Special Issue "Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Attilio Giacosa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mariangela Rondanelli, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pavia, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy
Interests: Gastroentestinal diseases; Nutrition; Botanicals
Prof. Dr. Mariangela Rondanelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy
Interests: Nutrition;Metabolic diseases; Botanicals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary supplements are products intended to “supplement” the diet. In addition to vitamins, minerals and amino acids, dietary supplements can contain herbs or other botanicals and many other ingredients. They are not drugs and are not intended to treat diseases: they promote health or support a body function. Nowadays two major areas of interest for dietary supplement intervention are metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

Metabolic disorders occur when abnormal chemical reactions in the body disrupt a physiological process. When this happens, an increase or decrease of some substanes needed to stay healthy is observed, such as in dyslipidemia or dysglycidemia or in alterations of muscular or bone or liver tissue.  A lot of reasearch is ongoing in the field of dietary supplement intervention in various gastrointestinal diseases such as functional disturbances as well as inflammatory bowel diseases, liver diseases, gut microbiota and disorders of gut-brain interaction. These are hot research topics: as a consequence there is great need of published data to determine the true value of specific dietary supplements for the management of various metabolic and gastrointestinal disorders. This will be the content of this Issue.

Prof. Attilio Giacosa
Prof. Dr. Mariangela Rondanelli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Dietary supplement
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • Botanicals
  • Nutrients

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Influence of Tilia tomentosa Moench Extract on Mouse Small Intestine Neuromuscular Contractility
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13103505 - 04 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating and bowel disturbances. FGID therapy is primarily symptomatic, including treatment with herbal remedies. Flower extract of Tilia tomentosa Moench (TtM) is occasionally used as an anti-spasmodic in popular medicine. Since its [...] Read more.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating and bowel disturbances. FGID therapy is primarily symptomatic, including treatment with herbal remedies. Flower extract of Tilia tomentosa Moench (TtM) is occasionally used as an anti-spasmodic in popular medicine. Since its effect on intestinal response is unknown, we evaluated the influence of TtM extract on small intestine contractility. Ileal preparations from C57BL/6J mice were mounted in organ baths to assess changes in muscle tension, following addition of TtM extract (0.5–36 μg/mL) or a vehicle (ethanol). Changes in contractile response to receptor- and non-receptor-mediated stimuli were assessed in ileal preparations pretreated with 12 μg/mL TtM. Alterations in the enteric nervous system neuroglial network were analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence. Increasing addition of TtM induced a marked relaxation in ileal specimens compared to the vehicle. Pretreatment with TtM affected cholinergic and tachykininergic neuromuscular contractions as well as K+-induced smooth muscle depolarization. Following incubation with TtM, a significant reduction in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic-mediated relaxation sensitive to Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (pan-nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was found. In vitro incubation of intestinal specimens with TtM did not affect the myenteric plexus neuroglial network. Our findings show that TtM-induced intestinal relaxation is mediated by nitric oxide pathways, providing a pharmacological basis for the use of TtM in FGIDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid: A Pharmaco-Nutraceutical Approach to Improve the Responsiveness to Ursodeoxycholic Acid
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082617 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first line therapy for the treatment of cholestatic and autoimmune liver diseases. Its clinical use is currently limited by a significant proportion of non-responder patients. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) possess important anti-inflammatory properties and protect liver cells [...] Read more.
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first line therapy for the treatment of cholestatic and autoimmune liver diseases. Its clinical use is currently limited by a significant proportion of non-responder patients. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) possess important anti-inflammatory properties and protect liver cells against bile acid (BA)-induced toxicity. The present study was designed to rapidly evaluate whether combining n-3 PUFAs (i.e., eicosapentaenoic [EPA] and docosahexaenoic [DHA] acids) to UDCA would provide additional benefits when compared to the drug alone. The parameters evaluated were (i) the expression of genes governing BA synthesis, transport, and metabolism; (ii) the prevention of BA-induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress; and (iii) the control of BA- and LPS-dependent inflammation. In the absence of n-3 PUFAs, most of the parameters investigated were unaffected by UDCA or were only altered by the higher dose (500 µM) of the drug. By contrast, in the presence of EPA/DHA (50/50 µM), all parameters showed a strongly improved response and the lowest UDCA dosage (50 µM) provided equal or better benefits than the highest dose used alone. For example, the combination EPA/DHA + UDCA 50 µM caused comparable down-regulation of the CYP7A1 gene expression and of the BA-induced caspase 3 activity as observed with UDCA 500 µM. In conclusion, these results suggest that the addition of n-3 PUFAs to UDCA may improve the response to the drug, and that such a pharmaco-nutraceutical approach could be used in clinic to open the narrow therapeutic dose of UDCA in cholestatic liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Effects of 60-Day Saccharomyces boulardii and Superoxide Dismutase Supplementation on Body Composition, Hunger Sensation, Pro/Antioxidant Ratio, Inflammation and Hormonal Lipo-Metabolic Biomarkers in Obese Adults: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082512 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 830
Abstract
In animals it has been demonstrated that Saccharomyces boulardii and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) decrease low-grade inflammation and that S. boulardii can also decrease adiposity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 60-day S. boulardii and SOD supplementation on [...] Read more.
In animals it has been demonstrated that Saccharomyces boulardii and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) decrease low-grade inflammation and that S. boulardii can also decrease adiposity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 60-day S. boulardii and SOD supplementation on circulating markers of inflammation, body composition, hunger sensation, pro/antioxidant ratio, hormonal, lipid profile, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, in obese adults (BMI 30–35 kg/m2). Twenty-five obese adults were randomly assigned to intervention (8/4 women/men, 57 ± 8 years) or Placebo (9/4 women/men, 50 ± 9 years). Intervention group showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of body weight, BMI, fat mass, insulin, HOMA Index and uric acid. Patients in intervention and control groups showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of GLP-1. Intervention group showed an increase (p < 0.05) of Vitamin D as well. In conclusion, the 60-day S. boulardii-SOD supplementation in obese subjects determined a significant weight loss with consequent decrease on fat mass, with preservation of fat free mass. The decrease of HOMA index and uric acid, produced additional benefits in obesity management. The observed increase in vitamin D levels in treated group requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Effect of a Food for Special Medical Purposes for Muscle Recovery, Consisting of Arginine, Glutamine and Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate on Body Composition and Skin Health in Overweight and Obese Class I Sedentary Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 975; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030975 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The consumption of dietary amino acids has been evaluated for therapeutic and safety intervention in obesity. In particular, three molecules have been shown to be effective: arginine, glutamine and leucine (and its metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, HMB). This randomized, double-blinded pilot study in obese postmenopausal [...] Read more.
The consumption of dietary amino acids has been evaluated for therapeutic and safety intervention in obesity. In particular, three molecules have been shown to be effective: arginine, glutamine and leucine (and its metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, HMB). This randomized, double-blinded pilot study in obese postmenopausal patients aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the administration of a specific food for special medical purposes (FSMP) consisting of arginine, glutamine and HMB on body composition, in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate the effects on skin health through a validated self-reported questionnaire. A significant improvement on VAT of Δ = −153.600, p = 0.01 was recorded in the intervention group. Skin health showed a significant improvement in the treatment group for the following: bright Δ = 1.400 (0.758; 2.042), elasticity Δ = 0.900 (0.239; 1.561), wrinkles Δ = 0.800 (0.276; 1.324), and on total score, Δ = 3.000 (1.871; 4.129). In the intervention group, the improvement in VAT was associated with an improvement in the bright score (r = −0.58; p = 0.01). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the intake for 4-weeks of arginine, glutamine and HMB effects a significant reduction in VAT and improves skin condition, while fat free mass (FFM) is maintained, thus achieving “high-quality” weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Grape Seed Extract Positively Modulates Blood Pressure and Perceived Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Volunteers
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020654 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
It is well established that maintaining healthy blood pressure is fundamental in order to avoid disorders to the heart and blood vessels. In prevention, and alongside pharmacological therapy, the use of natural substances has been proven to be extremely helpful for pre- and [...] Read more.
It is well established that maintaining healthy blood pressure is fundamental in order to avoid disorders to the heart and blood vessels. In prevention, and alongside pharmacological therapy, the use of natural substances has been proven to be extremely helpful for pre- and mild hypertensive subjects. Our study was therefore focused on the effects, both in vitro and in humans, of a grape seed extract, Enovita (GSEe), a highly standardized extract in polyphenols of Vitis vinifera L. The in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) model was chosen to explore the extract properties related to vascular inflammation/vasodilation. A significant reduction of both soluble Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM) and endothelin-1 secretion/release was induced by GSEe in HUVEC cells. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in healthy volunteers was further performed to investigate GSEe benefits. In healthy volunteers, both supplementations significantly modulated blood pressure, with a pronounced effect after GSEe tablets (300 mg/day for 16 weeks) in respect to placebo. In the male gender subgroup, no placebo effect was observed as it was for the female group. As an additional outcome, an overall GSEe positive modulation emerged on mood related to stress perception. Thus, GSEe resulted in a benefit of modulating endothelial functionality and blood pressure. It was noteworthy that GSEe relieved the perceived stress, promising new future perspectives on mood comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Effectiveness of Rice Germ Supplementation on Body Composition, Metabolic Parameters, Satiating Capacity, and Amino Acid Profiles in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Pilot Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 439; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020439 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Rice germ (RG) may be a safe and effective dietary supplement for obesity in menopause, considering its high protein content and considerable amounts of essential amino acids, good fatty acids, and fiber. This pilot randomized, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled pilot trial investigated the effectiveness [...] Read more.
Rice germ (RG) may be a safe and effective dietary supplement for obesity in menopause, considering its high protein content and considerable amounts of essential amino acids, good fatty acids, and fiber. This pilot randomized, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled pilot trial investigated the effectiveness of 4-weeks RG supplementation (25 g twice a day) on body composition, as primary outcome, measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA), and metabolic parameters, as secondary outcomes, like amino acid profiles and satiating capacity, in obese postmenopausal women following a tailored hypocaloric diet (25–30% less than daily energy requirements). Twenty-seven women were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (14) or placebo group (13). There was a significant interaction between time and group for body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.0001), waist (p = 0.002) and hip circumferences (p = 0.01), total protein (0.008), albumin (0.005), Homeostasis Model Assessment index score (p = 0.04), glycine (p = 0.002), glutamine (p = 0.004), and histidine (p = 0.007). Haber’s means over time showed a clearly greater feeling of satiety for the supplemented compared to the placebo group. These findings indicate that RG supplementation in addition to a tailored diet counterbalanced the metabolic changes typical of menopause, with improvements in BMI, body composition, insulin resistance, amino acid profiles, and satiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Creatine Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Liver Damage by Inhibiting Liver Fibrosis, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cellular Senescence
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010041 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Background: Treatment with the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) may lead to toxicities that affect non-cancer cells including the liver. Supplementing the diet with creatine (Cr) has been suggested as a potential intervention to minimize DOX-induced side effects, but its effect in alleviating [...] Read more.
Background: Treatment with the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) may lead to toxicities that affect non-cancer cells including the liver. Supplementing the diet with creatine (Cr) has been suggested as a potential intervention to minimize DOX-induced side effects, but its effect in alleviating DOX-induced hepatoxicity is currently unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of Cr supplementation on DOX-induced liver damage. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet supplemented with 2% Cr for four weeks, 4% Cr for one week followed by 2% Cr for three more weeks, or control diet for four weeks. Animals then received either a bolus i.p. injection of DOX (15 mg/kg) or saline as a placebo. Animals were then sacrificed five days-post injection and markers of hepatoxicity were analyzed using the liver-to-body weight ratio, aspartate transaminase (AST)-to- alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipemia, and T-Bilirubin. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Picro-Sirius Red staining, and immunofluorescence staining for CD45, 8-OHdG, and β-galactosidase were performed to evaluate liver morphology, fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cellular senescence, respectively. The mRNA levels for biomarkers of liver fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and senescence-related genes were measured in liver tissues. Chromosomal stability was evaluated using global DNA methylation ELISA. Results: The ALT/AST ratio and liver to body weight ratio tended to increase in the DOX group, and Cr supplementation tended to attenuate this increase. Furthermore, elevated levels of liver fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and senescence were observed with DOX treatment, and Cr supplementation prior to DOX treatment ameliorated this hepatoxicity. Moreover, DOX treatment resulted in chromosomal instability (i.e., altered DNA methylation profile), and Cr supplementation showed a tendency to restore chromosomal stability with DOX treatment. Conclusion: The data suggest that Cr protected against DOX-induced hepatotoxicity by attenuating fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and senescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
Hypoglycemic Effect of Prolamin from Cooked Foxtail Millet (Setaria italic) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113452 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Millet proteins have been demonstrated to possess glucose-lowering and lipid metabolic disorder modulation functions against diabetes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-diabetic effects remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of prolamin from cooked foxtail millet (PCFM) on [...] Read more.
Millet proteins have been demonstrated to possess glucose-lowering and lipid metabolic disorder modulation functions against diabetes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-diabetic effects remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of prolamin from cooked foxtail millet (PCFM) on type 2 diabetic mice, and explore the gut microbiota and serum metabolic profile changes that are associated with diabetes attenuation by PCFM. Our diabetes model was established using a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin before PCFM or saline was daily administrated by gavage for 5 weeks. The results showed that PCFM ameliorated glucose metabolism disorders associated with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the effects of PCFM administration on gut microbiota and serum metabolome were investigated. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that PCFM alleviated diabetes-related gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice. Additionally, the serum metabolomics analysis revealed that the metabolite levels disturbed by diabetes were partly altered by PCFM. Notably, the decreased D-Glucose level caused by PCFM suggested that its anti-diabetic potential can be associated with the activation of glycolysis and the inhibition of gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism and galactose metabolism. In addition, the increased serotonin level caused by PCFM may stimulate insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells, which contributed to its hypoglycemic effect. Taken together, our research demonstrated that the modulation of gut microbiota composition and the serum metabolomics profile was associated with the anti-diabetic effect of PCFM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Article
The Metabolic Effects of Cynara Supplementation in Overweight and Obese Class I Subjects with Newly Detected Impaired Fasting Glycemia: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3298; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113298 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a condition that precedes diabetes and increases the risk of developing it. Studies support the hypoglycemic effect of Cynarascolymus (Cs) extracts due to the content of chlorogenic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate translocase [...] Read more.
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a condition that precedes diabetes and increases the risk of developing it. Studies support the hypoglycemic effect of Cynarascolymus (Cs) extracts due to the content of chlorogenic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate translocase and of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives that modulate the activity of alpha-glucosidase. Given this background, we investigated whether a new highly standardized Cs extract could improve glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) Triglycerides, Apolipo protein B (ApoB), Apolipo protein A (ApoA), waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in overweight subjects with newly diagnosed IFG. Fifty-four subjects (females/males 26/28, mean ± SD age 51.5 ± 6.2) were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 27) and placebo (n = 27). After multiple testing correction, statistically significant interactions between time and group were observed for the primary endpoint glycemia (β = 0.36, p < 0.0001) and for the secondary endpoints HDL (β = −0.10, p < 0.0001), total cholesterol/HDL (β = 0.27, p < 0.0001), LDL (β = 0.15, p = 0.005), LDL/HDL (β = 0.23, p = 0.001), insulin (β = 1.28, p = 0.04), glycated hemoglobin (β = 0.21, p = 0.0002), A1c-derived average glucose (β = 0.34, p = 0.0002), ApoB (β = 6.00, p = 0.01), ApoA (β = −4.50, p = 0.04), ApoB/ApoA (β = 0.08, p = 0.003), waist circumference (β = 1.89, p = 0.05), VATβ = 222.37, p = 0.005). In conclusion, these results confirm that Cs supplementation has a significant effect on metabolic parameters in IFG patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Review

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Review
Copper as Dietary Supplement for Bone Metabolism: A Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072246 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
While in vitro and animal studies of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity as well as bone resistance for copper are numerous, and the results encouraging in terms of regulation, human studies are scarce. The aim of this narrative review was to investigate the correlation [...] Read more.
While in vitro and animal studies of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity as well as bone resistance for copper are numerous, and the results encouraging in terms of regulation, human studies are scarce. The aim of this narrative review was to investigate the correlation of blood copper, daily copper intake, and copper supplementation with bone mineral density. This review included 10 eligible studies: five studies concerned copper blood levels, one study concerned daily copper intake, and four studies concerned copper supplementation. Blood copper levels did not show statistically significant differences in four of the studies analyzed, while only one study showed differences between osteoporotic and healthy women, although only with women between 45 and 59 years of age and not between 60 and 80 years of age. The dietary copper intake among women with or without osteoporosis did not show any differences. Only one study with a small sample of subjects carried out these assessments; therefore, it is a topic that the literature must deepen with further studies. The two studies that analyzed the integration of copper (2.5–3 mg/day) only showed good results in terms of slowing down bone mineral loss and reducing resorption markers, confirming the effectiveness of copper supplementation on bone metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Review
Is Probiotic Supplementation Useful for the Management of Body Weight and Other Anthropometric Measures in Adults Affected by Overweight and Obesity with Metabolic Related Diseases? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 666; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020666 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of probiotics in inducing body weight loss in patients with overweight or obesity with related metabolic diseases. The research was carried out on PubMed and Scopus, focusing on studies reporting [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of probiotics in inducing body weight loss in patients with overweight or obesity with related metabolic diseases. The research was carried out on PubMed and Scopus, focusing on studies reporting the effect on anthropometric measures (weight, body mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) after administration of various probiotic strains compared to placebo. Twenty randomized controlled trials, that included 1411 patients, were considered. The meta-analyzed mean differences (MD) for random effects showed no significant decrease in body weight after probiotic supplementation (−0.26 kg [−075, 0.23], p = 0.30), while a significant BMI decrease was found (−0.73 kg/m2 [−1.31, −0.16], p = 0.01). For WC and HC, the meta-analyzed MD for random effects showed a significant decrease (WC: −0.71 cm [−1.24; −0.19], p = 0.008 and HC: −0.73 cm [−1.16; −0.30], p = 0.0008). The risk of bias was also evaluated considering a high risk and a low risk according to PRISMA criteria. In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis highlight a positive trend of probiotics supplementation on the amelioration of anthropometric measures of overweight and obese patients with related metabolic diseases. However, further research is needed before recommending the use of probiotics as a therapeutic strategy for these patients. The focus of the future research should be to evaluate the efficacy of different probiotic strains, the quantities to be administered, and the duration of the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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Review
Effect of Acute and Chronic Dietary Supplementation with Green Tea Catechins on Resting Metabolic Rate, Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 644; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020644 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
The consumption of green tea catechins (GTC) is associated with modulations of fat metabolism and consequent weight loss. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of GTC on resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ). [...] Read more.
The consumption of green tea catechins (GTC) is associated with modulations of fat metabolism and consequent weight loss. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of GTC on resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ). Eligible studies considered both the chronic and acute intake of GTC-based supplements, with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) doses ranging between 100–800 mg. Findings from 15 studies (n = 499 participants) lasting 8–12 weeks (for chronic consumption) or 1–3 days (for acute intake) are summarized. This review reveals the positive effects of GTC supplementation on RQ values (272 subjects). Regarding the effects of acute and chronic GTC supplementation on RMR (244 subjects) and EE (255 subjects), the results did not allow for a definitive conclusion, even though they were promising, because some reported a positive improvement (two studies revealed an increase in RMR: one demonstrated an RMR increase of 43.82 kcal/day and another demonstrated an increase of 260.8 kcal/day, mainly when subjects were also engaged in resistance training exercise). Considering GTC daily dose supplementation, studies in which modifications of energetic parameters occurred, in particular RQ reduction, considered GTC low doses (100–300 mg). GTC may be useful for improving metabolic profiles. Further investigations are needed to better define adequate doses of supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
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