Special Issue "Design of Monomers and Polymers with Dental Applications: Dental Composites and Adhesives"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ana M. Herrera-González
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Basic Science and Engineering, Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, Pachuca 42184, Mexico
Interests: polymer composites; networks and polyelectrolyte
Dr. Carlos Enrique Cuevas Suárez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Health sciences, Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, Pachuca 42184, Mexico
Interests: adhesives; dental composites resins; mechanical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Monomers and polymers have increasingly been used in dental materials. Dental composite resins are important and prevalent materials used to aesthetically restore the structure of teeth, generally impaired by caries, erosion, fracture, or attrition. Therefore, diverse materials are available; for instance, conventional composite resins, adhesives, flowable composites or cements. Their use or application depends on the depth, size, and location of the existing defect. As they have application in humans, they are biomaterials; thus, following the definition of a biomaterial, dental composite resins and adhesives are considered materials that direct their use in dental therapy by the interaction with living systems. Dental composite materials and adhesives are a lasting source of bioactive compounds in various tissues of the oral cavity in both short- and long-term scenarios. Therefore, the design and synthesis of monomers and polymers with applications in dentistry are important in polymer chemistry. The monomers in dental composites or adhesives must preferably be liquid compounds, miscible with monomers commonly used in dentistry such as BisGMA, UDMA or TEGDEMA, and they must be capable to carry out the photopolymerization reaction when exposed to blue visible light source such as blue light emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition, less shrinkage, high degree of conversion and depth of cure along with good mechanical, wear properties and some specific characteristics such as remineralization and antimicrobial properties are desired for dental restorative materials; these properties allow their application in the oral cavity in both short- and long-term scenarios.

This issue welcomes contributions relating to the use of monomers and polymers in dental materials and their polymerization process, as well as the effects of different fillers, and important characteristics of dental materials such as adhesion, wear behavior, antimicrobial behavior and biocompatibility. As Guest Editor of the issue entitled “Design of Monomers and Polymers with Dental Applications: Dental Composites and Adhesives”, it is a great pleasure to invite you to contribute to this issue with your recent results in this important field of research. We look forward to receiving your contributions. 

Dr. Ana M. Herrera-González
Dr. Carlos Enrique Cuevas Suárez
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Dental composites
  • Dental resins
  • Composites
  • Dental monomers
  • Dental polymers
  • Dental materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanical behavior
  • Biocompatibility

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Influence of Various Photoinitiators on the Properties of Commercial Dental Composites
Polymers 2021, 13(22), 3972; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13223972 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The aim of this article was to compare the biomechanical properties of commercial composites containing different photoinitiators: Filtek Ultimate (3M ESPE) containing camphorquinone (CQ); Estelite Σ Quick (Tokuyama Dental) with CQ in RAP Technology®; Tetric EvoCeram Bleach BLXL (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to compare the biomechanical properties of commercial composites containing different photoinitiators: Filtek Ultimate (3M ESPE) containing camphorquinone (CQ); Estelite Σ Quick (Tokuyama Dental) with CQ in RAP Technology®; Tetric EvoCeram Bleach BLXL (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) with CQ and Lucirin TPO; and Tetric Evoceram Powerfill IVB (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) with CQ and Ivocerin TPO. All samples were cured with a polywave Valo Lamp (Ultradent Products Inc.) with 1450 mW/cm2. The microhardness, hardness by Vicker’s method, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength and contraction stress with photoelastic analysis were tested. The highest hardness and microhardness were observed for Filtek Ultimate (93.82 ± 17.44 HV), but other composites also displayed sufficient values (from 52 ± 3.92 to 58,82 ± 7.33 HV). Filtek Ultimate not only demonstrated the highest DTS (48.03 ± 5.97 MPa) and FS (87.32 ± 19.03 MPa) but also the highest contraction stress (13.7 ± 0.4 MPa) during polymerization. The TetricEvoCeram Powerfill has optimal microhardness (54.27 ± 4.1 HV), DTS (32.5 ± 5.29 MPa) and FS (79.3 ± 14.37 MPa) and the lowest contraction stress (7.4 ± 1 MPa) during photopolymerization. To summarize, Filtek Ultimate demonstrated the highest microhardness, FS and DTS values; however, composites with additional photoinitiators such as Lucirin TPO and Ivocerin have the lowest polymerization shrinkage. These composites also have higher FS and DTS and microhardness than material containing CQ in Rap Technology. Full article
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Article
Determination of Dental Adhesive Composition throughout Solvent Drying and Polymerization Using ATR–FTIR Spectroscopy
Polymers 2021, 13(22), 3886; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13223886 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The of this study aim was to develop a rapid method to determine the chemical composition, solvent evaporation rates, and polymerization kinetics of dental adhesives. Single-component, acetone-containing adhesives One-Step (OS; Bisco, Anaheim, CA, USA), Optibond Universal (OU; Kerr, Brea, CA, USA), and G-Bond [...] Read more.
The of this study aim was to develop a rapid method to determine the chemical composition, solvent evaporation rates, and polymerization kinetics of dental adhesives. Single-component, acetone-containing adhesives One-Step (OS; Bisco, Anaheim, CA, USA), Optibond Universal (OU; Kerr, Brea, CA, USA), and G-Bond (GB; GC, Tokyo, Japan) were studied. Filler levels were determined gravimetrically. Monomers and solvents were quantified by comparing their pure Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra-Red (ATR–FTIR) spectra, summed in different ratios, with those of the adhesives. Spectral changes at 37 °C, throughout passive evaporation for 5 min, then polymerisation initiated by 20 s, and blue light emitting diode (LED) (600 mW/cm2) exposure (n = 3) were determined. Evaporation and polymerisation extent versus time and final changes were calculated using acetone (1360 cm−1) and methacrylate (1320 cm−1) peaks. OS, OU, and GB filler contents were 0, 9.6, and 5.3%. FTIR suggested OS and OU were Bis-GMA based, GB was urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) based, and that each had a different diluent and acidic monomers and possible UDMA/acetone interactions. Furthermore, initial acetone percentages were all 40–50%. After 5 min drying, they were 0% for OS and OU but 10% for GB. Whilst OS had no water, that in OU declined from 18 to 10% and in GB from 25 to 20% upon drying. Evaporation extents were 50% of final levels at 23, 25, and 113 s for OS, OU, and GB, respectively. Polymerisation extents were all 50 and 80% of final levels before 10 and at 20 s of light exposure, respectively. Final monomer polymerisation levels were 68, 69, and 88% for OS, OU, and GB, respectively. An appreciation of initial and final adhesive chemistry is important for understanding the properties. The rates of evaporation and polymerisation provide indications of relative required drying and light cure times. UDMA/acetone interactions might explain the considerably greater drying time of GB. Full article
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Article
Influence of Resin Cement Thickness and Elastic Modulus on the Stress Distribution of Zirconium Dioxide Inlay-Bridge: 3D Finite Element Analysis
Polymers 2021, 13(22), 3863; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13223863 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The mechanical properties and the thickness of the resin cement agents used for bonding inlay bridges can modify the clinical performance of the restoration such as debonding or prosthetic materials fracture. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties and the thickness of the resin cement agents used for bonding inlay bridges can modify the clinical performance of the restoration such as debonding or prosthetic materials fracture. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution and the maximum strain generated by resin cements with different elastic moduli and thicknesses used to cement resin-bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD). A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used, and a 3D model was created based on a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography system (CBCT). The model was analyzed by the Ansys software. The model fixation occurred at the root of the abutment teeth and an axial load of 300 N was applied on the occlusal surface of the pontic. The highest stress value was observed for the Variolink 0.4 group (1.76 × 106 Pa), while the lowest was noted for the Panavia 0.2 group (1.07 × 106 Pa). Furthermore, the highest total deformation value was found for the Variolink 0.2 group (3.36 × 10−4 m), while the lowest was observed for the Panavia 0.4 group (2.33 × 10−4 m). By means of this FEA, 0.2 mm layer Panavia F2.0 seemed to exhibit a more favorable stress distribution when used for cementation of posterior zirconium-dioxide-based RBFPD. However, both studied materials possessed clinically acceptable properties. Full article
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Article
Effect of Acid-Etching Duration on the Adhesive Performance of Printed Polyetheretherketone to Veneering Resin
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13203509 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing polyetheretherketone (PEEK) provides a new choice for dental prostheses, while its appropriate bonding procedure and adhesive performance are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the adhesive performance of printed polyetheretherketone (PEEK) after acid etching to veneering resin. In total, 182 [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing polyetheretherketone (PEEK) provides a new choice for dental prostheses, while its appropriate bonding procedure and adhesive performance are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the adhesive performance of printed polyetheretherketone (PEEK) after acid etching to veneering resin. In total, 182 PEEK specimens (including 91 printed and 91 milled specimens) were distributed to 14 subgroups (n = 13/subgroup), according to the manufacturing process and surface treatment. The specimens were polished and etched with sulfuric acid for 0, 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 300 s, respectively. Two specimens in each subgroup were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for surface and cross-section morphology separately. Then, the specimens were treated with a bonding primer, and one specimen in each subgroup was prepared for cross-sectional observation under SEM. The residual 10 specimens of each subgroup bonded with veneering resin were tested with the shear bond strength tests (SBS) and failure modes analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the SNK-q post hoc test (p < 0.05). The etched pores on the PEEK surface were broadened and deepened under SEM over time. Printed PEEK etched for 30 s obtained the best SBS-to-veneering-resin ratio (27.90 ± 3.48 MPa) among the printed subgroups (p < 0.05) and had no statistical differences compared with milled PEEK etched for 30 s. The SBS of the milled subgroups etched from 5 to 120 s were over 29 MPa without significant between-group statistical differences. Hence, printed PEEK can be coarsened effectively by 30 s of sulfuric acid etching. The adhesion efficacy of printed PEEK to veneering resin was qualified for clinical requirements of polymer-based fixed dentures. Full article
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Article
Comparing the Ability of Various Resin-Based Composites and Techniques to Seal Margins in Class-II Cavities
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13172921 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Background: Resin-based composites (RBCs) provide excellent esthetics but the marginal micro-leakage in the proximal cavities remains a major concern. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of various dental RBCs and techniques utilized for sealing deep dentin margin in [...] Read more.
Background: Resin-based composites (RBCs) provide excellent esthetics but the marginal micro-leakage in the proximal cavities remains a major concern. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of various dental RBCs and techniques utilized for sealing deep dentin margin in class-II cavities. Methods: Box-cavities (class-II) on the distal and mesial surfaces of extracted (premolar) teeth were prepared with a gingival margin placed 1mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction. Teeth with prepared class II cavities were randomly divided into four study groups according to the type of restorative materials (conventional RBC; bulk-fill RBC; conventional RBC lined with flowable RBC and conventional RBC lined with resin-modified glass-ionomer-cement (GIC) as open sandwich-technique). Each group was further subdivided into a total-etch subgroup in which a separate etching step was performed before applying the bonding agent and a self-etch subgroup in which a self-etch adhesive system was used (n = 10). For each group, cavities were restored using the respective restorative materials and techniques, subjected to 1000 thermocycles, and placed in the methylene-blue dye. The specimen teeth were sectioned for further microscopic examination for micro-leakage. Results: The least dye penetration values were reported for group 4 (GIC) followed by the group Bulk-fill using the self-etch adhesive system (group 2b). The highest dye penetration was reported for the group Bulk-fill using the total-etch adhesive system (2a), followed by the group conventional RBC using the total-etch adhesive system). The total-etch adhesive system had significantly greater micro-leakage compared to the self-etch adhesive system (1a) (p = 0.026). Conclusions: The self-etch adhesive system significantly reduced the micro-leakage compared to the total-etch system. Bulk-fill RBC when bonded with the self-etch adhesive provided good marginal sealing ability comparable to open sandwich-technique using GIC. Full article
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Article
The Toxicity of Universal Dental Adhesives: An In Vitro Study
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2653; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13162653 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 847
Abstract
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the potential toxicity of universal dental adhesives (UDA). Being used in close proximity to the pulp, their biocompatibility should be an important factor in dental research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the potential toxicity of universal dental adhesives (UDA). Being used in close proximity to the pulp, their biocompatibility should be an important factor in dental research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of UDA in an in vitro model. The study was performed using a monocyte/macrophage peripheral blood SC cell line (ATCC CRL-9855) on four specific UDA, namely: All-Bond Universal (Bisco); CLEARFIL Universal Bond Quick (Kuraray); G-Premio BOND (GC); Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE). The cytotoxicity of the investigated UDA was measured using the XTT colorimetric assay. The genotoxicity of the analyzed compounds was evaluated using an alkaline version of the comet assay. Furthermore, flow cytometry (FC) apoptosis detection was performed using the FITC Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit I. FC cell-cycle arrest assessment was performed using propidium iodide staining. The study observed significant differences in the toxicity of the UDA that were tested, as G-Premio BOND showed significant in vitro toxicity in all of the tests performed, while All-Bond Universal, CLEARFIL Universal Bond Quick and Single Bond Universal did not present any significant toxic effects toward SC cell line. The in vitro toxicity of UDA should be taken into consideration prior to in vivo and clinical studies. The flow cytometry could improve the accuracy of dental materials research and should be incorporated into the standardization criteria. Full article
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Article
The Amelogenin-Derived Peptide TVH-19 Promotes Dentinal Tubule Occlusion and Mineralization
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2473; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13152473 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
In this study, the amelogenin-derived peptide, TVH-19, which has been confirmed to promote mineralization, was evaluated to derive its potential to induce dentinal tubule occlusion. The binding capability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TVH-19 to the demineralized dentin surface was analyzed by confocal laser [...] Read more.
In this study, the amelogenin-derived peptide, TVH-19, which has been confirmed to promote mineralization, was evaluated to derive its potential to induce dentinal tubule occlusion. The binding capability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TVH-19 to the demineralized dentin surface was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Additionally, the sealing function of the peptide was studied through the remineralization of demineralized dentin in vitro. The adsorption results showed that TVH-19 could bind to the hydroxyapatite and demineralized dentin surfaces, especially to periodontal dentin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis further revealed that TVH-19 created mineral precipitates. The plugging rate in the TVH-19 group was higher than that in the PBS group. Moreover, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results indicated that the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio of the new minerals induced by TVH-19 was close to that of the hydroxyapatite. Attenuated total internal reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the hydroxyapatite crystals formed via remineralization elongated the axial growth and closely resembled the natural dentin components. These findings indicate that TVH-19 can effectively promote dentin sealing by binding to the periodontal dentin, promoting mineral deposition, and reducing the space between the dentin tubules. Full article
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Article
Experimental Dental Composites Containing a Novel Methacrylate-Functionalized Calcium Phosphate Component: Evaluation of Bioactivity and Physical Properties
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2095; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13132095 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 930
Abstract
The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel methacrylate-functionalized calcium phosphate (MCP) to be used as a bioactive compound for innovative dental composites. The characterization was accomplished by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel methacrylate-functionalized calcium phosphate (MCP) to be used as a bioactive compound for innovative dental composites. The characterization was accomplished by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The incorporation of MCP as a bioactive filler in esthetic dental composite formulations and the ability of MCP containing dental composites to promote the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surfaces of those dental composites was explored. The translucency parameter, depth of cure, degree of conversion, ion release profile, and other physical properties of the composites were studied with respect to the amount of MCP added to the composites. Composite with 3 wt.% MCP showed the highest flexural strength and translucency compared to the control composite and composites with 6 wt.% and 20 wt.% MCP. The progress of the surface precipitation of hydroxyapatite on the MCP containing dental composites was studied by systematically increasing the MCP content in the composite and the time of specimen storage in Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered solution with calcium and magnesium. The results suggested that good bioactivity properties are exhibited by MCP containing composites. A direct correlation between the percentage of MCP in a composite formulation, the amount of time the specimen was stored in PBS, and the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the composite’s surface was observed. Full article
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Article
Adhesive Resins with High Shelf-Life Stability Based on Tetra Unsaturated Monomers with Tertiary Amines Moieties
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 1944; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13121944 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
This work reports the use of two monomers with two tertiary amines and four methacrylic (TTME) or acrylic (TTAC) terminal groups as co-initiators in the formulation of experimental resin adhesive systems. Both monomers were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The [...] Read more.
This work reports the use of two monomers with two tertiary amines and four methacrylic (TTME) or acrylic (TTAC) terminal groups as co-initiators in the formulation of experimental resin adhesive systems. Both monomers were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The control adhesive was formulated with BisGMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and the binary system CQ-EDAB as a photo-initiator system. For the experimental adhesives, the EDAB was completely replaced for the TTME or the TTAC monomers. The adhesives formulated with TTME or TTAC monomers achieved double bond conversion values close to 75%. Regarding the polymerization rate, materials formulated with TTME or TTAC achieved lower values than the material formulated with EDAB, giving them high shelf-life stability. The degree of conversion after shelf simulation was only reduced for the EDAB material. Ultimate tensile strength, translucency parameter, and micro-tensile bond strength to dentin were similar for control and experimental adhesive resins. Due to their characteristics, TTME and TTAC monomers are potentially useful in the formulation of photopolymerizable resins for dental use with high shelf-life stability. Full article
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Article
One-Year Clinical Performance of the Fast-Modelling Bulk Technique and Composite-Up Layering Technique in Class I Cavities
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1873; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13111873 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the one year clinical performance of a new application method, the Fast-Modelling Bulk Technique (FMBT), in comparison to the Composite-Up Layering Technique (CULT) in posterior cavities. Thirty patients with two class I cavities on permanent [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the one year clinical performance of a new application method, the Fast-Modelling Bulk Technique (FMBT), in comparison to the Composite-Up Layering Technique (CULT) in posterior cavities. Thirty patients with two class I cavities on permanent human molars were enrolled in the present study. A total of sixty class I cavities were prepared and randomly divided according to the restoration technique used: 30 cavities restored by incremental layering technique and modelling of the last layer with Composite-Up Technique (CUT) using the composite Filtek Z250XT (3M ESPE; St. Paul, MN, USA) and the other 30 restored by Bulk Filling technique and modelling of the last layer by Fast-Modelling Technique (FMT) using the composite Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative (3M ESPE; St. Paul, MN, USA). Restorations were evaluated for up to one year by two observers according to Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) criteria, through clinical and radiological exams. Exact Fisher tests were used for statistical analysis. (p ≤ 0.05). From a biological perspective, at baseline, teeth restored with both techniques did not reveal any postoperative sensitivity. However, with time, FMBT showed less postoperative sensitivity and therefore more desirable results than CULT with a nonsignificant difference after one year (p > 0.05). Concerning secondary caries, fracture of the material, and marginal adaptation, no significant difference was noted between both techniques (p > 0.05). Regarding marginal staining, CULT resulted in more staining with a significant difference, as compared to FMBT (p < 0.05). Upon radiological examination, FMBT showed a good marginal fit during the first year, whereas CULT showed small empty voids from baseline with a nonsignificant difference (p = 1.00). After one year of clinical function, both techniques showed promising results. The present study indicates that the new FMBT could have a positive effect on the marginal staining of resin composite. Full article
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Article
Antibacterial and Bonding Properties of Universal Adhesive Dental Polymers Doped with Pyrogallol
Polymers 2021, 13(10), 1538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13101538 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
This study investigated the antibacterial activity, bond strength to dentin (SBS), and ultra-morphology of the polymer–dentin interface of experimental adhesive systems doped with pyrogallol (PY), which is a ubiquitous phenolic moiety that is present in flavonoids and polyphenols. A universal adhesive containing 4-META [...] Read more.
This study investigated the antibacterial activity, bond strength to dentin (SBS), and ultra-morphology of the polymer–dentin interface of experimental adhesive systems doped with pyrogallol (PY), which is a ubiquitous phenolic moiety that is present in flavonoids and polyphenols. A universal adhesive containing 4-META and 10-MDP was used in this study. PY behaves as an antioxidant and anti-cancerogenic agent and it was incorporated into the adhesive at different concentrations (0.5 and 1 wt.%). The antibacterial activity and SBS were analyzed and the results were statistically analyzed. The ultra-morphology of the polymer–dentin interface was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At 24 h, a lower antibacterial activity was observed for the control adhesive compared to those with 0.5% and 1% PY. No difference was seen in SBS between the three groups at 24 h. After 6 months, the SBS of the 0.5% PY adhesive was significantly lower than the other tested adhesives. The specimens created with 1% PY adhesive presented a higher bond strength at six months compared with that found at 24 h. No morphological differences were found at the polymer–dentin interfaces of the tested adhesives. Pyrogallol may be incorporated into modern universal adhesive systems to preserve the polymer–dentin bonding interface and confer a certain degree of antibacterial activity. Full article
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Review

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Review
Shelf Life and Storage Conditions of Universal Adhesives: A Literature Review
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2708; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/polym13162708 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
This paper presents state of the art universal adhesive systems and the effect of shelf-life and storage conditions on their bond performance. Three topics are explored in this review: an introduction to the topic, the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of the hybrid [...] Read more.
This paper presents state of the art universal adhesive systems and the effect of shelf-life and storage conditions on their bond performance. Three topics are explored in this review: an introduction to the topic, the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of the hybrid layer, and the factors that play a role in the stability of universal adhesives. In addition, issues such as potential durability and clinical importance are discussed. Universal adhesive systems are promising but must be handled and stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions, with careful attention given to the details of shelf-life and storage conditions for maximal success. It appears that the components of universal adhesives play an important role in their stability. Furthermore, HEMA-free formulations using methacrylamides lead to longer shelf-life. Further research is needed to prove these hypotheses. Full article
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