Special Issue "Diet and Weight Loss"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Matthew B. Cooke
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Health Science and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, 3122, Australia
Interests: metabolism; diet; microbiome; nutrigenomics; muscle; performance; health
Prof. Dr. Richard B. Kreider
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Human Clinical Research Facility, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Interests: exercise physiology; sports nutrition; performance enhancement; weight loss; women's health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is perhaps no other topic in nutrition that creates such debate and opinion as weight loss. Weight loss, usually in the form of body fat loss, is a primary outcome in the treatment and prevention of obesity, with nutrition and physical activity playing a valuable role. Athletes also desire a reduction in body weight and body fat to improve their performance and/or align with body weight categories and aesthetic requirements of the sport. Currently, a large number of weight loss strategies exist, with reductions in calorie intake the primary driver of its success. However, it is clear that successful weight loss is more than just reducing calories with many other factors such as macronutrient composition, eating behaviours, meal timing, adherence to diet, taste preferences, food accessibility, cultural background, gut-brain axis, environment, hormones and genetics need to be considered. This Special Issue explores dietary interventions for weight loss to prevent or manage obesity and its comorbidities, as well as athletes that require weight loss for their sport. Studies investigating other factors that influence the efficacy of diet on weight loss will also be included.

Dr. Matthew B. Cooke
Prof. Dr. Richard Kreider
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Weight loss
  • Body fat
  • Obesity
  • Athletes
  • Macronutrient composition
  • Eating behaviors
  • Meal timing
  • Adherence to diet
  • Gut-brain axis
  • Fasting
  • Energy balance
  • Diet type (DASH, Glycemic-Index, Mediterranean, Ornish, Paleolithic, Ketogenic, Zone)

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Differential Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D on Body Composition Changes in Post-Menopausal Women Following a Restricted Energy Diet and Exercise Program
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 713; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12030713 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been posited to improve body composition and different formulations of calcium may impact bioavailability. However, data are lacking regarding the combinatorial effects of exercise, diet, and calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on body composition changes in post-menopausal [...] Read more.
Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been posited to improve body composition and different formulations of calcium may impact bioavailability. However, data are lacking regarding the combinatorial effects of exercise, diet, and calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on body composition changes in post-menopausal women. Herein, 128 post-menopausal women (51.3 ± 4.5 years, 36.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, 46.2 ± 4.5% fat) were assigned to diet and supplement groups while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance-training program (3 d/week) over a 14-week period. Diet groups included: (1) normal diet (CTL), (2) a low-calorie, higher protein diet (LCHP; 1600 kcal/day, 15% carbohydrates, 55% protein, 30% fat), and (3) a low-calorie, higher carbohydrate diet (LCHC; 1600 kcal/day, 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 30% fat). Supplement groups consisted of: (1) maltodextrin (PLA), (2) 800 mg/day of calcium carbonate (Ca), and (3) 800 mg/day of calcium citrate and malate and 400 IU/day of vitamin D (Ca+D). Fasting blood samples, body composition, resting energy expenditure, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance measures were assessed. Data were analyzed by mixed factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and presented as mean change from baseline [95% CI]. Exercise training promoted significant improvements in strength, peak aerobic capacity, and blood lipids. Dieting resulted in greater losses of body mass (CTL −0.4 ± 2.4; LCHC −5.1 ± 4.2; LCHP −3.8 ± 4.2 kg) and fat mass (CTL −1.4 ± 1.8; LCHC −3.7 ± 3.7; LCHP −3.4 ± 3.4 kg). When compared to LCHC-PLA, the LCHC + Ca combination led to greater losses in body mass (PLA −4.1 [−6.1, −2.1], Ca −6.4 [−8.1, −4.7], Ca+D −4.4 [−6.4, −2.5] kg). In comparison to LCHC-Ca, the LCHC-Ca+D led to an improved maintenance of fat-free mass (PLA −0.3 [−1.4, 0.7], Ca −1.4 [−2.3, −0.5], Ca+D 0.4 [−0.6, 1.5] kg) and a greater loss of body fat (PLA −2.3 [−3.4, −1.1], Ca −1.3 [−2.3, −0.3], Ca+D −3.6 [−4.8, −2.5]%). Alternatively, no significant differences in weight loss or body composition resulted when adding Ca or Ca+D to the LCHP regimen in comparison to when PLA was added to the LCHP diet. When combined with an energy-restricted, higher carbohydrate diet, adding 800 mg of Ca carbonate stimulated greater body mass loss compared to when a PLA was added. Alternatively, adding Ca+D to the LCHC diet promoted greater% fat changes and attenuation of fat-free mass loss. Our results expand upon current literature regarding the impact of calcium supplementation with dieting and regular exercise. This data highlights that different forms of calcium in combination with an energy restricted, higher carbohydrate diet may trigger changes in body mass or body composition while no impact of calcium supplementation was observed when participants followed an energy restricted, higher protein diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Article
Rice Hull Extract (RHE) Suppresses Adiposity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice and Inhibits Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051162 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Obesity is one of major health challenges in the industrial world. Although rice hull has been reported to show various bioactivities, no studies have evaluated its anti-obesity effect. We hope to demonstrate the anti-obesity effect of rice hull extract (RHE) and the underlying [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of major health challenges in the industrial world. Although rice hull has been reported to show various bioactivities, no studies have evaluated its anti-obesity effect. We hope to demonstrate the anti-obesity effect of rice hull extract (RHE) and the underlying mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Serum lipid profiles were determined by enzymatic methods. Histological analysis of liver and epididymis fat tissues was carried out with hematoxylin and eosin stain. The mRNA expression of adipogenic markers was analyzed with qRT-PCR and western blotting. Oral administration of RHE reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice. RHE also reduced lipid accumulation by inhibiting the mRNA expression of adipogenic-related genes in HFD-fed obese mice and differentiated preadipocytes. The downregulation of adipogenesis by RHE was mediated through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, RHE induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in liver and epididymis adipose tissues of HFD-fed obese mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that RHE could inhibit the differentiation of adipose cell and prevent HFD-induced obesity, suggesting its potential in the prevention of obesity and metabolic syndrome and related-disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Article
The Impact of Different Animal-Derived Protein Sources on Adiposity and Glucose Homeostasis during Ad Libitum Feeding and Energy Restriction in Already Obese Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051153 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Low-fat diets and energy restriction are recommended to prevent obesity and to induce weight loss, but high-protein diets are popular alternatives. However, the importance of the protein source in obesity prevention and weight loss is unclear. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Low-fat diets and energy restriction are recommended to prevent obesity and to induce weight loss, but high-protein diets are popular alternatives. However, the importance of the protein source in obesity prevention and weight loss is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of different animal protein sources to prevent or reverse obesity by using lean or obese C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-protein or low-fat diets with casein, cod or pork as protein sources. Only the high-fat/high-protein casein-based diet completely prevented obesity development when fed to lean mice. In obese mice, ad libitum intake of a casein-based high-fat/high-protein diet modestly reduced body mass, whereas a pork-based high-fat/high-protein diet aggravated the obese state and reduced lean body mass. Caloric restriction of obese mice fed high-fat/high-protein diets reduced body weight and fat mass and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, irrespective of the protein source. Finally, in obese mice, ad libitum intake of a low-fat diet stabilized body weight, reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass, with the highest loss of fat mass found in mice fed the casein-based diet. Combined with caloric restriction, the casein-based low-fat diet resulted in the highest loss of fat mass. Overall, the dietary protein source has greater impact in obesity prevention than obesity reversal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Article
A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Telenutrition Weight Loss Intervention in Middle-Aged and Older Men with Multiple Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11020229 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Overweight and obesity threaten the health, functionality and quality of life of 77.2% men in West Virginia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week primary care referred telenutrition weight loss intervention. Fifty-nine 40–70-year-old men with [...] Read more.
Overweight and obesity threaten the health, functionality and quality of life of 77.2% men in West Virginia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week primary care referred telenutrition weight loss intervention. Fifty-nine 40–70-year-old men with obesity were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 29) or an enhanced usual care (EUC) (n = 30) group. Participants from both groups were prescribed a moderate energy restricted diet (500–750 kcal/day below energy requirements) and provided diet-related educational materials; but, only those in the intervention group received weekly support from a registered dietitian nutritionist via telephone and videoconferencing. Both groups significantly reduced body weight, waist circumference, percent body fat and caloric intake and improved diet quality from baseline (p < 0.0001). Groups did not differ after controlling for time (all p > 0.30) and none of the group by time interactions were statistically significant. At week 12, a greater proportion of participants from the intervention group than the EUC group lost at least 5% of their baseline weight, (70.4% vs. 41.4%, p = 0.035). Retention rates and participant-reported adherence and satisfaction rates were ≥80% in the telenutrition group, thereby meeting the a priori criterion for feasibility of a larger trial. Primary care referred telenutrition interventions have the potential to improve access to dietary counseling for obesity treatment in health disparate populations. A larger longer-term trial is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Article
Effect of a Whey Protein Supplement on Preservation of Fat Free Mass in Overweight and Obese Individuals on an Energy Restricted Very Low Caloric Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu10121918 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3411
Abstract
The obesity epidemic has caused a widespread interest in strategies to achieve a healthy “high quality” weight loss, where excess fat is lost, while fat free mass (FFM) is preserved. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of whey protein supplementation [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic has caused a widespread interest in strategies to achieve a healthy “high quality” weight loss, where excess fat is lost, while fat free mass (FFM) is preserved. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of whey protein supplementation given before night sleep on FFM preservation during a 4-week (wk) period on a very low caloric diet (VLCD). Twenty-nine obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2) completed a 4-week intervention including a VLCD and a walking program (30 min walking × 5 times per week). Subjects were randomly assigned to either control (CON, n = 15) or a whey protein supplement (PRO, 0.4 g protein/kg/day, n = 14), ingested before bedtime. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), blood analysis and physical test were performed pre and post intervention. We measured nitrogen excretion in three 24 h urine collections (Day 0, 7 and 28) to assess nitrogen balance. Changes in nitrogen balance (NB) after 7 and 28 days was different between treatment groups (interaction p < 0.05). PRO was in NB after 7 days and in positive NB at day 28. In contrast, CON was in negative NB at day 7, but in NB at day 28. Nevertheless, no significant group differences were observed in the change in pre- and post-FFM measurements (−2.5 kg, [95% CI: 1.9; 3.1], p = 0.65). In conclusion, ingestion of a whey protein supplement before bedtime during a 4-week period on a VLCD improved nitrogen balance, but did not lead to any significant improvement in the quality of the weight loss in regard to observed changes in body composition and health parameters compared with controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Article
A Plant-Based High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diet in Overweight Individuals in a 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial: The Role of Carbohydrates
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1302; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu10091302 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 19149
Abstract
The effects of carbohydrates on body weight and insulin sensitivity are controversial. In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the role of a low-fat, plant-based diet on body weight, body composition and insulin resistance. As a part of this trial, we investigated [...] Read more.
The effects of carbohydrates on body weight and insulin sensitivity are controversial. In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the role of a low-fat, plant-based diet on body weight, body composition and insulin resistance. As a part of this trial, we investigated the role of changes in carbohydrate intake on body composition and insulin resistance. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a plant-based high-carbohydrate, low-fat (vegan) diet (n = 38) or to maintain their current diet (n = 37). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition. Insulin resistance was assessed with the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index. A repeated measure ANOVA model was used to test the between-group differences from baseline to 16 weeks. A linear regression model was used to test the relationship between carbohydrate intake, and body composition and insulin resistance. Weight decreased significantly in the vegan group (treatment effect −6.5 [95% CI −8.9 to −4.1] kg; Gxt, p < 0.001). Fat mass was reduced in the vegan group (treatment effect −4.3 [95% CI −5.4 to −3.2] kg; Gxt, p < 0.001). HOMA-IR was reduced significantly in the vegan group (treatment effect −1.0 [95% CI −1.2 to −0.8]; Gxt, p = 0.004). Changes in consumption of carbohydrate, as a percentage of energy, correlated negatively with changes in BMI (r = −0.53, p < 0.001), fat mass (r = −0.55, p < 0.001), volume of visceral fat (r = −0.35, p = 0.006), and HOMA (r = −0.27, p = 0.04). These associations remained significant after adjustment for energy intake. Changes in consumption of total and insoluble fiber correlated negatively with changes in BMI (r = −0.43, p < 0.001; and r = −0.46, p < 0.001, respectively), fat mass (r = −0.42, p < 0.001; and r = −0.46, p < 0.001, respectively), and volume of visceral fat (r = −0.29, p = 0.03; and r = −0.32, p = 0.01, respectively). The associations between total and insoluble fiber and changes in BMI and fat mass remained significant even after adjustment for energy intake. Increased carbohydrate and fiber intake, as part of a plant-based high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet, are associated with beneficial effects on weight, body composition, and insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Article
Effects of Adherence to a Higher Protein Diet on Weight Loss, Markers of Health, and Functional Capacity in Older Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1070; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu10081070 - 11 Aug 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 9119
Abstract
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, [...] Read more.
Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65.9 ± 4.7 years; 78.7 ± 11 kg, 30.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 43.5 ± 3.6% fat) were randomly assigned to an exercise-only group (E), an exercise plus hypo-energetic higher carbohydrate (HC) diet, or a higher protein diet (HP) diet. Participants followed their respective diet plans and performed a supervised 30-min circuit-style resistance exercise program 3 d/wk. Participants were tested at 0, 10, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear model (GLM) statistics as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of changes from baseline with [95% confidence intervals]. Results revealed that after 14 weeks, participants in the HP group experienced significantly greater reductions in weight (E −1.3 ± 2.3, [−2.4, −0.2]; HC −3.0 ± 3.1 [−4.5, −1.5]; HP −4.8 ± 3.2, [−6.4, −3.1]%, p = 0.003), fat mass (E −2.7 ± 3.8, [−4.6, −0.9]; HC −5.9 ± 4.2 [−8.0, −3.9]; HP −10.2 ± 5.8 [−13.2, –7.2%], p < 0.001), and body fat percentage (E −2.0 ± 3.5 [−3.7, −0.3]; HC −4.3 ± 3.2 [−5.9, −2.8]; HP −6.3 ± 3.5 [−8.1, −4.5] %, p = 0.002) with no significant reductions in fat-free mass or resting energy expenditure over time or among groups. Significant differences were observed in leptin (E −1.8 ± 34 [−18, 14]; HC 43.8 ± 55 [CI 16, 71]; HP −26.5 ± 70 [−63, −9.6] ng/mL, p = 0.001) and adiponectin (E 43.1 ± 76.2 [6.3, 79.8]; HC −27.9 ± 33.4 [−44.5, −11.3]; HP 52.3 ± 79 [11.9, 92.8] µg/mL, p = 0.001). All groups experienced significant improvements in muscular strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, markers of balance and functional capacity, and several markers of health. These findings indicate that a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition compared to a higher carbohydrate diet in older females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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