Special Issue "Dietary Impact on Neural and Endocrine Systems Relevant to Energy Balance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Allen Levine
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, MN 55108, USA
Interests: regulation of food intake; neuropeptide; neural system; endocrine system
Dr. Pawel K. Olszewski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. FSEN, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
2. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, CFANS, and Integrative Biology and Physiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA
Interests: neural and neuroendocrine control of satiation; interplay between reward- and energy-related signaling in the regulation of food intake; oxytocin as a molecule that ties feeding behavior to a broad physiological state of the organism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animals and humans eat for many reasons, including energy, reward, stress, and specific tastes. Neuroregulators control all aspects of feeding behaviour, ranging from foraging to hoarding to ingestion and finally to the cessation of intake. In this Special Issue of Nutrients, we will focus on how various diets (from single macronutrient tastants to complex foods that differ in flavour and energy density) alter regulatory circuitry. We will discuss which regulators initiate ingestion and which macronutrients may be targeted. We will also review control of the meal size and cessation of the meal. The role of the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the signalling pathways from the vagus to the hindbrain to the upstream parts of the brain will be considered.   

Prof. Dr. Allen Levine
Dr. Pawel K. Olszewski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • neuroregulators
  • food intake
  • macronutrients
  • reward
  • hunger
  • energy metabolism

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
The Type of Fat in the Diet Influences Regulatory Aminopeptidases of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Stress in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Adult Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3939; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13113939 - 04 Nov 2021
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Abstract
(1) Background: Prolonged feeding with a high-fat diet (HFD) acts as a stressor by activating the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) stress axis, accompanied of hypertension by inducing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensinases enzymes are regulatory aminopeptidases of angiotensin metabolism, which together with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Prolonged feeding with a high-fat diet (HFD) acts as a stressor by activating the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) stress axis, accompanied of hypertension by inducing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensinases enzymes are regulatory aminopeptidases of angiotensin metabolism, which together with the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), pyroglutamyl- and tyrosyl-aminopeptidase (pGluAP, TyrAP), participate in cognitive, stress, metabolic and cardiovascular functions. These functions appear to be modulated by the type of fat used in the diet. (2) Methods: To analyze a possible coordinated response of aminopeptidases, their activities were simultaneously determined in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis and adrenal gland of adult male rats fed diets enriched with monounsaturated (standard diet (S diet) supplemented with 20% virgin olive oil; VOO diet) or saturated fatty acids (diet S supplemented with 20% butter and 0.1% cholesterol; Bch diet). Aminopeptidase activities were measured by fluorimetry using 2-Naphthylamine as substrates. (3) Results: the hypothalamus did not show differences in any of the experimental diets. In the pituitary, the Bch diet stimulated the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by increasing certain angiotensinase activities (alanyl-, arginyl- and cystinyl-aminopeptidase) with respect to the S and VOO diets. DPP-IV activity was increased with the Bch diet, and TyrAP activity decrease with the VOO diet, having both a crucial role on stress and eating behavior. In the adrenal gland, both HFDs showed an increase in angiotensinase aspartyl-aminopeptidase. The interrelation of angiotensinases activities in the tissues were depending on the type of diet. In addition, correlations were shown between angiotensinases and aminopeptidases that regulate stress and eating behavior. (4) Conclusions: Taken together, these results support that the source of fat in the diet affects several peptidases activities in the HPA axis, which could be related to alterations in RAS, stress and feeding behavior. Full article
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