Topical Collection "The Efficacy and Role of Dietary Polyphenols"

A topical collection in Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This collection belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Editor

Dr. Francesca Giampieri
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Interests: nutrition; health; disease prevention; dietary bioactive compounds; oxidative stress; aging; mitochondrial functionality; inflammation; bioenergetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last several years, the importance of balanced dietary patterns in human health has been widely recognized. Dietary guidelines around the world recommend the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, as good sources of dietary fiber, essential nutrients, and phytochemicals, to improve health and reduce the  risk of several chronic diseases, including metabolic disorder, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancer. In this context, numerous studies have demonstrated the wide biological properties exerted by dietary phytochemicals, highlighting their beneficial role both in the prevention and in the treatment of several pathological conditions.

This Special Issue will include manuscripts, in the form of original research or review articles, that cover all aspects of the complex relationship between dietary polyphenols and human health, ranging from their bioavailability and gut microbiota interaction to the molecular mechanisms through which these compounds exert their health benefits. Studies with multidisciplinary input, offering new mechanisms or insights, are particularly welcome.

Dr. Francesca Giampieri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nutrition
  • human health
  • dietary intake
  • bioactive compounds
  • dietary phytochemicals
  • nutraceuticals
  • functional foods
  • medicinal products
  • natural antioxidants
  • nutrigenetics
  • nutrigenomics
  • bioavailability
  • pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of polyphenols
  • gut microbiota
  • molecular mechanisms
  • safety and efficacy

Published Papers (5 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Review
Variability in the Beneficial Effects of Phenolic Compounds: A Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1925; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14091925 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
When analysing the beneficial effects of phenolic compounds, several factors that exert a clear influence should be taken into account. The content of phenolic compounds in foods is highly variable, directly affecting individual dietary intake. Once ingested, these compounds have a greater or [...] Read more.
When analysing the beneficial effects of phenolic compounds, several factors that exert a clear influence should be taken into account. The content of phenolic compounds in foods is highly variable, directly affecting individual dietary intake. Once ingested, these compounds have a greater or lesser bioaccessibility, defined as the amount available for absorption in the intestine after digestion, and a certain bioavailability, defined as the proportion of the molecule that is available after digestion, absorption and metabolism. Among the external factors that modify the content of phenolic compounds in food are the variety, the cultivation technique and the climate. Regarding functional foods, it is important to take into account the role of the selected food matrix, such as dairy matrices, liquid or solid matrices. It is also essential to consider the interactions between phenolic compounds as well as the interplay that occurs between these and several other components of the diet (macro- and micronutrients) at absorption, metabolism and mechanism of action levels. Furthermore, there is a great inter-individual variability in terms of phase II metabolism of these compounds, composition of the microbiota, and metabolic state or metabotype to which the subject belongs. All these factors introduce variability in the responses observed after ingestion of foods or nutraceuticals containing phenolic compounds. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Defining the Cholesterol Lowering Mechanism of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Extract in HepG2 and Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13093156 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Bergamot, a Mediterranean citrus fruit native to southern Italy, has been reported to have cholesterol-lowering properties; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. Due to structural similarities with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors, it has been proposed that the phenolic compounds [...] Read more.
Bergamot, a Mediterranean citrus fruit native to southern Italy, has been reported to have cholesterol-lowering properties; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. Due to structural similarities with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors, it has been proposed that the phenolic compounds in bergamot may also inhibit HMGCR. Statins are widely used for their cholesterol-lowering properties; however, they are not universally well tolerated, suggesting there is a need to identify novel cholesterol-lowering strategies. In the present study, we investigated bergamot fruit extract (BFE) and its principal components (neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, melitidin, and brutieridin) for their ability to regulate cholesterol levels in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. BFE at increasing concentrations decreased the levels of total and free cholesterol in HepG2 cells. BFE and its constituents did not directly inhibit HMGCR activity. However, BFE and neohesperidin decreased HMGCR levels in HepG2 cells, suggesting that neohesperidin and BFE may downregulate HMGCR expression. An increase in AMP-kinase phosphorylation was observed in BFE and neohesperidin-treated cells. In Caco-2 cells, brutieridin exhibited a significant reduction in cholesterol uptake and decreased the level of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1, an important cholesterol transporter. Taken together, our data suggest that the cholesterol-lowering activity of bergamot is distinct from statins. We hypothesize that BFE and its principal constituents lower cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Full article
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Review
Health-Promoting of Polysaccharides Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2725; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082725 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Medicinal mushrooms are rich sources of pharmacologically active compounds. One of the mushrooms commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine is Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. Ex Fr.) Karst. In Asian countries it is treated as a nutraceutical, whose regular consumption provides vitality and improves health. [...] Read more.
Medicinal mushrooms are rich sources of pharmacologically active compounds. One of the mushrooms commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine is Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. Ex Fr.) Karst. In Asian countries it is treated as a nutraceutical, whose regular consumption provides vitality and improves health. Ganoderma lucidum is an important source of biologically active compounds. The pharmacologically active fraction of polysaccharides has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antineurodegenerative and antidiabetic activities. In this review, we summarize the activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP). Full article
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Article
The Metabolomic-Gut-Clinical Axis of Mankai Plant-Derived Dietary Polyphenols
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1866; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13061866 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Background: Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by plants to defend themselves from environmental stressors. We explored the effect of Wolffia globosa ‘Mankai’, a novel cultivated strain of a polyphenol-rich aquatic plant, on the metabolomic-gut clinical axis in vitro, in-vivo and in a clinical [...] Read more.
Background: Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by plants to defend themselves from environmental stressors. We explored the effect of Wolffia globosa ‘Mankai’, a novel cultivated strain of a polyphenol-rich aquatic plant, on the metabolomic-gut clinical axis in vitro, in-vivo and in a clinical trial. Methods: We used mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics methods from three laboratories to detect Mankai phenolic metabolites and examined predicted functional pathways in a Mankai artificial-gut bioreactor. Plasma and urine polyphenols were assessed among the 294 DIRECT-PLUS 18-month trial participants, comparing the effect of a polyphenol-rich green-Mediterranean diet (+1240 mg/polyphenols/day, provided by Mankai, green tea and walnuts) to a walnuts-enriched (+440 mg/polyphenols/day) Mediterranean diet and a healthy controlled diet. Results: Approximately 200 different phenolic compounds were specifically detected in the Mankai plant. The Mankai-supplemented bioreactor artificial gut displayed a significantly higher relative-abundance of 16S-rRNA bacterial gene sequences encoding for enzymes involved in phenolic compound degradation. In humans, several Mankai-related plasma and urine polyphenols were differentially elevated in the green Mediterranean group compared with the other groups (p < 0.05) after six and 18 months of intervention (e.g., urine hydroxy-phenyl-acetic-acid and urolithin-A; plasma Naringenin and 2,5-diOH-benzoic-acid). Specific polyphenols, such as urolithin-A and 4-ethylphenol, were directly involved with clinical weight-related changes. Conclusions: The Mankai new plant is rich in various unique potent polyphenols, potentially affecting the metabolomic-gut-clinical axis. Full article
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Article
Can Cranberry Juice Protect against Rotenone-Induced Toxicity in Rats?
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1050; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041050 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
The high polyphenols content of cranberry accounts for its strong antioxidant activity underlying the beneficial health effects of this fruit. Rotenone (ROT) is a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I in the brain which leads to the generation of oxidative stress. To date, [...] Read more.
The high polyphenols content of cranberry accounts for its strong antioxidant activity underlying the beneficial health effects of this fruit. Rotenone (ROT) is a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I in the brain which leads to the generation of oxidative stress. To date, there are few data indicating that toxicity of ROT is not limited to the brain but can also affect other tissues. We aimed to examine whether ROT-induced oxidative stress could be counteracted by cranberry juice not only in the brain but also in the liver and kidney. Wistar rats were given the combined treatment with ROT and cranberry juice (CJ) for 35 days. Parameters of antioxidant status were determined in the organs. ROT enhanced lipid peroxidation solely in the brain. The increase in the DNA damage was noticed in all organs examined and in leukocytes. The beneficial effect of CJ on these parameters appeared only in the brain. Additionally, CJ decreased the activity of serum hepatic enzymes. The effect of CJ on antioxidant enzymes was not consistent, however, in some organs, CJ reversed changes evoked by ROT. Summing up, ROT can cause oxidative damage not only in the brain but also in other organs. CJ demonstrated a protective effect against ROT-induced toxicity. Full article
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