Special Issue "Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Saroash Shahid
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Oral Bioengineering - Institute of Dentistry - Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End, London, UK
Interests: biomaterials; drug delivery; dental composites; glass ionomer cements; bioglasses; biomineralization; atraumatic restorative treatment; caries; minimal intervention dentistry; oral bioengineering; therapeutic ion delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are delighted to announce and invite submissions for this Polymers Special Issue on “Polymers for Dental and Oral Tissue Engineering”. Various synthetic polymers have been extensively used for many years for different dental specialties, including prosthodontics, restorative dentistry, aesthetic dentistry, orthodontics, and maxillofacial prosthesis. Commonly used synthetic polymers for dental applications include polymethyl methacrylate, polysulphides, silicones, polyether ether ketones, and alginates. In recent years, significant developments have been reported focusing either on investigating new polymeric materials or on the modification of existing polymers to improve the properties for innovative clinical dentistry applications. In addition, various natural polymers (e.g., natural silk, chitosan, collagen) have been explored for oral and dental tissue engineering applications such as scaffolds. Following a good understanding of materials’ physical, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties, various polymers have been blended with other polymers, inorganic fillers, or fibers to tailor the final properties according the desired applications. Despite the magnificent developments, there is a need for further research in quest of better biomaterials for dentistry.

This Special Issue will focus on publishing articles on recent developments and applications of polymers and polymer-based composites in the field of dentistry and oral tissues regeneration. We would like to invite the submission of original research articles, short communications, and reviews providing insight into polymeric dental biomaterials. We look forward to receiving your valuable contributions.

Dr. Muhammad Sohail Zafar
Dr. Saroash Shahid
Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental polymers
  • denture base materials
  • resin composites
  • PEEK
  • PEKK
  • PMMA
  • hydrocolloids
  • elastomers
  • restorative materials
  • impression materials
  • peptides and biomolecules
  • biodegradable scaffolds
  • oral mucoadhesive patches
  • dental regeneration

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Comparison of Polymeric Cyanoacrylate Adhesives with Suturing in Free Gingival Graft Stability: A Split Mouth Trial
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13203575 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The aim is to compare the use of Cyanoacrylate adhesives (CAA) to the conventional suturing technique in terms of free gingival grafts (FGG) stability and healing in lower anterior and premolar regions. A split mouth design was initiated on 22 participants. Each side [...] Read more.
The aim is to compare the use of Cyanoacrylate adhesives (CAA) to the conventional suturing technique in terms of free gingival grafts (FGG) stability and healing in lower anterior and premolar regions. A split mouth design was initiated on 22 participants. Each side (from 2nd premolar to central incisor) was randomized to either the control or test groups. In the control group, sutures were used to stabilize the FGG, while, in the test group, the FGG was stabilized with butyl-cyanoacrylate. Full-periodontal clinical parameters were employed to assess the periodontal health. FGG-related parameters assessed included the keratinized tissue width (KTW), gingival tissue thickness (GTT), FGG shrinkage% and pain using the VAS score. No significant differences in the mean values of the KTW nor FGG shrinkage% across six time points (p < 0.05) were observed, whereas highly significant differences in the mean values of GTT across six time points (F = 3.32; p = 0.008) were observed. The use of CAA in FGG stability and healing is comparable to conventional suturing for soft tissue grafts in terms of success outcomes. With its cost effectiveness, lesser time consumption, post-operative pain and comparable graft stability and dimensions, the use of CAA may be a promising alternative for conventional and microsurgical techniques for the stabilization of FGG in the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Effect of Luting Cement Film Thickness on the Pull-Out Bond Strength of Endodontic Post Systems
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3082; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13183082 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
Optimal bond strength between the prefabricated post/dowel to the surrounding dentin is essential. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effect of three different cement film thicknesses on the pull-out bond strength of three different prefabricated post systems. Extracted natural teeth [...] Read more.
Optimal bond strength between the prefabricated post/dowel to the surrounding dentin is essential. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effect of three different cement film thicknesses on the pull-out bond strength of three different prefabricated post systems. Extracted natural teeth (N = 90) with similar root dimensions were acquired. Teeth were mounted in resin blocks, endodontically treated, sectioned at cemento-enamel junction, divided into three groups (A: Parapost Fiber Lux plus; B: 3M ESPE Relyx fiber post; and C: Parapost XP), and stored. Uniform post spaces were prepared for the groups (A and C: Length = 8 mm, Width = 1.5 mm; B: Length = 8 mm, Width = 1.6 mm). Each group (N = 30) was further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 10) based on the size (4, 5, and 6) of the post and cemented with resin cement (MultiLink-N, Ivoclar Vivadent). After thermocycling, the specimens were subjected to a pull-out test using a universal testing machine, and tensile force was recorded (MPa). Digital microscopic evaluations were performed for modes of failure. ANOVA and Tukey-HSD tests were used for statistics. Significant differences were observed for each tested material (p = 0.000). The lowest and highest bond strength values were recorded for Group C (Titanium post) and Group A (000), respectively. Multiple comparisons showed significance (p < 0.05) among all the groups, except for space 1 and space 2 (p = 0.316) for Group A. Most of the failures occurred within the cement-dentin and post-cement interface (Adhesive failures, 73.5%). An increase in the luting cement film thickness results in the decrease in pull-out bond strength of prefabricated posts luted with resin cement, irrespective of the type/material/shape of the post. The serrated fiber posts showed the highest pull-out bond strength compared to the smooth surfaced fiber posts or serrated metal posts. Increased pull-out bond strengths were observed when appropriate post space was created with the same sized drill as the post size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Influence of the Manufacturing Method on the Adhesion of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans to Oral Splint Resins
Polymers 2021, 13(10), 1534; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13101534 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Microbial adhesion to oral splints may lead to oral diseases such as candidiasis, periodontitis or caries. The present in vitro study aimed to assess the effect of novel computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and conventional manufacturing on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to [...] Read more.
Microbial adhesion to oral splints may lead to oral diseases such as candidiasis, periodontitis or caries. The present in vitro study aimed to assess the effect of novel computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and conventional manufacturing on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to oral splint resins. Standardized specimens of four 3D-printed, two milled, one thermoformed and one pressed splint resin were assessed for surface roughness by widefield confocal microscopy and for surface free energy by contact angle measurements. Specimens were incubated with C. albicans or S. mutans for two hours; a luminometric ATP assay was performed for the quantification of fungal and bacterial adhesion. Both one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc testing and Pearson correlation analysis were performed (p < 0.05) in order to relate manufacturing methods, surface roughness and surface free energy to microbial adhesion. Three-dimensional printing and milling were associated with increased adhesion of C. albicans compared to conventional thermoforming and pressing, while the S. mutans adhesion was not affected. Surface roughness and surface free energy showed no significant correlation with microbial adhesion. Increased fungal adhesion to oral splints manufactured by 3D printing or milling may be relevant for medically compromised patients with an enhanced risk for developing candidiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Shear Bond Strength of Veneered Zirconia Repaired Using Various Methods and Adhesive Systems: A Comparative Study
Polymers 2021, 13(6), 910; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13060910 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the shear bond strength of five different repair methods and adhesive systems for zirconia (Zr) cores layered with feldspathic porcelain. Seventy-five Zr specimens (10 × 10 × 4 mm3) were prepared, sintered, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the shear bond strength of five different repair methods and adhesive systems for zirconia (Zr) cores layered with feldspathic porcelain. Seventy-five Zr specimens (10 × 10 × 4 mm3) were prepared, sintered, layered with 2 × 10 × 10 mm3 of feldspathic porcelain, and fired. The ceramic was fractured, and the load recorded using a shear-bond test. Specimens were thermocycled and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 15/group) based on the repair methods. Composite repair blocks with similar dimensions to the layered ceramic (2 × 10 × 10 mm3) were built according to each repair method. Shear bond strength testing of the specimens with composite built up was carried out using a universal testing machine (Instron®5960, Massachusetts, USA). The shear bond strengths of the adhesive interface between repaired composite and the Zr were recorded for all the test groups. The fractured specimens’ surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope (Jeol, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo, Japan) for evaluation of the type of failure and surface characteristics. Shear bond strength of the veneered ceramic bonded to the Zr for all the test groups was non-significant (ANOVA, p = 0.062). Shear bond strength after the repair revealed significant differences (ANOVA, p = 0.002). Group-C (13.79 ± 1.32) and Group-D (9.77 ± 4.77) showed the highest and lowest shear bond strength values, respectively. Paired Sample T-tests showed significantly lower values (p = 0.000) for the repaired (composite) Zr compared to the layered (ceramic) Zr. Multiple comparisons revealed differences (significant) between the shear bond strength of Group-D with Groups A (p = 0.010) and C (p = 0.003, Post Hoc Tukey test). The repair methods tested showed variations in their respective shear bond strengths. Complete ceramic/zirconia repair systems showed better bonding between the repaired composite and Zr core. The mean shear bond strength for the repaired fractured layered Zr showed acceptable outcomes in terms of clinical perspective, but was, however, unpredictable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Interfacial Adhesion of a Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network-Based Fiber-Reinforced Composite with a High and Low-Gradient Poly(methyl methacrylate) Resin Surface
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13030352 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 542
Abstract
The research aimed to determine the tensile bond strength (TBS) between polymerized intact and ground fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) surfaces. FRC prepregs (a reinforcing fiber pre-impregnated with a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) resin system; everStick C&B) were divided into two groups: intact FRCs (with [...] Read more.
The research aimed to determine the tensile bond strength (TBS) between polymerized intact and ground fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) surfaces. FRC prepregs (a reinforcing fiber pre-impregnated with a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) resin system; everStick C&B) were divided into two groups: intact FRCs (with a highly PMMA-enriched surface) and ground FRCs (with a low PMMA gradient). Each FRC group was treated with: StickRESIN and G-Multi PRIMER. These groups were further divided into four subgroups based on the application time of the treatment agents: 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 min. Next, a resin luting cement was applied to the FRC substrates on the top of the photo-polymerized treating agent. Thereafter, weight loss, surface microhardness, and TBS were evaluated. Three-factor analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) revealed significant differences in the TBS among the FRC groups. The highest TBS was recorded for the intact FRC surface treated with G-Multi PRIMER for 2 min (13.0 ± 1.2 MPa). The monomers and solvents of G-Multi PRIMER showed a time-dependent relationship between treatment time and TBS. They could diffuse into the FRC surface that has a higher PMMA gradient, further resulting in a high TBS between the FRC and resin luting cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Evaluation of Synergic Potential of rGO/SiO2 as Hybrid Filler for BisGMA/TEGDMA Dental Composites
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 3025; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym12123025 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
Graphene and graphene oxide based nanomaterials have attained immense significance in research because of their matchless physiochemical characteristics. Although potential biomedical applications of graphene have been extensively studied, however, dentistry related applications were rarely explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of [...] Read more.
Graphene and graphene oxide based nanomaterials have attained immense significance in research because of their matchless physiochemical characteristics. Although potential biomedical applications of graphene have been extensively studied, however, dentistry related applications were rarely explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of various percentages of surface modified reduce graphene oxide (S-rGO) in combination with SiO2 nanoparticles (bulk filler) on numerous physio-mechanical characteristics of acrylate-based (BisGMA/TEGDMA: 1:1 by wt.) composites. BisGMA/TEGDMA reinforced with 30 wt.% surface modified fumed-silica (S-A200) was considered as control group (base composite). Various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 wt.%) of S-rGO were incorporated into the base composite via solution casting and high-speed mixing. The obtained composites were characterized for rheological properties before curing by using Rheometer (Anton Paar, USA) in the oscillatory mode under a frequency sweep over a range of angular frequency of 0.1–100 rad/s at 25 °C. The degree of conversion (DC) was measured by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A Nano-indentation test was carried out to obtain nano-hardness and elastic modulus. The surface roughness was measured by optical microscope (Bruker®), 3D non-contact surface profilometer. The structural and morphological properties were studied by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The mean and standard deviation were calculated and a simple mean comparisons test was performed for comparison using SPSS. The results revealed that the addition of a tiny proportion of S-rGO considerably increased the nano-indentation hardness, elastic modulus and DC. Conversely, a gradual reduction in viscosity was observed with increasing S-rGO concentration. The study demonstrates that a small fraction of S-rGO in combination with SiO2 could enhance physical, mechanical and rheological properties of acrylate based composites. Thus S-rGO/SiO2 combination could be used as a potential hybrid filler for dental nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Physicochemical Characteristics of Arginine Enriched NaF Varnish: An In Vitro Study
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 2998; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym12122998 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
The in vitro study objectives were to investigate the effect of arginine (Arg) incorporation in a 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on its physical and chemical properties including F/Arg release. Six experimental formulations were prepared with L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-arginine monohydrochloride at 2%, [...] Read more.
The in vitro study objectives were to investigate the effect of arginine (Arg) incorporation in a 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on its physical and chemical properties including F/Arg release. Six experimental formulations were prepared with L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-arginine monohydrochloride at 2%, 4%, and 8% w/v in a 5% NaF varnish, which served as a control. The varnishes were subjected to assessments for adhesion, viscosity, and NaF extraction. Molecular dynamics were simulated to identify post-dynamics total energy for NaF=Arg/Arg>NaF/Arg<NaF concentrations. The Arg/F varnish release profiles were determined in polyacrylic lactate buffer (pH-4.5; 7 days) and artificial saliva (pH-7; 1 h, 24 h, and 12 weeks). Incorporation of L-Arg in NaF varnish significantly influences physical properties ameliorating retention (p < 0.001). L-Arg in NaF varnish institutes the Arg-F complex. Molecular dynamics suggests that NaF>Arg concentration denotes the stabilized environment compared to NaF<Arg (p < 0.001). The 2% Arg-NaF exhibits periodic perennial Arg/F release and shows significantly higher integrated mean F release than NaF (p < 0.001). Incorporating 2% L-arginine in 5% NaF varnish improves its physical properties and renders a stable matrix with enduring higher F/Arg release than control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Dentin Bond Integrity of Hydroxyapatite Containing Resin Adhesive Enhanced with Graphene Oxide Nano-Particles—An SEM, EDX, Micro-Raman, and Microtensile Bond Strength Study
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 2978; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym12122978 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
The aim was to synthesize and characterize an adhesive incorporating HA and GO nanoparticles. Techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate bond durability, presence of nanoparticles inside [...] Read more.
The aim was to synthesize and characterize an adhesive incorporating HA and GO nanoparticles. Techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate bond durability, presence of nanoparticles inside adhesive, and dentin interaction. Control experimental adhesive (CEA) was synthesized with 5 wt% HA. GO particles were fabricated and added to CEA at 0.5 wt% (HA-GO-0.5%) and 2 wt% GO (HA-GO-2%). Teeth were prepared to produce bonded specimens using the three adhesive bonding agents for assessment of μTBS, with and without thermocycling (TC). The adhesives were applied twice on the dentin with a micro-brush followed by air thinning and photo-polymerization. The HA and GO nanoparticles demonstrated uniform dispersion inside adhesive. Resin tags with varying depths were observed on SEM micrographs. The EDX mapping revealed the presence of carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) in the two GO adhesives. For both TC and NTC samples, HA-GO-2% had higher μTBS and durability, followed by HA-GO-0.5%. The representative micro-Raman spectra demonstrated D and G bands for nano-GO particles containing adhesives. HA-GO-2% group demonstrated uniform diffusion in adhesive, higher μTBS, adequate durability, and comparable resin tag development to controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Article
Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nanospheres in Dentin Adhesive on the Dentin Bond Integrity and Degree of Conversion: A Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR), and Microtensile Study
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 2948; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym12122948 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
An experimental adhesive incorporated with different nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) particle concentrations was synthesized and analyzed for dentin interaction, micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS), and degree of conversion (DC). n-HA powder (5 wt % and 10 wt %) were added in adhesive to yield three groups; [...] Read more.
An experimental adhesive incorporated with different nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) particle concentrations was synthesized and analyzed for dentin interaction, micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS), and degree of conversion (DC). n-HA powder (5 wt % and 10 wt %) were added in adhesive to yield three groups; gp-1: control experimental adhesive (CEA, 0 wt % HA), gp-2: 5 wt % n-HA (HAA-5%), and gp-3: 10 wt % n-HA (HAA-10%). The morphology of n-HA spheres was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Their interaction in the adhesives was identified with SEM, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Teeth were sectioned, divided in study groups, and assessed for μTBS and failure mode. Employing Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the DC of the adhesives was assessed. EDX mapping revealed the occurrence of oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in the HAA-5% and HAA-10% groups. HAA-5% had the greatest μTBS values followed by HAA-10%. The presence of apatite was shown by FTIR spectra and Micro-Raman demonstrated phosphate and carbonate groups for n-HA spheres. The highest DC was observed for the CEA group followed by HAA-5%. n-HA spheres exhibited dentin interaction and formed a hybrid layer with resin tags. HAA-5% demonstrated superior μTBS compared with HAA-10% and control adhesive. The DC for HAA-5% was comparable to control adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Influence of Reinforcing Agents on the Mechanical Properties of Denture Base Resin: A Systematic Review
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3083; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13183083 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Knowledge about the influence of fillers in denture base resin is vague. This systematic review aimed to report the reinforcing effect of fillers on the mechanical properties of denture base resin by following PRISMA guidelines. Two electronic databases (Pubmed/Medline & Web of Science) [...] Read more.
Knowledge about the influence of fillers in denture base resin is vague. This systematic review aimed to report the reinforcing effect of fillers on the mechanical properties of denture base resin by following PRISMA guidelines. Two electronic databases (Pubmed/Medline & Web of Science) were searched for articles using the keywords: fibers in denture base, fillers in denture base, and reinforcement of denture base. Laboratory studies complying with the inclusion criteria were reviewed according to the set protocol. The established focus question was: “Do reinforcing fillers positively influence the mechanical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) heat polymerized denture base material?” A total of twenty-nine relevant papers qualified for final inclusion. Of these, 24 were determined to have a moderate risk of bias. Micron or nano-sized metal/metal oxides particles and glass fibers were the frequently used reinforcing agents. The trend of evaluating fractural strength (FS) was common. Most of the studies limited the use of reinforcing agents up to 5 wt.%. FS, fracture toughness (FT), and impact strength (IS) tend to increase if the fillers are chemically bonded and well-dispersed in denture base resin. Though fillers with a higher elastic modulus increase the hardness of the reinforced denture base resin, they compromise other mechanical properties. Well-dispersed lower filler loading PMMA denture base resin can enhance the FS, FT, and other related mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Review
The Photoinitiators Used in Resin Based Dental Composite—A Review and Future Perspectives
Polymers 2021, 13(3), 470; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13030470 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
The presented paper concerns current knowledge of commercial and alternative photoinitiator systems used in dentistry. It discusses alternative and commercial photoinitiators and focuses on mechanisms of polymerization process, in vitro measurement methods and factors influencing the degree of conversion and hardness of dental [...] Read more.
The presented paper concerns current knowledge of commercial and alternative photoinitiator systems used in dentistry. It discusses alternative and commercial photoinitiators and focuses on mechanisms of polymerization process, in vitro measurement methods and factors influencing the degree of conversion and hardness of dental resins. PubMed, Academia.edu, Google Scholar, Elsevier, ResearchGate and Mendeley, analysis from 1985 to 2020 were searched electronically with appropriate keywords. Over 60 articles were chosen based on relevance to this review. Dental light-cured composites are the most common filling used in dentistry, but every photoinitiator system requires proper light-curing system with suitable spectrum of light. Alternation of photoinitiator might cause changing the values of biomechanical properties such as: degree of conversion, hardness, biocompatibility. This review contains comparison of biomechanical properties of dental composites including different photosensitizers among other: camphorquinone, phenanthrenequinone, benzophenone and 1-phenyl-1,2 propanedione, trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide, benzoyl peroxide. The major aim of this article was to point out alternative photoinitiators which would compensate the disadvantages of camphorquinone such as: yellow staining or poor biocompatibility and also would have mechanical properties as satisfactory as camphorquinone. Research showed there is not an adequate photoinitiator which can be as sufficient as camphorquinone (CQ), but alternative photosensitizers like: benzoyl germanium or novel acylphosphine oxide photoinitiators used synergistically with CQ are able to improve aesthetic properties and degree of conversion of dental resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Review
Bibliometric Analysis of Literature Published on Antibacterial Dental Adhesive from 1996–2020
Polymers 2020, 12(12), 2848; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym12122848 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the current state of research on antibacterial dental adhesives. The interest in this field can be drawn from an increasing number of scholarly works in this area. However, there is still a lack of quantitative measurement of this [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the current state of research on antibacterial dental adhesives. The interest in this field can be drawn from an increasing number of scholarly works in this area. However, there is still a lack of quantitative measurement of this topic. The main aim of this study was to consolidate the research published on the antibacterial adhesive from 1996 to 2020 in Web of Science indexed journals. The bibliometric method, a quantitative study of investigating publishing trends and patterns, was used for this study. The result has shown that a gradual increase in research was found, whereby a substantial increase was observed from 2013. A total of 248 documents were published in 84 journals with total citations of 5107. The highly cited articles were published mainly in Q1 category journals. Most of the published articles were from the USA, China, and other developed countries; however, some developing countries contributed as well. The authorship pattern showed an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach among researchers. The thematic evaluation of keywords along with a three-factor analysis showed that ‘antibacterial adhesives’ and ‘quaternary ammonium’ have been used commonly. This bibliometric analysis can provide direction not only to researchers but also to funding organizations and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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Review
Prosthodontic Applications of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA): An Update
Polymers 2020, 12(10), 2299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym12102299 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3192
Abstract
A wide range of polymers are commonly used for various applications in prosthodontics. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used for prosthetic dental applications, including the fabrication of artificial teeth, denture bases, dentures, obturators, orthodontic retainers, temporary or provisional crowns, and for the repair [...] Read more.
A wide range of polymers are commonly used for various applications in prosthodontics. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used for prosthetic dental applications, including the fabrication of artificial teeth, denture bases, dentures, obturators, orthodontic retainers, temporary or provisional crowns, and for the repair of dental prostheses. Additional dental applications of PMMA include occlusal splints, printed or milled casts, dies for treatment planning, and the embedding of tooth specimens for research purposes. The unique properties of PMMA, such as its low density, aesthetics, cost-effectiveness, ease of manipulation, and tailorable physical and mechanical properties, make it a suitable and popular biomaterial for these dental applications. To further improve the properties (thermal properties, water sorption, solubility, impact strength, flexural strength) of PMMA, several chemical modifications and mechanical reinforcement techniques using various types of fibers, nanoparticles, and nanotubes have been reported recently. The present article comprehensively reviews various aspects and properties of PMMA biomaterials, mainly for prosthodontic applications. In addition, recent updates and modifications to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of PMMA are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Dental Restorative and Oral Tissue Engineering)
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