Special Issue "Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. José María Huerta
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1) CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.
2) Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Spain.
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; chronic disease; ageing; oxidative stress; physical activity
Dr. Sandra Milena Colorado-Yohar
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Co-Guest Editor
1) CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.
2) Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Spain.
3) Research Group on Demography and Health, National Faculty of Public Health, University of Antioquia, Colombia.
Interests: chronic disease epidemiology; cardiovascular risk factors; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet and nutrition exert pleiotropic actions on the vascular and endocrine systems, affecting the health risk of individuals. Dietary habits influence the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and modulate inflammatory and endothelial processes as well as endocrine and metabolic functions. Beyond that, our increasing understanding of dietary processes during the last several decades has revealed diet as a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon that goes far beyond single nutrient–disease associations. Dietary patterns may better capture the complexity of interrelationships among nutrients (as well as non-nutritional factors), whereas overlapping dimensions of an individual’s diet—such as the timing of eating, cooking practices, industrial processes, or dietary exposure to environmental toxicants—may also contribute to shaping its health effects. Further research is needed to deepen our knowledge and understanding of the associations between integrative dietary approaches (dietary patterns, dietary quality or inflammatory indexes, chrononutrition, ultra-processed food consumption) and cardiovascular risk, inflammatory processes, and altered endocrine signaling.

This Issue aims to showcase scientific evidence providing novel insights into these associations, including studies on chronotype and cardiovascular risk profiles, effects of mistimed eating occasions on endocrine signaling and hormone-related chronic pathology, the role of unbalanced dietary patterns and food cooking/processing methods on low-grade inflammation and chronic morbidity and mortality, the vascular effects of dietary constituents mediated by hormonal factors, and the potential hazards associated with dietary exposure to environmental toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals as they affect cardiovascular health. Submissions exploring underlying mechanisms and pathways or depicting the role of biomarker panels are encouraged.

Original papers, including randomized controlled trials and observational studies, will be considered. Narrative or systematic reviews and meta-analyses are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. José María Huerta
Dr. Sandra Milena Colorado-Yohar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary patterns
  • Chrononutrition
  • Ultra-processed foods
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Vascular function
  • Inflammation
  • Endocrine signaling
  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)
  • Chronic disease

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Inflammatory Potential of the Diet and Incidence of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis in the EPIC-Spain Cohort
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072201 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Diet may influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease through the modulation of inflammation. We investigated whether the inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Spanish cohort of the European [...] Read more.
Diet may influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease through the modulation of inflammation. We investigated whether the inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The study included 32,633 participants aged 29–69 years. The inflammatory potential of the diet was measured by using an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD) based on a baseline dietary history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 21 years (674,547 person-years) of follow-up, 32 and 57 participants developed CD and UC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, a one-standard deviation (SD) increment in the ISD (two-unit increase) was associated with a higher risk of CD (HR of 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05–2.80; p = 0.031). By contrast, ISD was not associated with UC (HR for one-SD increment of 0.89; 95% CI: 0.66–1.19; p = 0.436). Our results suggest that consuming a more pro-inflammatory diet may contribute to the risk of CD, supporting that a healthy diet might be beneficial in its prevention. Further, larger studies are needed to verify these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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Article
Efficacy of a Low-Dose Diosmin Therapy on Improving Symptoms and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Venous Disease: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 999; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030999 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Chronic Venous Disease (CVD) is a common medical condition affecting up to 80% of the general population. Clinical manifestations can range from mild to more severe signs and symptoms that contribute to the impairment of the quality of life (QoL) of affected patients. [...] Read more.
Chronic Venous Disease (CVD) is a common medical condition affecting up to 80% of the general population. Clinical manifestations can range from mild to more severe signs and symptoms that contribute to the impairment of the quality of life (QoL) of affected patients. Among treatment options, venoactive drugs such as diosmin are widely used in the symptomatic treatment in all clinical stages. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a new formulated diosmin in relieving symptoms and improving QoL in patients suffering from CVD. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical study, CVD patients with a Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification system between C2 and C4 were randomized to receive a bioavailable diosmin (as μsmin® Plus) 450 mg tablet once daily or a placebo for 8 weeks. Clinical symptoms and QoL were monitored using the measurement of leg circumference, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Global Index Score (GIS) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS). A total of 72 subjects completed the study. From week 4, leg edema was significantly decreased in the active group (p < 0.001). An improvement in the VAS score was observed in the active group compared to placebo at the end of treatment (p < 0.05). GIS and VCSS scores were significantly improved in the active group at week 8 (p < 0.001). No treatment related-side effects were recorded. The results of this study showed that the administration of low-dose μsmin® Plus was safe and effective in relieving symptoms and improving QoL in subjects with CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease in the EPIC-Spain Dementia Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020700 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to reduce the occurrence of several chronic diseases. To evaluate its potential protective role on dementia incidence we studied 16,160 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort study recruited between [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to reduce the occurrence of several chronic diseases. To evaluate its potential protective role on dementia incidence we studied 16,160 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort study recruited between 1992–1996 and followed up for a mean (±SD) of 21.6 (±3.4) years. A total of 459 incident cases of dementia were ascertained through expert revision of medical records. Data on habitual diet was collected through a validated diet history method to assess adherence to the relative Mediterranean Diet (rMED) score. Hazard ratios (HR) of dementia by rMED levels (low, medium and high adherence levels: ≤6, 7–10 and ≥11 points, respectively) were estimated using multivariable Cox models, whereas time-dependent effects were evaluated using flexible parametric Royston-Parmar (RP) models. Results of the fully adjusted model showed that high versus low adherence to the categorical rMED score was associated with a 20% (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.60–1.06) lower risk of dementia overall and HR of dementia was 8% (HR = 0.92, 0.85–0.99, p = 0.021) lower for each 2-point increment of the continuous rMED score. By sub-types, a favorable association was also found in women for non-AD (HR per 2-points = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.62–0.89), while not statistically significant in men for AD (HR per 2-points = 0.88, 0.76–1.01). The association was stronger in participants with lower education. In conclusion, in this large prospective cohort study MD was inversely associated with dementia incidence after accounting for major cardiovascular risk factors. The results differed by dementia sub-type, sex, and education but there was no significant evidence of effect modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet Maintained Platelet Count within a Healthy Range and Decreased Thrombocytopenia-Related Mortality Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020559 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
There is little information on the dietary modulation of thrombosis-related risk factors such as platelet count. We aimed to assess the effects of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on platelet count and related outcomes in an older population at high cardiovascular risk. In participants of [...] Read more.
There is little information on the dietary modulation of thrombosis-related risk factors such as platelet count. We aimed to assess the effects of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on platelet count and related outcomes in an older population at high cardiovascular risk. In participants of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study, we assessed whether an intervention with a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts, relative to a low-fat control diet, modulated platelet count (n = 4189), the risk of developing thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia (n = 3086), and the association between these alterations and all-cause mortality (median follow-up time: 3.0 years). Although platelet count increased over time (+0.98·109 units/L·year [95% confidence interval: 0.12; 1.84]), MedDiet interventions moderated this increase, particularly in individuals with near-high baseline count (both MedDiets combined: −3.20·109 units/L·year [−5.81; −0.59]). Thrombocytopenia incidence was lower in the MedDiet interventions (incidence rates: 2.23% in control diet, 0.91% in MedDiets combined; hazard ratio: 0.44 [0.23; 0.83]). Finally, thrombocytopenia was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.71 [2.69; 8.24]), but this relationship was attenuated in those allocated to MedDiet (p-interaction = 0.018). In brief, MedDiet maintained platelet counts within a healthy range and attenuated platelet-related mortality in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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Article
Low Dietary Magnesium and Overweight/Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: A Detrimental Synergy for the Development of Hypertension. The SUN Project
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010125 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Hypertension is the strongest independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association of magnesium intake with incident hypertension in a Mediterranean population, and the potential modification of this association by body mass index (BMI). We assessed 14,057 participants [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the strongest independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association of magnesium intake with incident hypertension in a Mediterranean population, and the potential modification of this association by body mass index (BMI). We assessed 14,057 participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort (67.0% women) initially free of hypertension. At baseline, a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was administered. We used Cox models adjusted for multiple socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors, and prevalent conditions present at baseline. Among a mean 9.6 years of follow-up we observed 1406 incident cases of medically diagnosed hypertension. An inverse association in multivariable-adjusted models was observed for progressively higher magnesium intake up to 500 mg/d vs. intake < 200 mg/d, which was greater among those with a BMI > 27 kg/m2. Lean participants with magnesium intake < 200 mg/d vs. >200 mg/d also had a higher risk of incident hypertension. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not modify these associations. In conclusion, dietary magnesium intake < 200 mg/d was independently associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort, stronger for overweight/obese participants. Our results emphasize the importance of encouraging the consumption of magnesium-rich foods (vegetables, nuts, whole cereals, legumes) in order to prevent hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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Review

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Review
Dietary Intake of Endocrine Disrupting Substances Presents in Environment and Their Impact on Thyroid Function
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 867; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030867 - 06 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
According to the available data, environmental pollution is a serious problem all over the world. Between 2015 and 2016, pollution was responsible for approximately nine million deaths worldwide. They also include endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that can interfere with the functioning of the [...] Read more.
According to the available data, environmental pollution is a serious problem all over the world. Between 2015 and 2016, pollution was responsible for approximately nine million deaths worldwide. They also include endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that can interfere with the functioning of the thyroid gland. They are characterized by high persistence in the environment. These substances can enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, as well as contact with the skin and overcome the placental barrier. EDC can be found in food, water, and personal care products. They can get into food from the environment and as a result of their migration to food products and cosmetics from packaging. EDCs can disrupt the functioning of the thyroid gland through a number of mechanisms, including disrupting the activation of thyroid receptors and the expression of genes that are related to the metabolism, synthesis, and transport of thyroid hormones (HT). There is a need to strengthen the food safety policy that aimed at the use of appropriate materials in direct contact with food. At the same time, an important action is to reduce the production of all waste and, when possible, use biodegradable packaging, which may contribute to the improvement of the quality of the entire ecosystem and the health of food, thus reducing the risk of developing thyroid diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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