Special Issue "Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Richard B. Kreider
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Interests: exercise; nutrition; performance; obesity and weight management; health disparities; women’s health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the World Health Organization, worldwide obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 with over 1.9 billion adults classified as overweight with 650 million of these adults considered obese as of 2016. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among adults in the United States was 42.4% in 2017–2018. This includes a prevalence of 40.0% among younger adults aged 20–39, 44.8% among middle-aged adults aged 40–59, and 42.8% among older adults aged 60 and over. Obesity is associated with co-morbidities, including diabetes, arthritis, pulmonary abnormalities, urinary incontinence, cataracts, and certain types of cancer. For this reason, strategies to help people effectively lose weight and/or maintain a healthy weight have become a paramount public health issue. This Special Issue will focus on the role energy intake, macronutrient alterations, and/or micronutrients play in energy metabolism, markers of obesity, weight loss, body composition, and/or weight management with or without other behavioral interventions.

Prof. Richard B. Kreider
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Diet
  • Energy expenditure
  • Dietary supplements

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Hypothalamic Renin–Angiotensin System and Lipid Metabolism: Effects of Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter in the Diet
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020480 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
The brain renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently involved in the homeostatic regulation of energy. Our goal was to analyse the influence of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (butter) against one enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil) on hypothalamic RAS, [...] Read more.
The brain renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently involved in the homeostatic regulation of energy. Our goal was to analyse the influence of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (butter) against one enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil) on hypothalamic RAS, and their relationship with the metabolism of fatty acids. Increases in body weight and visceral fat, together with an increase in aminopeptidase A expression and reductions in AngII and AngIV were observed in the hypothalamus of animals fed with the butter diet. In this group, a marked reduction in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (LPL, CD36, and CPT-1) was observed in liver and muscle. No changes were found in terms of body weight, total visceral fat and the expression of hepatic genes related to fatty acid metabolism in the olive oil diet. The expressions of LPL and CD36 were reduced in the muscles, although the decrease was lower than in the butter diet. At the same time, the fasting levels of leptin were reduced, no changes were observed in the hypothalamic expression of aminopeptidase A and decreases were noted in the levels of AngII, AngIV and AngIII. These results support that the type of dietary fat is able to modify the hypothalamic profile of RAS and the body energy balance, related to changes in lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Perceived Stress Can Mediate the Associations between a Lifestyle Intervention and Fat and Fast Food Intakes
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12123606 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 2345
Abstract
This secondary analysis study addressed a gap of knowledge: whether perceived stress reduction created by a lifestyle intervention might serve as a mediator for reducing fat and fast food intakes in low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children. This analysis included 338 [...] Read more.
This secondary analysis study addressed a gap of knowledge: whether perceived stress reduction created by a lifestyle intervention might serve as a mediator for reducing fat and fast food intakes in low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children. This analysis included 338 low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children who completed a phone interview immediately after the 16-week lifestyle intervention. Valid surveys were used to assess perceived stress and fat and fast food intakes. Composite indicator structural equation modeling was performed to test the mediation effects. The overall effect of the intervention was not significant for fat intake but was significant for fast food intake (B = −0.53, p < 0.05). When assessing the potential role of perceived stress as a mediator, the indirect effects of the intervention on fat (B = −0.39, p < 0.01) and fast food (B = −0.27, p < 0.01) intakes were both significant. Future dietary intervention studies aimed to reduce fat and fast food intakes in low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children might consider including practical strategies aimed at reducing perceived stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Are Obese Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Likely to Be Selenium Deficient? Research Findings on Pre- and Post-Pubertal Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113581 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Selenium is involved in many metabolic pathways that are critical for life. Information concerning the metabolic effects of selenium in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obesity is still conflicting and incomplete. The pre- and post-pubertal selenium profiles of patients with ASD and obesity [...] Read more.
Selenium is involved in many metabolic pathways that are critical for life. Information concerning the metabolic effects of selenium in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obesity is still conflicting and incomplete. The pre- and post-pubertal selenium profiles of patients with ASD and obesity have not yet been investigated. The goal of the study was to examine selenium content before and after puberty in euthyroid children diagnosed with ASD, compared to age-matched neurotypical controls, with respect to overweight or obesity as a co-existing pathology. Serum, toenail, and 24h urine selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 287 prepubertal children (mean age 8.09 years), divided into groups: ASD with overweight/obesity (ASD+/Ob+); ASD without overweight/obesity (ASD+/Ob−); non-ASD with overweight/obesity (ASD−/Ob+); and non-ASD without overweight/obesity (ASD−/Ob−). The assessment was repeated in 258 of the children after puberty (mean age 14.26 years).The lowest serum (p < 0.001), urine (p < 0.001) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium levels before and after puberty were observed in ASD+/Ob+ patients, and the highest in ASD−/Ob−. There were no differences in serum/toenail selenium levels between ASD+/Ob− and ASD−/Ob+ groups. The presence of ASD was associatedwith lower serum (p < 0.001) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium in BMI-matched groups. In neurotypical patients, post-pubertal serum selenium levels were lower (p < 0.001) than pre-pubertal levels. In the multiple linear regression analyses, selenium levels showed inverse relationships with BMI (p < 0.001) and male gender (p < 0.001), irrespective of the sample type. The serum (p = 0.002) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium levels were inversely associated with the presence of ASD. ASD, obesity/overweight, and male gender have independent impacts on selenium levels in children. Puberty may affect selenium content in neurotypical children of both genders, but not in ASD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Improved Nutritional Knowledge in the Obese Adult Population Modifies Eating Habits and Serum and Anthropometric Markers
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113355 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Multicomponent lifestyle interventions achieve good results in the management of obesity among the adult population. However, their implementation in certain populations poses difficulties. A good level of nutritional knowledge enables people to make changes in their diet that improve their health. This study [...] Read more.
Multicomponent lifestyle interventions achieve good results in the management of obesity among the adult population. However, their implementation in certain populations poses difficulties. A good level of nutritional knowledge enables people to make changes in their diet that improve their health. This study aims to assess the relationship between nutritional knowledge and nutritional parameters such as dietary intake, anthropometric parameters and biomarkers. A before–after, non-randomized interventional study involving a two-monthly nutritional educational intervention was carried out over 8 months. Anthropometric and biomarker data were collected, and nutritional knowledge was evaluated using the Bach questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The study comprised 66 overweight and obese adults with mean age of 50.23 years. Females predominated (84.8%). At the end of the intervention, nutritional knowledge increased significantly, with a significant reduction in the consumption of sweets, soft drinks, high-fat products, and processed meats, and an increase in the intake of lean meat and poultry. A 3% decrease in body weight was observed. An intervention for the management of obesity in the adult population based on nutritional education achieves weight loss, modifications in eating habits and reduction of fat intake. Increased nutritional knowledge is associated with healthier eating habits and a decreased cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Intravenous Glutamine Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance and Attenuates the Inflammatory Response in Diet-Induced Obese Mice after Sleeve Gastrectomy
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12103192 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 932
Abstract
Obesity is a health problem associated with many metabolic disorders. Weight reduction can effectively alleviate obesity-associated complications. Sleeve gastrectomy is a commonly used bariatric surgery and is considered safe and effective for improving outcomes. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with anti-oxidative and [...] Read more.
Obesity is a health problem associated with many metabolic disorders. Weight reduction can effectively alleviate obesity-associated complications. Sleeve gastrectomy is a commonly used bariatric surgery and is considered safe and effective for improving outcomes. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study used a mouse model of sleeve gastrectomy to investigate the impacts of intravenous GLN administration on glucose tolerance and adipocyte inflammation short-term after surgery. C57BL6 male mice were divided into normal control (NC) and high-fat diet groups. The high-fat diet provided 60% of energy from fat for 10 weeks to induce obesity. Mice fed the high-fat diet were then assigned to a sham (SH) or sleeve gastrectomy with saline (S) or GLN (G) groups. The S group was intravenously injected with saline, while the G group was administered GLN (0.75 g/kg body weight) via a tail vein postoperatively. Mice in the experimental groups were sacrificed on day 1 or 3 after the surgery. Results showed that obesity resulted in fat accumulation, elevated glucose levels, and adipokines production. Sleeve gastrectomy aggravated expressions of inflammatory cytokine and macrophage infiltration markers, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), epidermal growth factor-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 (EMR-1), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, in adipose tissues. Treatment of obese mice with GLN downregulated hepatic proteomic profiles associated with the gluconeogenesis pathway and improved glucose tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and adipose tissue inflammation were attenuated after the sleeve gastrectomy. These findings imply that postoperative intravenous GLN administration may improve glucose tolerance and attenuate inflammation shortly after the bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Intermittent Fasting and High-Intensity Exercise Elicit Sexual-Dimorphic and Tissue-Specific Adaptations in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1764; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12061764 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
The molecular adaptations that underpin body composition changes and health benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are unclear. The present study investigated these adaptations within the hypothalamus, white adipose and skeletal muscle tissue following 12 weeks of IF and/or [...] Read more.
The molecular adaptations that underpin body composition changes and health benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are unclear. The present study investigated these adaptations within the hypothalamus, white adipose and skeletal muscle tissue following 12 weeks of IF and/or HIIT in diet-induced obese mice. Mice (C57BL/6, 8-week-old, males/females) were fed high-fat (59%) and sugar (30%) water (HF/S) for 12 weeks followed by an additional 12 weeks of HF/S plus either IF, HIIT, combination (IF+HIIT) or HF/S only control (CON). Tissues were harvested at 12 and 24 weeks and analysed for various molecular markers. Hypothalamic NPY expression was significantly lower following IF+HIIT compared to CON in females. In adipose tissue, leptin expression was significantly lower following IF and IF+HIIT compared to CON in males and females. Males demonstrated increased markers of fat oxidation (HADH, FABP4) following IF+HIIT, whereas females demonstrated reduced markers of adipocyte differentiation/storage (CIDEC and FOXO1) following IF and/or IF+HIIT. In muscle, SIRT1, UCP3, PGC1α, and AS160 expression was significantly lower following IF compared to CON in males and/or females. This investigation suggests that males and females undertaking IF and HIIT may prevent weight gain via different mechanisms within the same tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Lesser Investigated Natural Ingredients for the Management of Obesity
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020510 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Obesity, an epidemiological disorder, is related to various complications in both the developed and developing world. It epitomizes a crucial risk factor for health, decreasing productivity and life expectancy while increasing health care costs worldwide. Conventional therapies with synthetic drugs or bariatric surgery, [...] Read more.
Obesity, an epidemiological disorder, is related to various complications in both the developed and developing world. It epitomizes a crucial risk factor for health, decreasing productivity and life expectancy while increasing health care costs worldwide. Conventional therapies with synthetic drugs or bariatric surgery, associated with numerous side effects, recurrence, and surgical complexity, have been restricted in their use. Lifestyle changes and dietary restrictions are the proven methods for successful weight loss, although maintaining a strict lifestyle is a challenge. Multiple natural products have been explored for weight management with varied efficacy. The current review explores less explored natural herbs, their active constituents, and their mechanisms of action against obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop