Special Issue "Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Circular and Green Polymer Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jorge Padrão
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology (2C2T), University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
Interests: biotechnology; engineering and technology; materials engineering; textiles; bioproduct biomaterials; antimicrobials; bioreactor optimization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Joana C. Antunes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology (2C2T), University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: bioengineering; nanotechnology; biomaterials; polymer processing; controlled drug delivery; targeted delivery; tissue regeneration; antimicrobial strategies; bioactive molecules
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the booming of nanotechnology in response to the demands for new and improved bio-based products, the extraction and exploration of cellulose-based polymers is becoming an exciting area of research. To date, wood (especially from bleached kraft wood pulp) has been the main source of cellulosic compounds because of its abundance in nature. However, in the past decade, researchers have been devoted to finding alternatives to extract cellulose from byproducts of agricultural crops and/or textile wastes, which are highly available at a very reduced raw material cost. The consumption of cotton-based products has been growing steadily over the past few decades. As a result of this increased consumption, the amount of cotton waste generated, including both pre-consumer (fiber linters, yarn slivers, fabric scraps from factory offcuts, unsold brand-new garments) and post-consumer (used and unwanted garments) wastes, has increased substantially in landfills. In finished cotton fabrics, cellulose content can be up to 99% since non-cellulose components are eliminated during scouring and bleaching, which are routine preparation procedures. Considering the urgent demands for a circular economy and sustainable actions, research has been providing the first steps towards finding new and greener extraction systems for textile wastes that provide the present raw materials with a second life. This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding of these techniques and extractions processes employed to textile waste, and the mechanisms by which a second-life purpose can be provided to the extracted raw material. Studies that deal with the ability to recover cellulose-based polymers, with elevated purity, from cotton wastes are highly desirable. Submissions on new processing and extraction methodologies that employ green approaches, with a smaller environment impact than conventional strategies and that are capable of giving rise to high purity polymers are also very welcome.

Dr. Helena P. Felgueiras
Dr. Jorge Padrão
Dr. Joana C. Antunes
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • textile fabrics
  • recycling
  • chemical extraction
  • green methodologies
  • natural-origin polymers
  • polymer purity
  • sustainability
  • circular economy
  • second-life polymer applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Forensic Analysis of Polymeric Carpet Fibers Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Coupled to an AccuTOF™ Mass Spectrometer
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13162687 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Polymeric fibers are encountered in numerous forensic circumstances. This study focused on polymeric carpet fibers most encountered at a crime scene, which are nylons, polyesters and olefins. Analysis of the multiple polymer types was done using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART [...] Read more.
Polymeric fibers are encountered in numerous forensic circumstances. This study focused on polymeric carpet fibers most encountered at a crime scene, which are nylons, polyesters and olefins. Analysis of the multiple polymer types was done using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) coupled to an Accurate time-of-flight (AccuTOF™) mass spectrometer (MS). A DART gas temperature of 275 °C was determined as optimal. Twelve olefin, polyester, and nylon polymer standards were used for parameter optimization for the carpet fiber analysis. A successful identification and differentiation of all twelve polymer standards was completed using the DART-AccuTOF. Thirty-two carpet samples of both known and unknown fiber composition were collected and subsequently analyzed. All samples with known fiber compositions were correctly identified by class. All of the remaining carpet samples with no known composition information were correctly identified by confirmation using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The method was also capable of identifying sub-classes of nylon carpet fibers. The results exhibit the capability of DART-AccuTOF being applied as an addition to the sequence of tests conducted to analyze carpet fibers in a forensic laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Article
Green Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Hydrogel from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Cellulose for Sustained Drug Delivery
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13132153 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Drug delivery is a difficult task in the field of dermal therapeutics, particularly in the treatment of burns, wounds, and skin diseases. Conventional drug delivery mediums have some limitations, including poor retention on skin/wound, inconvenience in administration, and uncontrolled drug release profile. Hydrogels [...] Read more.
Drug delivery is a difficult task in the field of dermal therapeutics, particularly in the treatment of burns, wounds, and skin diseases. Conventional drug delivery mediums have some limitations, including poor retention on skin/wound, inconvenience in administration, and uncontrolled drug release profile. Hydrogels able to absorb large amount of water and give a spontaneous response to stimuli imposed on them are an attractive solution to overcome the limitations of conventional drug delivery media. The objective of this study is to explore a green synthesis method for the development of thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel using cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB). A cold method was employed to prepare thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogels by incorporating OPEFB-extracted cellulose and Pluronic F127 (PF127) polymer. The performance of the synthesized thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogels were evaluated in terms of their swelling ratio, percentage of degradation, and in-vitro silver sulfadiazine (SSD) drug release. H8 thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel with 20 w/v% PF127 and 3 w/v% OPEFB extracted cellulose content was the best formulation, given its high storage modulus and complex viscosity (81 kPa and 9.6 kPa.s, respectively), high swelling ratio (4.22 ± 0.70), and low degradation rate (31.3 ± 5.9%), in addition to high t50% value of 24 h in SSD in-vitro drug release to accomplish sustained drug release. The exploration of thermo-responsive cellulose hydrogel from OPEFB would promote cost-effective and sustainable drug delivery system with using abundantly available agricultural biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Article
Fabrication and Application of SERS-Active Cellulose Fibers Regenerated from Waste Resource
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13132142 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
The flexible SERS substrate were prepared base on regenerated cellulose fibers, in which the Au nanoparticles were controllably assembled on fiber through electrostatic interaction. The cellulose fiber was regenerated from waste paper through the dry-jet wet spinning method, an eco-friendly and convenient approach [...] Read more.
The flexible SERS substrate were prepared base on regenerated cellulose fibers, in which the Au nanoparticles were controllably assembled on fiber through electrostatic interaction. The cellulose fiber was regenerated from waste paper through the dry-jet wet spinning method, an eco-friendly and convenient approach by using ionic liquid. The Au NPs could be controllably distributed on the surface of fiber by adjusting the conditions during the process of assembling. Finite-difference time-domain theoretical simulations verified the intense local electromagnetic fields of plasmonic composites. The flexible SERS fibers show excellent SERS sensitivity and adsorption capability. A typical Raman probe molecule, 4-Mercaptobenzoicacid (4-MBA), was used to verify the SERS cellulose fibers, the sensitivity could achieve to 10−9 M. The flexible SERS fibers were successfully used for identifying dimetridazole (DMZ) from aqueous solution. Furthermore, the flexible SERS fibers were used for detecting DMZ from the surface of fish by simply swabbing process. It is clear that the fabricated plasmonic composite can be applied for the identifying toxins and chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Article
Enhanced Water Resistance of Recycled Newspaper/High Density Polyethylene Composite Laminates via Hydrophobic Modification of Newspaper Laminas
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13030421 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
A high strength recycled newspaper (NP)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) laminated composite was developed using NP laminas as reinforcement and HDPE film as matrix. Herein, NP fiber was modified with stearic acid (SA) to enhance the water resistance of the NP laminas and NP/HDPE [...] Read more.
A high strength recycled newspaper (NP)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) laminated composite was developed using NP laminas as reinforcement and HDPE film as matrix. Herein, NP fiber was modified with stearic acid (SA) to enhance the water resistance of the NP laminas and NP/HDPE composite. The effects of heat treatment and SA concentration on the water resistance and tensile property of NP and composite samples were investigated. The chemical structure of the NP was characterized with X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra techniques. The surface and microstructure of the NP sheets were observed by scanning electron microscopy. An expected high-water resistance of NP sheets was achieved due to a chemical bonding that low surface energy SA were grafted onto the modified NP fibers. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of NP increased with increasing the stearic acid concentration. The water resistance of the composite laminates was depended on the hydrophobicity of the NP sheets. The lowest value of 2 h water absorption rate (3.3% ± 0.3%) and thickness swelling rate (2.2% ± 0.4%) of composite were obtained when the SA concentration was 0.15 M. In addition, the introduction of SA can not only enhance the water resistance of the composite laminates, but also reduce the loss of tensile strength in wet conditions, which shows potential in outdoor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Article
Isolation of Textile Waste Cellulose Nanofibrillated Fibre Reinforced in Polylactic Acid-Chitin Biodegradable Composite for Green Packaging Application
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13030325 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Textile waste cellulose nanofibrillated fibre has been reported with excellent strength reinforcement ability in other biopolymers. In this research cellulose nanofibrilated fibre (CNF) was isolated from the textile waste cotton fabrics with combined supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was [...] Read more.
Textile waste cellulose nanofibrillated fibre has been reported with excellent strength reinforcement ability in other biopolymers. In this research cellulose nanofibrilated fibre (CNF) was isolated from the textile waste cotton fabrics with combined supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was used to enhance the polylactic acid/chitin (PLA/chitin) properties. The properties enhancement effect of the CNF was studied by characterising the PLA/chitin/CNF biocomposite for improved mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. The tensile properties, impact strength, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and the PLA/chitin/CNF biocomposite wettability were studied. The result showed that the tensile strength, elongation, tensile modulus, and impact strength improved significantly with chitin and CNF compared with the neat PLA. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) morphological images showed uniform distribution and dispersion of the three polymers in each other, which corroborate the improvement in mechanical properties. The biocomposite’s water absorption increased more than the neat PLA, and the contact angle was reduced. The results of the ternary blend compared with PLA/chitin binary blend showed significant enhancement with CNF. This showed that the three polymers’ combination resulted in a better material property than the binary blend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Article
Effect of Ink and Pretreatment Conditions on Bioethanol and Biomethane Yields from Waste Banknote Paper
Polymers 2021, 13(2), 239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020239 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Waste banknote paper is a residue from the banking industry that cannot be recycled due to the presence of ink, microbial load and special coating that provides protection against humidity. As a result, waste banknote paper ends up being burned or buried, which [...] Read more.
Waste banknote paper is a residue from the banking industry that cannot be recycled due to the presence of ink, microbial load and special coating that provides protection against humidity. As a result, waste banknote paper ends up being burned or buried, which brings environmental impacts, mainly caused by the presence of heavy metals in its composition. To minimize the environmental impacts that come from the disposal of waste banknote paper, this study proposes to produce value-added products (bioethanol and biogas) from waste banknote paper. For this, the effect of ink and pretreatment conditions on bioethanol and biomethane yields were analyzed. Waste banknote paper provided by the Central Bank of Iran was used. The raw material with ink (WPB) and without ink (WPD) was pretreated using sulfuric acid at different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the nitrogen explosive decompression (NED) at different temperatures (150 °C, 170 °C, 190 °C, and 200 °C). The results show that the use of NED pretreatment in WPD resulted in the highest glucose concentration of all studies (13 ± 0.19 g/L). The acid pretreatment for WPB showed a correlation with the acid concentration. The highest ethanol concentration was obtained from the fermentation using WPD pretreated with NED (6.36 ± 0.72 g/L). The maximum methane yields varied between 136 ± 5 mol/kg TS (2% acid WPB) and 294 ± 4 mol/kg TS (3% acid WPD). Our results show that the presence of ink reduces bioethanol and biogas yields and that the chemical-free NED pretreatment is more advantageous for bioethanol and biogas production than the acid pretreatment method. Waste banknote paper without ink is a suitable feedstock for sustainable biorefinery processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Article
Removal of Cadmium and Chromium by Mixture of Silver Nanoparticles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose Isolated from Waste Peels of Citrus Sinensis
Polymers 2021, 13(2), 234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13020234 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) was extracted by a chemical method involving alkali and acid hydrolysis. The characterisation of the citrus sinensis fruit peel bran and nano-fibrillated cellulose was performed by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and FESEM. XRD confirmed the phase of NFC which showed monoclinic [...] Read more.
Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) was extracted by a chemical method involving alkali and acid hydrolysis. The characterisation of the citrus sinensis fruit peel bran and nano-fibrillated cellulose was performed by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and FESEM. XRD confirmed the phase of NFC which showed monoclinic crystal with spherical to rod shape morphology with a size of 44–50 nm. The crystallinity index of treated NFC increased from 39% to 75%. FTIR showed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose from waste peels due to the alkaline treatment. Silver nanoparticles were also synthesised by utilizing extract of citrus sinensis skins as a reducing agent. Pharmaceutical effluent samples from an industrial area were tested by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Out of the four metals obtained, cadmium and chromium were remediated by silver nanoparticles with nano-fibrillated cellulose via simulated method in 100 mg/L metal-salt concentrations over a time period of 160 min. The highest removal efficiency was found for cadmium, i.e., 83%, by using silver and NFC together as adsorbents. The second highest was for chromium, i.e., 47%, but by using only NFC. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were well fitted for the sorption of Cd (II) and Cr (II) with suitable high R2 values during kinetic simulation. Thus, the isolation of NFC and synthesis of silver nanoparticles proved efficient for heavy metal sorption by the reuse of waste skins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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Review

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Review
Cotton Wastes Functionalized Biomaterials from Micro to Nano: A Cleaner Approach for a Sustainable Environmental Application
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13071006 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
The exponential increase in textile cotton wastes generation and the ineffective processing mechanism to mitigate its environmental impact by developing functional materials with unique properties for geotechnical applications, wastewater, packaging, and biomedical engineering have become emerging global concerns among researchers. A comprehensive study [...] Read more.
The exponential increase in textile cotton wastes generation and the ineffective processing mechanism to mitigate its environmental impact by developing functional materials with unique properties for geotechnical applications, wastewater, packaging, and biomedical engineering have become emerging global concerns among researchers. A comprehensive study of a processed cotton fibres isolation technique and their applications are highlighted in this review. Surface modification of cotton wastes fibre increases the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals removal from wastewater. Cotton wastes fibres have demonstrated high adsorption capacity for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater. Cotton wastes fibres have found remarkable application in slope amendments, reinforcement of expansive soils and building materials, and a proven source for isolation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Several research work on the use of cotton waste for functional application rather than disposal has been done. However, no review study has discussed the potentials of cotton wastes from source (Micro-Nano) to application. This review critically analyses novel isolation techniques of CNC from cotton wastes with an in-depth study of a parameter variation effect on their yield. Different pretreatment techniques and efficiency were discussed. From the analysis, chemical pretreatment is considered the most efficient extraction of CNCs from cotton wastes. The pretreatment strategies can suffer variation in process conditions, resulting in distortion in the extracted cellulose’s crystallinity. Acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid is the most used extraction process for cotton wastes-based CNC. A combined pretreatment process, such as sonication and hydrolysis, increases the crystallinity of cotton-based CNCs. The improvement of the reinforced matrix interface of textile fibres is required for improved packaging and biomedical applications for the sustainability of cotton-based CNCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction of Cellulose-Based Polymers from Textile Wastes)
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