Special Issue "Mediterranean Diet—New Findings"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (26 November 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jose V. Sorlí
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, 46003 Valencia, Spain
Interests: nutrigenetics; nutrigenomics; gene–diet interactions; obesity; cardiometabolic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Mediterranean Diet should not be understood merely as a nutritional guideline, but rather as a food culture in conjunction with a healthy lifestyle that has developed over hundreds of years throughout the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This health pattern is currently one of the most commonly studied topics in the field of Nutrition and Medicine, not only in Mediterranean countries, but elsewhere. Great efforts have been made and important studies have been undertaken to analyze the favorable effects of the Mediterranean Diet on a large number of pathologies, the results being of great interest to the scientific community.

Although huge advances have taken place in recent years in epidemiological research into the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet, especially in preventing cardiovascular diseases, there is still insufficient scientific evidence on the mechanisms through which those effects on health occur, along with their effect at the cellular level and the interactions between foods. Similarly, we do not fully know which individuals may benefit more from following a Mediterranean Diet profile than any other dietary pattern, nor which specific foods or food profiles are the healthiest for each kind of disease (cardiovascular, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, etc.). Hence, articles that include genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic and/or metabolomic analyses of the different phenotypes, foods and lifestyles related to the Mediterranean Diet would be of great interest to this Special Issue, an issue that focuses on the latest advances that provide knowledge for us to further the aims of personalized medicine and precision nutrition.

This Nutrients Special Issue, “Mediterranean Diet—New Findings”, will, therefore, focus on providing multidisciplinary evidence on the effects of the Mediterranean Diet on health in various fields. We hope to receive many articles from outstanding experts on this topic. Both original epidemiological studies on humans and original articles on experimental models as well as review articles on any of these areas or updated meta-analyses are welcome.

Dr. Jose Sorlí
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutritional recommendation
  • Mediterranean diet
  • eating habits
  • health effects
  • nutrigenomics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Urinary Sodium Excretion and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Older Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14010061 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Despite the well-known benefits of the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), data on the sodium intake is scarce. This study aimed to quantify the association between sodium excretion and the adherence to the MedDiet in the elderly. A representative sample of 1500 Portuguese adults (≥65 [...] Read more.
Despite the well-known benefits of the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), data on the sodium intake is scarce. This study aimed to quantify the association between sodium excretion and the adherence to the MedDiet in the elderly. A representative sample of 1500 Portuguese adults (≥65 years) was assessed (1321 were eligible for the present analysis). A 24 h urine sample was collected and analysed for creatinine and sodium. Excessive sodium intake was defined as above 2000 mg/day. The adherence to the MedDiet was assessed by the PREDIMED. A binary logistic regression model was conducted to evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and the adherence to the MedDiet. Odds Ratios (OR) and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Excessive sodium excretion was observed in 80.0% of men and 91.5% of women whereas a high adherence to the MedDiet was reported by 42.2% of women and 46.4% of men. After adjusting for confounders, excessive sodium excretion was associated with a high adherence to the MedDiet in men (OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.03–3.65) but not in women. These results show that the MedDiet can be an important source of sodium and highlight the need for implementing strategies to reduce sodium intake when following a MedDiet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet—New Findings)
Article
A Generation Shift in Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Its Association with Biological Markers and Health in Dalmatia, Croatia
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4564; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124564 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Previous studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in mitigating health issues related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. However, rapid changes in the traditional way of life and the “westernization” of the diet in Mediterranean populations, especially in younger [...] Read more.
Previous studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in mitigating health issues related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. However, rapid changes in the traditional way of life and the “westernization” of the diet in Mediterranean populations, especially in younger generations, has led to progressive abandonment of healthy dietary patterns. In order to investigate the generation shift in dietary patterns and lifestyle habits in the Mediterranean part of Croatia, we compared two cohorts of 610 women (266 pregnant and 344 non-pregnant) from the same region, but from different age groups. The MDSS score was derived from food frequency questionnaires. The results showed that the young, reproductively active generation (pregnant women) in Dalmatia, Croatia, although having a higher education and socioeconomic status, exhibits a more adverse eating behaviour (lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet) and lifestyle (excessive smoking in pregnancy) than the older population from the same region. Lower MDSS scores across aggregated age groups in both cohorts showed significant association with higher blood lipid levels and higher smoking frequency. In conclusion, Mediterranean diet adherence is associated with biological markers (age, lipid profile) and lifestyle (smoking) in our study, with a more adverse trend observed in the younger generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet—New Findings)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet to Prevent the Development of Colon Diseases: A Meta-Analysis of Gut Microbiota Studies
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072234 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Gut microbiota dysbiosis is a common feature in colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Adoption of the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of multiple diseases, and one of its mechanisms of action is [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota dysbiosis is a common feature in colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Adoption of the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of multiple diseases, and one of its mechanisms of action is the modulation of the microbiota. We aimed to determine whether MD can be used as a preventive measure against cancer and inflammation-related diseases of the gut, based on its capacity to modulate the local microbiota. A joint meta-analysis of publicly available 16S data derived from subjects following MD or other diets and from patients with CRC, IBD, or other gut-related diseases was conducted. We observed that the microbiota associated with MD was enriched in bacteria that promote an anti-inflammatory environment but low in taxa with pro-inflammatory properties capable of altering intestinal barrier functions. We found an opposite trend in patients with intestinal diseases, including cancer. Some of these differences were maintained even when MD was compared to healthy controls without a defined diet. Our findings highlight the unique effects of MD on the gut microbiota and suggest that integrating MD principles into a person’s lifestyle may serve as a preventive method against cancer and other gut-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet—New Findings)
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Review

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Review
The Effect of Mediterranean Diet on Cognitive Functions in the Elderly Population
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2067; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13062067 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
At present, due to the demographic changes and the rise of senior population worldwide, there is effort to prolong an active life of these people by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. The purpose of this article is, on the basis of the literature [...] Read more.
At present, due to the demographic changes and the rise of senior population worldwide, there is effort to prolong an active life of these people by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. The purpose of this article is, on the basis of the literature review of recent clinical studies, to discuss one of such strategy, i.e., the effect of Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) on the cognitive functions among both the cognitively unimpaired and impaired elderly people. The methodology includes a literature review of full-text, peer-reviewed journal studies written in English and published in Web of Science and PubMed between 1 January 2016 and 28 February 2021. The findings indicate that the adherence to MedDiet has a positive effect on both cognitively impaired and unimpaired older population, especially on their memory, both in the short and long run. The results show that the higher adherence to MedDiet proves to have a better effect on global cognitive performance of older people. In addition, the adherence to MedDiet offers other benefits to older people, such as reduction of depressive symptoms, lowered frailty, as well as reduced length of hospital stays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet—New Findings)
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