weeks for four RCTs was sufficient to decrease the BMI (MD = −0.41; 95% CI = −0.66 to −0.16) as opposed to a longer treatment (6–8 or ≥12 weeks). An analysis of the effect of anthocyanins on the BMI showed a significant fall among those from the Middle East compared to those from Asia, Europe, South America, or Oceania. In conclusion, the anthocyanin supplementation of 300 mg/day or less for four weeks was sufficient to reduce the BMI and BW compared to the higher-dose and longer-treatment RCTs. However, further studies might be conducted regarding the dose- or period-dependent responses on various obese biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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