Special Issue "COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic"

A special issue of Pediatric Reports (ISSN 2036-7503).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Maurizio Aricò
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ospedale Pediatrico Giovanni XXIII, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Consorziale Policlinico, Bari, Italy
Interests: antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; precursor cell lymphoblastic leukemia–lymphoma; DNA mutational analysis; Down syndrome; survival analysis; combined modality therapy; histiocytosis; Langerhans cell; cellular cytotoxicity; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; rare diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic is having a severe impact on healthcare systems around the world, with most hospitals being forced to rewrite their rules and change their structure to meet the new challenges presented. In fact, our entire social environment has been thoroughly modified and re-thought.

While this has had devastating consequences in many ways, leading both to loss of life and extraordinary disruptions, it has also served as a form of “experimentum naturae”, forcing us into situations we never could have imagined having to live in. A big challenge for clinicians and researchers now is to find ways to make the most of, and potentially profit from, this unexpected and new context.

Clinical observation, epidemiology, and basic research, including but not limited to the field of infectious diseases, may represent a huge mine for lessons learned.

We would like to invite you to share with our medical and pediatric community your findings and interpretations stemming from the world that COVID-19 has plunged us into.

Papers focused on how pediatric practice has been changed by the pandemic, what we have “discovered” may be further changed, what we realize we may consider no more a “must” and comparisons thereof are invited, as well as papers on how technology has helped us to deal with patients with rare diseases or complex care needs. Extraordinary times lead to extraordinary measures, and bright minds discover new ways to achieve what can no longer be achieved through established means. It is our pleasure to invite you to share all your new discoveries of “untrodden paths” in the field of healthcare with our readers.

Dr. Maurizio Aricò
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pediatric Reports is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Inflammatory Skin Lesions in Three SARS-CoV-2 Swab-Negative Adolescents: A Possible COVID-19 Sneaky Manifestation?
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(2), 181-188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13020025 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with various clinical manifestations, including skin lesions. In particular, during the COVID-19 pandemic lock-down period numerous chilblain-like lesions, mainly located on the feet, were observed in adolescents. The [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with various clinical manifestations, including skin lesions. In particular, during the COVID-19 pandemic lock-down period numerous chilblain-like lesions, mainly located on the feet, were observed in adolescents. The latter were often asymptomatic or associated with very mild respiratory symptoms. Here, we report three cases of acral nodular lesions in SARS-CoV-2 swab-negative adolescents with histological findings of chronic immune-mediated inflammation and immunohistochemical evidence of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins in endothelial cells and eccrine sweat glands. In one of these cases, the virus presence was confirmed by electron microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Neonatal and Pediatric Emergency Room Visits in a Tertiary Center during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(2), 168-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13020023 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting healthcare services worldwide. We investigated the impact of a strict lockdown policy on the characteristics of neonatal and pediatric attendances to our pediatric emergency department (PED). The clinical features of PED visits in March–April 2020 (COVID-19) and March–April [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting healthcare services worldwide. We investigated the impact of a strict lockdown policy on the characteristics of neonatal and pediatric attendances to our pediatric emergency department (PED). The clinical features of PED visits in March–April 2020 (COVID-19) and March–April 2019 (non-COVID-19) were analyzed. During the COVID-19 lockdown period, visits reduced by 67%, from 3159 to 1039. Neonatal access decreased from 78 to 59, mainly due to fewer pathological conditions, with a complete disappearance of respiratory infections. On the other hand, minor neonatal clinical conditions rose from 44 (56.4%) to 48 (81.4%), mostly due to feeding-related issues. Communicable diseases, particularly respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, dropped from 1552 (49.1%) to 288 (27.7%). Accident-related visits also decreased during COVID-19, from 535 (16.9%) to 309 (29.7%), becoming the most common cause of PED access. Hospital admissions reduced from 266 to 109, while PICU (pediatric intensive care unit) admissions decreased from 27 to 11, with a comparable rate of 10.1% in both periods. The lockdown due to COVID-19 had a substantial impact on our PED visits, which markedly decreased, mainly due to fewer respiratory infections. Unexpectedly, neonatal visits for minor conditions did not decline, but rather slightly increased. Among the children admitted to the PICU, none had respiratory disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effectiveness of Preventive Measures in Keeping Low Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers in a Referral Children’s Hospital in Southern Italy
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(1), 118-124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13010017 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic now represents a major threat to public health. Health care workers (HCW) are exposed to biological risk. Little is currently known about the risk of HCW operating in pediatric wards for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim is to [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic now represents a major threat to public health. Health care workers (HCW) are exposed to biological risk. Little is currently known about the risk of HCW operating in pediatric wards for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim is to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW in a third-level children’s hospital in Southern Italy. An observational cohort study of all asymptomatic HCW (physician, technicians, nurses, and logistic and support operators) was conducted. HCW were screened, on a voluntary basis, for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swab performed during the first wave of COVID-19. The study was then repeated, with the same modalities, at a 7-month interval, during the “second wave” of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the initial screening between 7 and 24 April 2020, 525 HCW were tested. None of them tested positive. At the repeated screening, conducted between 9 and 20 November 2020, 627 HCW were tested, including 61 additional ones resulting from COVID-emergency recruitment. At this second screening, eight subjects (1.3%) tested positive, thus being diagnosed as asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2. They were one physician, five nurses, and two HCW from the logistic/support services. They were employed in eight different wards/services. In all cases, the epidemiological investigation showed convincing evidence that the infection was acquired through social contacts. The study revealed a very low circulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW tested with RT-PCR. All the infections documented in the second wave of epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 were acquired outside of the workplace, confirming that in a pediatric hospital setting, HCW education, correct use of personal protective equipment, and separation of the COVID-patient pathway and staff flow may minimize the risk derived from occupational exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Article
Autism, Therapy and COVID-19
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(1), 35-44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13010005 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
While numerous treatments for ASD are available, intervention based on the principles and procedures of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has garnered substantial scientific support. In this study we evaluated the effects of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, followed by quarantine provisions [...] Read more.
While numerous treatments for ASD are available, intervention based on the principles and procedures of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has garnered substantial scientific support. In this study we evaluated the effects of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, followed by quarantine provisions and during the three months after the resumption of activities. The study was conducted on a group of children taking part on a ABA-based intervention funded by the Local Health Authority (ASL) of the province of Caserta. In this study we considered a sample of 88 children who had been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, aged between 18 and 30 months. The following inclusion criteria were observed: age at the time of diagnosis less than 30 months, absence of other neurological, genetic, or sensorineural pathologies, and severity level 1 measured by symptoms evaluation based on the ADOS 2 module T (used for diagnosis). During the lockdown children experienced improvements in communication, socialization, and personal autonomy. During the three months after the ABA treatment, the acquired skills were maintained but no significant improvement was demonstrated. In this study, we describe how parent training was significant in avoiding delays in the generalization of socially significant behaviors, following the drastic interruption of the treatment in this group of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Challenges of a Children’s Hospital during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Pediatric Surgeon’s Point of View
Pediatr. Rep. 2020, 12(3), 114-123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric12030025 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
During the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) emergency, in the pediatric surgical setting, it has been essential to avoid and contain infections as well as to protect both the patients and the surgical team. During this emergency, procedures and workflow were adapted to [...] Read more.
During the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) emergency, in the pediatric surgical setting, it has been essential to avoid and contain infections as well as to protect both the patients and the surgical team. During this emergency, procedures and workflow were adapted to provide the safest possible environment for both the surgical team and the patients. Pediatric surgical activities were reorganized during the COVID-19 pandemic at the “Vittore Buzzi” Children’s Hospital, which is a pediatric/maternal hospital located in Milan (Lombardy Region), Italy. Resources were optimized in order to maintain high levels of care and quality of assistance. During the COVID-19 emergency, the pediatric surgical department at the “Vittore Buzzi” Children’s Hospital became an acute care surgical service. For the reorganization of surgical activities, institutional protocols were adapted in order to preserve the pediatric-specific characteristics of our service; five crucial points were specifically addressed. The pediatric surgical procedures carried out during the initial two months of the Italian lockdown are also reported. Continuity of care was maintained for children affected by severe diseases, such as tumors and neurosurgical conditions, whose treatment could not be deferred. Telemedicine and telecommunication were adopted as quick-support modalities for pre- and post-operative care. This reorganization allowed us to preserve the “pediatric specificity” and all care-related procedures offered at this high-quality/high-volume surgical care referral center. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Innate Immunity in Children and the Role of ACE2 Expression in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(3), 363-382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13030045 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is an emerging viral disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which leads to severe respiratory infections in humans. The first reports came in December 2019 from the city of Wuhan in the province [...] Read more.
COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is an emerging viral disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), which leads to severe respiratory infections in humans. The first reports came in December 2019 from the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China. It was immediately clear that children developed a milder disease than adults. The reasons for the milder course of the disease were attributed to several factors: innate immunity, difference in ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme II) receptor expression, and previous infections with other common coronaviruses (CovH). This literature review aims to summarize aspects of innate immunity by focusing on the role of ACE2 expression and viral infections in children in modulating the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Articles deemed potentially eligible were considered, including those dealing with COVID-19 in children and providing more up-to-date and significant data in terms of epidemiology, prognosis, course, and symptoms, focusing on the etiopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 disease in children. The bibliographic search was conducted using the search engines PubMed and Scopus. The following search terms were entered in PubMed and Scopus: COVID-19 AND ACE2 AND Children; COVID-19 AND Immunity innate AND children. The search identified 857 records, and 18 studies were applicable based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that addressed the issues of COVID-19 concerning the role of ACE2 expression in children. The scientific literature agrees that children develop milder COVID-19 disease than adults. Milder symptomatology could be attributed to innate immunity or previous CovH virus infections, while it is not yet fully understood how the differential expression of ACE2 in children could contribute to milder disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
COVID-19 and School: To Open or Not to Open, That Is the Question. The First Review on Current Knowledge
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(2), 257-278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13020035 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented closure of schools in terms of duration. The option of school closure, SARS-CoV-2 initially being poorly known, was influenced by the epidemiological aspects of the influenza virus. However, school closure is still under debate and [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented closure of schools in terms of duration. The option of school closure, SARS-CoV-2 initially being poorly known, was influenced by the epidemiological aspects of the influenza virus. However, school closure is still under debate and seems unsupported by sure evidence of efficacy in the COVID-19 era. The aim of our narrative review is to discuss the available literature on SARS-CoV-2 spread among children and adolescents, in the school setting, trying to explain why children appear less susceptible to severe disease and less involved in viral spreading. We also tried to define the efficacy of school closure, through an overview of the effects of the choices made by the various countries, trying to identify which preventive measures could be effective for a safe reopening. Finally, we focused on the psychological aspects of such a prolonged closure for children and adolescents. SARS-CoV-2, children, COVID-19, influenza, and school were used as key words in our literature research, updated to 29 March 2021. To our knowledge, this is the first review summarizing the whole current knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 spreading among children and adolescents in the school setting, providing a worldwide overview in such a pandemic context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Review
Noli Timere: The Role of Reassuring Adults in Dealing with COVID-19 Anxiety in Pediatric Age
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(1), 15-30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13010003 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Since the earliest stages of the Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) spread, the elderly has been identified as the most vulnerable and health authorities have rightly focused on that population. Minor attention was paid to pediatric populations and their emotional reactions. Actually, children and [...] Read more.
Since the earliest stages of the Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) spread, the elderly has been identified as the most vulnerable and health authorities have rightly focused on that population. Minor attention was paid to pediatric populations and their emotional reactions. Actually, children and adolescents faced severe anxiety, fear and stress conditions. An efficient management of the pandemic, therefore, must take into account the pediatric population which cannot be neglected as a minor matter compared to the elderly, the economy and health care. Since the lockdown time is over, children and adolescents must recover sociality, return to living in the open air, rediscover playing, free time, aiming for the beauty of their everyday life. In order to mitigate the long-term impact of COVID-19, the key response is the reassuring presence of the adult as ‘a secure base’. The current study aimed to collect an overview of the recent references that report evidence on the role of adults in containing pandemic anxiety COVID-19 in pediatric populations, suggesting the need to ensure a reassuring presence of the adult, an effective child-parent communication, a child-friendly day and a long-lasting shared time with parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Case Report
Brugada Pattern in a Child with Severe SARS-CoV-2 Related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(3), 504-510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13030058 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
This report presents the first case of Brugada pattern complicated by a supraventricular arrhythmia in a child with SARS-CoV-2 related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). A 7-year-old boy came to our Emergency Department with 7 days of abdominal pain and fever. MIS-C [...] Read more.
This report presents the first case of Brugada pattern complicated by a supraventricular arrhythmia in a child with SARS-CoV-2 related Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). A 7-year-old boy came to our Emergency Department with 7 days of abdominal pain and fever. MIS-C was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical, laboratory and instrumental tests. On admission, ECG showed type 1 Brugada pattern in the right precordial leads. During hospitalization the onset of supraventricular arrhythmias complicated the clinical picture. This case underlines management complexity of supraventricular arrhythmic events, different from atrial fibrillation, in patients with Brugada pattern in the context of a systemic inflammatory condition with significant cardiac involvement. All potential therapeutic choices should be considered to ensure the best outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
The Deleterious Effects of COVID-19 in the Peripartum Period: A Case Report
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(2), 334-339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13020041 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
While the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to wreak havoc across the nation and the globe as one of the most significant global health crises of our time, recent attention has been turned to the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and the [...] Read more.
While the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to wreak havoc across the nation and the globe as one of the most significant global health crises of our time, recent attention has been turned to the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and the puerperium. Although most cases have been asymptomatic, for some patients, the disease may be accompanied by serious complications such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, multi organ failure, and death. Several case studies have noted that patients with co-morbidities are at a significant risk of these complications. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, authors conclude that cardiovascular disease was associated with increased composite poor outcome in patients with COVID-19. The following case report highlights the multi-system complications and severity of symptoms that can take place after childbirth in a patient with co-morbid obstetric and prenatal conditions and an initially asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Case Report
COVID-19 in Pediatric Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Pediatr. Rep. 2021, 13(1), 31-34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pediatric13010004 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The confirmed cases with COVID-19 in children account for just 1% of the overall confirmed cases. Severe COVID-19 in children is rare. Case Presentation: Our patient was 16 years old with a severe case of COVID-19 and did not survive due to the [...] Read more.
The confirmed cases with COVID-19 in children account for just 1% of the overall confirmed cases. Severe COVID-19 in children is rare. Case Presentation: Our patient was 16 years old with a severe case of COVID-19 and did not survive due to the presence of Granulomatosis with polyangiitis and being treated with immunosuppressive drugs. We used lopinavir, ritonavir, hydroxy chloroquine, intravenous immunoglobulin and continuous veno-venous hemodialysis for treatment. Conclusion: In this patient, an underlying disease and delayed admission to the hospital were two factors complicating his condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: What Happens in Pediatric Research in the Era of Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop