Special Issue "Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Nutrition in Children and Adolescents"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Dénes Molnár
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Pécs, 7623 Pécs, Hungary
Interests: pediatric nutrition; childhood obesity; metabolic syndrome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Éva Erhardt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs 7623, Hungary
Interests: childhood obesity; pediatric endocrinology; childhood diabetes mellitus

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition is a relatively young science. Nutritional science was born in the early years of the 20th century with the identification and synthesis of many of the known essential vitamins and minerals and their use to prevent and treat nutritional deficiency-related diseases including scurvy, beriberi, pellagra, rickets, xerophthalmia, and nutritional anemias. Presently, we face the double burden of malnutrition, which is characterized by the coexistence of undernutrition along with overweight and obesity, or diet-related noncommunicable diseases, already starting from childhood. Mal- and overnutrition are global challenges that all countries need to address. The scale of the problem is illustrated by WHO statistics: 47 million children under 5 years of age are wasted, 14.3 million are severely wasted, and 144 million are stunted, while 38.3 million are overweight or obese.

Nutritional alterations affect every aspect of the functioning of the endocrine system and metabolism, leading to serious disorders. Over the last few decades, the use of nutrition has shifted from ensuring that the diet contains sufficient macro- and micronutrients to consuming nutrition with the purpose of improving health.

The aim of this Special Issue entitled “Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Nutrition in Children and Adolescents” is to gather original research manuscripts, meta-analyses, and new reviews dealing with the endocrine and metabolic consequences of malnutrition (under- and overnutrition), e.g., stunting, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and Prader–Willi syndrome, and the latest developments in their prevention and treatment. The above-mentioned potential topics are suggestions; other relevant topics will be considered.

Dr. Dénes Molnár
Dr. Éva Erhardt
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Childhood and adolescence
  • Undernutrition
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Prader–Willi syndrome
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Treatment and prevention

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

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Review
Obesity, Sodium Homeostasis, and Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4032; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114032 - 11 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Background: The relationship between obesity, arterial hypertension, and excessive salt intake has been known for a long time; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains not clear. Methods: The paper presents a current literature review on the relationship between salt consumption and the [...] Read more.
Background: The relationship between obesity, arterial hypertension, and excessive salt intake has been known for a long time; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains not clear. Methods: The paper presents a current literature review on the relationship between salt consumption and the development of arterial hypertension in children and adolescents with obesity. Results: In addition to the traditional theory of hypertension development due to the increase in intravascular volume and disturbances of sodium excretion, recent studies indicate the existence of a complex mechanism related to excessive, pathological secretory activity of adipocytes, insulin resistance, and impaired function of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis. That makes obese children and adolescents particularly vulnerable to the development of salt-sensitive arterial hypertension. Studies performed in many countries have shown that children and adolescents consume more sodium than recommended. It is worth noting, however, that the basis for these recommendations was the extrapolation of data from studies conducted on adults. Moreover, more important than sodium intake is the Na/K ratio and water consumption. Conclusion: Regardless of the population-wide recommendations on reducing salt intake in children, specific recommendations for overweight and obese patients should be developed. Full article
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Systematic Review
The Role of Protein and Fat Intake on Insulin Therapy in Glycaemic Control of Paediatric Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Research Gaps
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13103558 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Carbohydrate counting (CHC) is the established form of calculating bolus insulin for meals in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). With the widespread use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) observation time has become gapless. Recently, the impact of fat, protein and not only [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate counting (CHC) is the established form of calculating bolus insulin for meals in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). With the widespread use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) observation time has become gapless. Recently, the impact of fat, protein and not only carbohydrates on prolonged postprandial hyperglycaemia have become more evident to patients and health-care professionals alike. However, there is no unified recommendation on how to calculate and best administer additional bolus insulin for these two macronutrients. The aim of this review is to investigate: the scientific evidence of how dietary fat and protein influence postprandial glucose levels; current recommendations on the adjustment of bolus insulin; and algorithms for insulin application in children with T1DM. A PubMed search for all articles addressing the role of fat and protein in paediatric (sub-)populations (<18 years old) and a mixed age population (paediatric and adult) with T1DM published in the last 10 years was performed. Conclusion: Only a small number of studies with a very low number of participants and high degree of heterogeneity was identified. While all studies concluded that additional bolus insulin for (high) fat and (high) protein is necessary, no consensus on when dietary fat and/or protein should be taken into calculation and no unified algorithm for insulin therapy in this context exists. A prolonged postprandial observation time is necessary to improve individual metabolic control. Further studies focusing on a stratified paediatric population to create a safe and effective algorithm, taking fat and protein into account, are necessary. Full article
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