Special Issue "The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2. Department of Physiatry and Nursing, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences (FCSD), University of Zaragoza, Ronda Misericordia 5, 22001 Huesca, Spain
3. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), 28029 Madrid, Spain
4. Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: physical activity and health during life; exercise prescription, exercise–diet interaction for health; healthy and active aging; body composition; special populations
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alba Gomez-Cabello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3. Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
4. Centro Universitario de la Defensa, 50090 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: physical fitness; sports science; exercise performance; exercise science; exercise physiology; strength and conditioning; exercise testing; resistance training; exercise intervention; athletic training
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Action and research on aging and fragility is currently a priority worldwide, as evidenced by different initiatives. In fact, the European region of WHO has adopted in its 2012 regional committee the “strategy and action plan on healthy aging in Europe 2012–2020”, whose first priority line of action, “healthy aging throughout the life course”, emphasizes the promotion of interventions with physical activity and nutrition. Some relevant and novel research of the combined effect of exercise and nutrition, as well as interventions aiming to use diet and training to improve the fragility status or functional capacity of people towards a healthy aging are currently being developed, aligned to the EU priority given in the “Health 2020” strategy for the promotion of active aging throughout the life course, as well as the “partnership for innovation in Europe on active and healthy aging” (EIP on AHA), in which one of the pillars of action is the prevention, screening, and early diagnosis of fragility and functional deficit.

Given the importance of nutrition combined with exercise for a healthy aging for today’s society, discussed in this special issue, we consider that this publication will be of great scientific and social impact with the consequent transfer applications.

Prof. Dr. German Vicente-Rodriguez
Prof. Alba Gomez-Cabello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Healthy aging
  • Frailty
  • Body composition
  • Sarcopenia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Exercise prescription
  • Nutrition–exercise interaction

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Role of Dietary Intake and Serum 25(OH)D on the Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Bone Mass and Structure of Frail and Pre-Frail Older Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3016; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12103016 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
The multicomponent training (MCT) effect on bone health in frail and pre-frail elders, which is influenced by dietary intake, is still unknown. The objective of this non-randomized intervention trial was to assess the effects of a 6-month MCT on bone structure in frail [...] Read more.
The multicomponent training (MCT) effect on bone health in frail and pre-frail elders, which is influenced by dietary intake, is still unknown. The objective of this non-randomized intervention trial was to assess the effects of a 6-month MCT on bone structure in frail and pre-frail elders, and to analyse the influence of dietary intake and serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) in these changes. Thirty MCT (TRAIN) and sixteen controls (CON), frail and pre-frail completed the information required for this study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements were taken at 4% and 38% of the tibia length and dietary intake was registered. The 25(OH)D values were obtained from blood samples. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) for repeated measures showed significant decreases for CON in total bone mineral content at 38% of tibia length. One factor ANOVAs showed smaller decreases in bone mineral density and cortical thickness percentage of change in TRAIN compared to CON. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the influence of nutrients and 25(OH)D on bone changes. Alcohol showed a negative influence on fracture index changes, while polyunsaturated fatty acid and vitamin A showed a positive association with some bone variables. The 25(OH)D only affected positively the cortical bone mineral density. In conclusion, our MCT seems to slow down some of the bone detriments associated with ageing in frail and pre-frail older adults, with alcohol showing a negative effect on the bone and apparent limited effect of nutrients and serum 25(OH)D on training related changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Article
The Effects of a 12-Month Weight Loss Intervention on Cognitive Outcomes in Adults with Overweight and Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2988; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12102988 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Obesity is associated with poorer executive functioning and reward sensitivity. Yet, we know very little about whether weight loss through diet and/or increased exercise engagement improves cognitive function. This study evaluated whether weight loss following a dietary and exercise intervention was associated with [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with poorer executive functioning and reward sensitivity. Yet, we know very little about whether weight loss through diet and/or increased exercise engagement improves cognitive function. This study evaluated whether weight loss following a dietary and exercise intervention was associated with improved cognitive performance. We enrolled 125 middle-aged adults with overweight and obesity (98 female) into a 12-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: energy-restricted diet alone, an energy-restricted diet plus 150 min of moderate intensity exercise per week or an energy restricted diet plus 250 min of exercise per week. All participants completed tests measuring executive functioning and/or reward sensitivity, including the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Following the intervention, weight significantly decreased in all groups. A MANCOVA controlling for age, sex and race revealed a significant multivariate effect of group on cognitive changes. Post-hoc ANCOVAs revealed a Group × Time interaction only on IGT reward sensitivity, such that the high exercise group improved their performance relative to the other two intervention groups. Post-hoc ANCOVAs also revealed a main effect of Time, independent of intervention group, on IGT net payoff score. Changes in weight were not associated with other changes in cognitive performance. Engaging in a high amount of exercise improved reward sensitivity above and beyond weight loss alone. This suggests that there is additional benefit to adding exercise into behavioral weight loss regimens on executive functioning, even without additional benefit to weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Article
Nutritional Status Is Associated with Function, Physical Performance and Falls in Older Adults Admitted to Geriatric Rehabilitation: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2855; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092855 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Nutritional status is relevant to functional recovery in patients after an acute process requiring rehabilitation. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of malnutrition on geriatric rehabilitation. This study aimed to determine the association between nutritional status at admission and the evolution of [...] Read more.
Nutritional status is relevant to functional recovery in patients after an acute process requiring rehabilitation. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of malnutrition on geriatric rehabilitation. This study aimed to determine the association between nutritional status at admission and the evolution of functional and physical outcomes, as well as the capability of nutritional status to identify fallers among patients admitted to geriatric rehabilitation for different reasons. This was a retrospective cohort study of 375 patients. Data collected included age, gender, diagnosis at admission, comorbidities, cognitive and nutritional status, functional and physical measurements, length of stay, mortality and falls. Orthogeriatric patients with worse nutritional status according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) had a significantly lower Barthel Index at admission and discharge with worse functional gain and poorer outcomes in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). However, in hospital-deconditioned patients, the MNA-SF score was not significantly associated with functional and physical recovery. Poor nutritional status at admission increased the risk of experiencing at least one fall during rehabilitation in orthogeriatric patients. However, hospital-deconditioned patients who fell had better SPPB scores than those who did not fall. Our results demonstrate the importance of nutritional status in the clinical evolution of orthogeriatric patients throughout the rehabilitation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Article
Association among Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Cardiovascular, Obesity, and Anthropometric Variables of Overweight and Obese Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2750; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092750 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent and combined associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (AMedDiet), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and different parameters of overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults. Sixty-two participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fat [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent and combined associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (AMedDiet), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and different parameters of overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults. Sixty-two participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fat mass was measured with Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. AMedDiet and physical activity (PA) were assessed with the PREDIMED and Global PA Questionnaire (GPAQ). Maximal aerobic power was assessed using the 6-min walk test. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) were measured with Omron M6, and double product (DP) and mean BP (MBP) were calculated. Kinanthropometry proportionality variables related to obesity were also calculated. Participants with a low CRF as an independent factor or together with a low AMedDiet obtained significantly higher BP, total and trunk fat mass, and proportionality variables (all p ˂ 0.0001). According to the multiple nonlinear regression analysis, Vo2max, AMedDiet, and sex explained 53.4% of SBP, with this formula: 238.611 − (3.63*Vo2max) + (0.044*Vo2max2) − (13.051*AMedDiet) + (0.68*AMedDiet2) + (12.887*sex). SBP and p rediction SBP with the new formula showed a correlation of 0.731 (p ˂ 0.0001); showing a difference between the values of −0.278 (p = 0.883). In conclusion, CRF as an independent factor and combined with AMedDiet can be associated with BP, body composition, and proportionality in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
Article
Displacing Sedentary Behaviour with Light Intensity Physical Activity Spontaneously Alters Habitual Macronutrient Intake and Enhances Dietary Quality in Older Females
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2431; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12082431 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Displacing Sedentary Behaviour (SB) with light intensity physical activity (LIPA) is increasingly viewed as a viable means of health enhancement. It is, however, unclear whether any behavioural compensations accompany such an intervention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify any dietary [...] Read more.
Displacing Sedentary Behaviour (SB) with light intensity physical activity (LIPA) is increasingly viewed as a viable means of health enhancement. It is, however, unclear whether any behavioural compensations accompany such an intervention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify any dietary changes that accompany SB displacement. We hypothesised that SB displacement would improve dietary quality. Thirty-five elderly females (73 ± 5 years) were randomly allocated to one of three groups: (1) sedentary behaviour fragmentation (SBF) (n = 14), (2) continuous LIPA (n = 14), or (3) control (n = 7). Habitual diet (four-day food diary) and physical behaviour (accelerometery) were assessed at weeks 0 and 8. Out of 45 nutrients examined, only glucose exhibited a group × time interaction (p = 0.03), mediated by an exclusive reduction following SBF (−31%). SBF was also the sole experimental group to increase nutrients promoting bone health (SBF: 17%, LIPA: −34%. control: 21%), whereas both experimental groups consumed more nutrients promoting anabolism (SBF: 13%, LIPA: 4%, control: −34%) (z-scores). New ambulators (n = 8) also consumed more nutrients promoting bone health (16%)/anabolism (2%) (z-scores), including significantly increased Zinc intake (p = 0.05, 29%). Displacing SB with LIPA improves dietary quality in older females. Furthermore, SB fragmentation appears advantageous for various dietary outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Article
Weight Loss after 12 Weeks of Exercise and/or Nutritional Guidance Is Not Obligatory for Induced Changes in Local Fat/Lean Mass Indexes in Adults with Excess of Adiposity
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12082231 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
The objectives of this secondary analysis are (1) to investigate the differential effects of exercise training modalities–high-intensity interval training (HIIT), resistance training (RT), combined training (CT = HIIT + RT), and/or nutritional guidance (NG) alone–on local fat/lean mass indexes in adults with excess [...] Read more.
The objectives of this secondary analysis are (1) to investigate the differential effects of exercise training modalities–high-intensity interval training (HIIT), resistance training (RT), combined training (CT = HIIT + RT), and/or nutritional guidance (NG) alone–on local fat/lean mass indexes in adults with excess of adiposity; (2) to identify the individual patterns of response based on either a clinical criterion of weight loss (≥5%) and/or technical error (TE) of measurement of local fat/lean mass indexes; and (3) to assess the individual change for body composition parameters assigned either to HIIT, RT, CT, and/or NG groups utilizing a TE. A 12-week trial was conducted in 55 participants randomized to one of the four interventions. The primary outcome was clinical change in body weight (i.e., weight loss of ≥5%). Secondary outcomes included change in ratio of android and gynoid fat mass, as well as local fat and lean mass indexes (arms, trunk, and legs), before and after intervention. The main findings from the current analysis revealed that (i) after 12 weeks of follow-up, significant decreases in several body composition indexes were found including body weight, arm, trunk, and legs fat mass, and android and gynecoid fat mass were observed in HIIT, RT, and CT groups (p < 0.05); (ii) a significant proportion of individuals showed a positive response following 12 weeks of training, led by the HIIT group with 44% and followed by RT with 39% in 9 indexes; (iii) the HIIT group showed lowest rates of adverse responders with (6%); and (iv) the individual patterns of response utilizing clinically meaningful weight loss were not necessarily associated with the corresponding individual training-induced changes in body composition indexes in adults with excess of adiposity. Overall, the study suggests that HIIT has an important ability to reduce the prevalence of non-response to improve body composition indexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Article
Effects of Exercise Combined with a Healthy Diet or Calanus finmarchicus Oil Supplementation on Body Composition and Metabolic Markers—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12072139 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in muscle mass and an increase in fat mass, which are detrimental changes associated with the development of health conditions such as type-2 diabetes mellitus or chronic low-grade inflammation. Although both exercise as well as nutritional [...] Read more.
Aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in muscle mass and an increase in fat mass, which are detrimental changes associated with the development of health conditions such as type-2 diabetes mellitus or chronic low-grade inflammation. Although both exercise as well as nutritional interventions are known to be beneficial in counteracting those age-related changes, data to which extent untrained elderly people may benefit is still sparse. Therefore, a randomized, controlled, 12-week interventional trial was conducted in which 134 healthy untrained participants (96 women and 38 men, age 59.4 ± 5.6 years, body mass index (BMI) 28.4 ± 5.8 kg/m2) were allocated to one of four study groups: (1) control group with no intervention (CON); (2) 2×/week aerobic and resistance training only (EX); (3) exercise routine combined with dietary counseling in accordance with the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (EXDC); (4) exercise routine combined with intake of 2 g/day oil from Calanus finmarchicus (EXCO). Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), as well as markers of glucose metabolism and blood lipids, were analyzed at the beginning and the end of the study. The highest decreases in body fat were observed within the EXCO group (−1.70 ± 2.45 kg, p < 0.001), and the EXDC (−1.41 ± 2.13 kg, p = 0.008) group. Markers of glucose metabolism and blood lipids remained unchanged in all groups. Taken together results of this pilot study suggest that a combination of moderate exercise and intake of oil from Calanus finmarchicus or a healthy diet may promote fat loss in elderly untrained overweight participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Review

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Review
Nutritional Intervention to Prevent the Functional Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092820 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Aging is a global public health concern. From the age of 50, muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance tend to decline. Sarcopenia and frailty are frequent in community-dwelling older adults and are associated with negative outcomes such as physical disability and mortality. [...] Read more.
Aging is a global public health concern. From the age of 50, muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance tend to decline. Sarcopenia and frailty are frequent in community-dwelling older adults and are associated with negative outcomes such as physical disability and mortality. Therefore, the identification of therapeutic strategies to prevent and fight sarcopenia and frailty is of great interest. This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nutritional interventions alone or combined with other treatment(s) in older community-dwelling adults on (1) the three indicators of sarcopenia, i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance; and (2) the hospitalization and readmission rates. The literature search was performed on Medline and included studies published between January 2010 and June 2020. We included randomized controlled trials of nutritional intervention alone or combined with other treatment(s) in community-living subjects aged 65 or older. In total, 28 articles were retained in the final analysis. This systematic review highlights the importance of a multimodal approach, including at least a combined nutritional and exercise intervention, to improve muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, in community-dwelling older adults but especially in frail and sarcopenic subjects. Regarding hospitalization and readmission rate, data were limited and inconclusive. Future studies should continue to investigate the effects of such interventions in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Review
Effectiveness of Protein Supplementation Combined with Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092607 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation (PS), compared to RT alone or combined with a placebo (plS), in the improvement of muscle strength and physical performance. The search strategy [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of resistance training (RT) and protein supplementation (PS), compared to RT alone or combined with a placebo (plS), in the improvement of muscle strength and physical performance. The search strategy in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Sciences databases found a total of 294 studies. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 16 studies were included for the qualitative analysis. A total of 657 healthy elderly (>60 years) participants were analysed. Finally, 15 articles were included in the quantitative analysis with one being excluded due to issues with data availability. Upper-limb, lower-limb, and handgrip strength were the primary outcomes of the meta-analysis. The secondary outcomes, related to physical performance, were Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, and the five-chair-rise test (5CRT). The main results of the meta-analysis show no statistical differences for upper-limb (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: −0.09, 1.21, p = 0.09, I2 = 68%), lower-limb (SMD: 0.00, 95% CI: −0.18, 0.18, p = 1.0, I2 = 11%), and handgrip strength (SMD: 0.03, 95% CI: −0.26, 0.32, p = 0.84, I2 = 0%) between the RT + PS and the RT alone (or combined with plS). Moreover, no statistical differences were found relating to physical performance. In view of these results, protein supplementation combined with RT does not provide additional benefits compared to RT alone or with plS in healthy elderly adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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