Special Issue "Exercise or Physical Activity and Energy Balance or Metabolism in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Laurent A. Messonnier
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire Interuniversitaire de Biologie de la Motricité (LIBM, EA 7424), Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambéry, France
Interests: Rehabilitation exercise; sports science; endurance training; exercise metabolism; muscle characteristics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise or physical activity require a tremedous demand for metabolic energy. First, this high energy demand may challenge the energy balance. While this may be beneficial in cases of overweight and obesity, for example, this may be more detrimental in the case of long-duration exercises (e.g., ultra endurance events or military missions). To circumvent/avoid possible deleterious effects, various nutritional strategies before, during or even after exercise can be implemeted. Second, different sources of energy are mobilized during exercise and the involvement of these different energy sources varies/changes according to exercise duration and intensity as well as the nutritional/energetic/metabolic status of the subject/patient. This metabolic flexibity is important to fuel the exercising muscles and consequently for athletic performance. If physical training modifes/improves the metabolic flexility, this latter may be impeded by various factors including energy stores and disease. Papers dealing with energy balance or metabolism, metabolic flexibility, nutritional strategies before, during of after exercise or physical acitvity in health and disease are welcome.

Dr. Laurent A. Messonnier
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Physical Activity
  • Sport
  • Endurance Training
  • Energy metabolism

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Characterization of Individualized Glycemic Excursions during a Standardized Bout of Hypoglycemia-Inducing Exercise and Subsequent Hypoglycemia Treatment—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114165 - 21 Nov 2021
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Abstract
The glycemic response to ingested glucose for the treatment of hypoglycemia following exercise in type 1 diabetes patients has never been studied. Therefore, we aimed to characterize glucose dynamics during a standardized bout of hypoglycemia-inducing exercise and the subsequent hypoglycemia treatment with the [...] Read more.
The glycemic response to ingested glucose for the treatment of hypoglycemia following exercise in type 1 diabetes patients has never been studied. Therefore, we aimed to characterize glucose dynamics during a standardized bout of hypoglycemia-inducing exercise and the subsequent hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of glucose. Ten male patients with type 1 diabetes performed a standardized bout of cycling exercise using an electrically braked ergometer at a target heart rate (THR) of 50% of the individual heart rate reserve, determined using the Karvonen equation. Exercise was terminated when hypoglycemia was reached, followed by immediate hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of 20 g of glucose. Arterialized blood glucose (ABG) levels were monitored at 5 min intervals during exercise and for 60 min during recovery. During exercise, ABG decreased at a mean rate of 0.11 ± 0.03 mmol/L·min−1 (minimum: 0.07, maximum: 0.17 mmol/L·min−1). During recovery, ABG increased at a mean rate of 0.13 ± 0.05 mmol/L·min−1 (minimum: 0.06, maximum: 0.19 mmol/L·min−1). Moreover, 20 g of glucose maintained recovery from hypoglycemia throughout the 60 min postexercise observation window. Full article
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Article
Acute Low-Intensity Treadmill Running Upregulates the Expression of Intestinal Glucose Transporters via GLP-2 in Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1735; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051735 - 20 May 2021
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Abstract
The effects of exercise on nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestinal tract are not well understood. A few studies have reported that exercise training increases the expression of molecules involved in carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Exercise was also shown to increase the [...] Read more.
The effects of exercise on nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestinal tract are not well understood. A few studies have reported that exercise training increases the expression of molecules involved in carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Exercise was also shown to increase the blood concentration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), which regulates carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on the expression of molecules involved in intestinal digestion and absorption, including GLP-2. Six-week-old male mice were divided into a sedentary (SED) and low-intensity exercise (LEx) group. LEx mice were required to run on a treadmill (12.5 m/min, 1 h), whereas SED mice rested. All mice were euthanized 1 h after exercise or rest, and plasma, jejunum, ileum, and colon samples were collected, followed by analysis via IHC, EIA, and immunoblotting. The levels of plasma GLP-2 and the jejunum expression of the GLP-2 receptor, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were higher in LEx mice. Thus, we showed that acute low-intensity exercise affects the expression of molecules involved in intestinal carbohydrate digestion and absorption via GLP-2. Our results suggest that exercise might be beneficial for small intestine function in individuals with intestinal frailty. Full article
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Review

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Review
Plasma Free Fatty Acid Concentration as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Metabolic Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082590 - 28 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration is elevated in obesity, insulin resistance (IR), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and related comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, experimentally manipulating plasma FFA in the laboratory setting modulates metabolic markers of [...] Read more.
Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration is elevated in obesity, insulin resistance (IR), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and related comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, experimentally manipulating plasma FFA in the laboratory setting modulates metabolic markers of these disease processes. In this article, evidence is presented indicating that plasma FFA is a disease risk factor. Elevations of plasma FFA can promote ectopic lipid deposition, IR, as well as vascular and cardiac dysfunction. Typically, elevated plasma FFA results from accelerated adipose tissue lipolysis, caused by a high adipose tissue mass, adrenal hormones, or other physiological stressors. Reducing an individual’s postabsorptive and postprandial plasma FFA concentration is expected to improve health. Lifestyle change could provide a significant opportunity for plasma FFA reduction. Various factors can impact plasma FFA concentration, such as chronic restriction of dietary energy intake and weight loss, as well as exercise, sleep quality and quantity, and cigarette smoking. In this review, consideration is given to multiple factors which lead to plasma FFA elevation and subsequent disruption of metabolic health. From considering a variety of medical conditions and lifestyle factors, it becomes clear that plasma FFA concentration is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Full article

Other

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Systematic Review
Effects of Acute Heat and Cold Exposures at Rest or during Exercise on Subsequent Energy Intake: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13103424 - 28 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of acute heat/cold exposure on subsequent energy intake (EI) in adults. We searched the following sources for publications on this topic: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Science Direct and SPORTDiscus. The eligibility criteria for study [...] Read more.
The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of acute heat/cold exposure on subsequent energy intake (EI) in adults. We searched the following sources for publications on this topic: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Science Direct and SPORTDiscus. The eligibility criteria for study selection were: randomized controlled trials performed in adults (169 men and 30 women; 20–52 years old) comparing EI at one or more meals taken ad libitum, during and/or after exposure to heat/cold and thermoneutral conditions. One of several exercise sessions could be realized before or during thermal exposures. Two of the thirteen studies included examined the effect of heat (one during exercise and one during exercise and at rest), eight investigated the effect of cold (six during exercise and two at rest), and three the effect of both heat and cold (two during exercise and one at rest). The meta-analysis revealed a small increase in EI in cold conditions (g = 0.44; p = 0.019) and a small decrease in hot conditions (g = −0.39, p = 0.022) for exposure during both rest and exercise. Exposures to heat and cold altered EI in opposite ways, with heat decreasing EI and cold increasing it. The effect of exercise remains unclear. Full article
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