Special Issue "Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Goshtasp Cheraghian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: nanofluids; nanoparticles-synthesis and applications; nanoclay; enhanced oil recovery methods; polymer nanocomposites; asphalt materials recycling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both nanofluids and nanocomposites are popular research fields that have attracted huge research interest in recent years. This is mainly due to their great potential for applications in many important fields, ranging from energy and electronics to biomedical science. Nanofluids have been extensively used in a wide variety of engineering applications. For heat transfer processes, this has been primarily driven by the potential of developing fluids with significantly increased conductive and convective heat transfer properties. Boiling phenomena and the absorption and conversion of radiation are a couple of examples of the possible utilization of nanofluids. Other non-heat transfer applications that have considered the use of nanofluids include emerging synthesis techniques, mass transport, optics, consumer goods, electronics, and surfaces and catalysts. On the other hand, nanocomposites have been at the forefront of research for the past few decades due to their multifunctionality and the unique opportunities they offer for utilization in a number of applications. More recent applications include high-performance automotive and aerospace components, advanced energy storage, electronic devices, gas/liquid barriers, sensors, and consumer goods. It is known that the current technological trend toward technology being smaller and faster raises many technical challenges. For instance, small and high-performance devices also generate very high power (heat) densities, and conventional cooling techniques are increasingly falling short of meeting these high and fast cooling needs. Here, nanofluids and nanocomposites can play a major role in overcoming the challenges (e.g., cooling) of high-tech small devices and systems.  Furthermore, in the future, for many other fields (e.g., drug delivery in biomedical science) facing numerous other technological challenges, nanomaterials, nanofluids, or nanocomposites could be game-changers.

This Special Issue will focus on nanocomposites and nanofluids. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Nanofluids;
  • Polymer composites;
  • Thermophysical properties;
  • Hybrid nanocomposites;
  • Rheological properties;
  • Fiber-reinforced composites;
  • Nanocomposites;
  • Chemical design stability;
  • Industrial applications for nanoparticles.

Dr. Goshtasp Cheraghian
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Study on the Effect of Hole Size of Trombe Wall in the Presence of Phase Change Material for Different Times of a Day in Winter and Summer
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1886; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9111886 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 162
Abstract
In this article, a numerical study is performed on a Trobme wall in a tropical city for two seasons, summer and winter. A 1×1.5 m Trobme wall with a thickness of 15 cm is designed and analyzed. A 1-inch-diameter tube [...] Read more.
In this article, a numerical study is performed on a Trobme wall in a tropical city for two seasons, summer and winter. A 1×1.5 m Trobme wall with a thickness of 15 cm is designed and analyzed. A 1-inch-diameter tube filled with PCM is used to enhance efficiency. The wall is analyzed at different times of the day for the two cold and hot seasons for different sizes of wall holes in the range of 70 to 17.5 cm when the wall height is 20 cm. A fluid simulation software is employed for the simulations. The problem variables include different hours of the day in the two cold and hot seasons, the presence or absence of PCM, as well as the size of the wall hole. The results of this simulation demonstrate that the maximum outlet temperature of the Trobme wall occurs at 2 P.M. Using PCM on the wall can allow the wall to operate for longer hours in the afternoon. However, the use of PCM reduces the outlet wall temperature in the morning. The smaller the size of the wall hole, the more air can be expelled from the wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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Article
Numerical Study of Natural Convection of Biological Nanofluid Flow Prepared from Tea Leaves under the Effect of Magnetic Field
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1824; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9101824 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 208
Abstract
The heat transfer of a biological nanofluid (N/F) in a rectangular cavity with two hot triangular blades is examined in this work. The properties used for nanoparticles (N/Ps) are derived from a N/P prepared naturally from tea [...] Read more.
The heat transfer of a biological nanofluid (N/F) in a rectangular cavity with two hot triangular blades is examined in this work. The properties used for nanoparticles (N/Ps) are derived from a N/P prepared naturally from tea leaves. Silver N/Ps are distributed in a 50–50 water/ethylene glycol solution. The cavity’s bottom wall is extremely hot, while the upper wall is extremely cold. The side walls are insulated, and the enclosure is surrounded by a horizontal magnetic field (M/F). The equations are solved using the control volume technique and the SIMPLE algorithm. Finally, the Nu is determined by changing the dimensions of the blade, the Rayleigh number (Ra), and the Hartmann number (Ha). Finally, a correlation is expressed for the Nu in the range of parameter changes. The results demonstrate that an increment in the Ra from 103 to 105 enhances the Nu more than 2.5 times in the absence of an M/F. An enhancement in the strength of the M/F, especially at the Ra of 105, leads to a dramatic reduction in the Nu. An increase in the height of the triangular blade intensifies the amount of Nu in weak and strong convection. The enlargement of the base of the triangular blade first enhances and then decreases as the Nu. The addition of 5% silver biological N/Ps to the fluid enhances the Nu by 13.7% in the absence of an M/F for high Ras. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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Article
Effect of Straight, Inclined and Curved Fins on Natural Convection and Entropy Generation of a Nanofluid in a Square Cavity Influenced by a Magnetic Field
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081339 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
In this paper, the free convective heat transfer of nanofluids in a square cavity is simulated using a numerical method. The angle of the cavity could be changed in the horizontal axis from 0 to 90 degrees. The cavity is exposed under a [...] Read more.
In this paper, the free convective heat transfer of nanofluids in a square cavity is simulated using a numerical method. The angle of the cavity could be changed in the horizontal axis from 0 to 90 degrees. The cavity is exposed under a constant magnetic field. Two opposite walls of the cavity are cold and warm, and the rest of the walls are insulated. On the hot wall, there are two fins with the same wall temperature. The equations were discretized by the finite volume method (FVM) and then solved using the SIMPLE algorithm. Three different fin configurations (straight, inclined and curved) were studied in terms of heat transfer rate and generation of entropy. According to the simulation results, the heat transfer rate was improved by tilting the fins toward the top or bottom of the cavity. At Ra = 105 and Ha = 20, the maximum heat transfer rate was achieved at a cavity inclination of 90° and 45°, respectively, for straight and curved fins. In the horizontal cavity, heat transfer rate could be improved up to 6.4% by tilting the fins and up to 4.9% by warping them. Increasing the Hartmann number from 0 to 40 reduced the Nusselt number and entropy generation by 37.9% and 33.8%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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Article
Application of Cylindrical Fin to Improve Heat Transfer Rate in Micro Heat Exchangers Containing Nanofluid under Magnetic Field
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081278 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
In this study, the convective mode heat transfer phenomena of bi-phase elasticoviscous (non-Newtonian) nanofluid is quantified by forcefully flowing it through a specially designed microchannel test section. The test section, which is rectangularly cross-sectioned and annexed internally with cylindrical needle ribs is numerically [...] Read more.
In this study, the convective mode heat transfer phenomena of bi-phase elasticoviscous (non-Newtonian) nanofluid is quantified by forcefully flowing it through a specially designed microchannel test section. The test section, which is rectangularly cross-sectioned and annexed internally with cylindrical needle ribs is numerically investigated by considering the walls to be maintained at a constant temperature, and to be susceptible to a magnetizing force field. The governing system-state equations are numerically deciphered using control volume procedure and SIMPLEC algorithm. With the Reynolds number (Re) varying in the turbulent range from 3000 to 11,000, the system-state equations are solved using the Eulerian–Eulerian monofluid Two-Phase Model (TPM). For the purpose of achieving an apt geometry based on the best thermo-hydraulic behavior, an optimization study must be mandatory. The geometry of the cylindrical rib consists of h (10 × 10−3, 15 × 10−3, 20 × 10−3), p (1.0, 1.5), and d (8 × 10−3, 10 × 10−3, 12 × 10−3), which, respectively, defines the height, pitch, and diameter of the obstacles, with the dimensions placed within the braces being quantified in mm. The results demonstrated that the magnetic field leads to an enhanced amount of average Nusselt number (Nuav) in contrast with the occurrence at B = 0.0. This is due to the that the magnetic field pushes nanoparticles towards the bottom wall. It was found that B = 0.5 T has the maximum heat transfer compared with the other magnetic fields. The channel with h = 15 μm height leads to the maximum value of Nuav at all studied Re for constant values of d and h. The channel with p = 1.5 μm results in the maximum value of Nuav at all studied Re for constant values of d and h. The microchannel with d = 8 μm, p = 1.5 μm, and h = 15 μm in the presence of the magnetic field with B = 0.5 T is the best geometry in the present work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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Article
Natural Convection and Entropy Generation of MgO/Water Nanofluids in the Enclosure under a Magnetic Field and Radiation Effects
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081277 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The authors of the present paper sought to conduct a numerical study on the convection heat transfer, along with the radiation and entropy generation (EGE) of a nanofluids (NFs) in a two and three-dimensional square enclosure, by using the FVM. The enclosure contained [...] Read more.
The authors of the present paper sought to conduct a numerical study on the convection heat transfer, along with the radiation and entropy generation (EGE) of a nanofluids (NFs) in a two and three-dimensional square enclosure, by using the FVM. The enclosure contained a high-temperature blade in the form of a vertical elliptical quadrant in the lower corner of the enclosure. The right edge of the enclosure was kept at low temperature, while the other edges were insulated. The enclosure was subjected to a magnetic field (MGF) and could be adjusted to different angles. In this research, two laboratory relationships dependent on temperature and volume fraction were used to simulate thermal conductivity and viscosity. The variables of this problem were Ra, Ha, RAP, nanoparticle (NP) volume fraction, blade aspect ratio, enclosure angles, and MGF. Evaluating the effects of these variables on heat transfer rate (HTR), EGE, and Be revealed that increasing the Ra and reducing the Ha could increase the HTR and EGE. On the other hand, adding radiation HTR to the enclosure increased the overall HTR. Moreover, an augmentation of the volume fraction of magnesium oxide NPs led to an increased amount of HTR and EGE. Furthermore, any changes to the MGF and the enclosure angle imposed various effects on the HTR. The results indicated that an augmentation of the size of the blade increased and then decreased the HTR and the generated entropy. Finally, increasing the blade always increased the Be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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Article
Effects of Different Wall Shapes on Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristics of Different Channels Filled with Water Based Graphite-SiO2 Hybrid Nanofluid
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1253; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071253 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
In the current numerical study, various wall shape effects are investigated on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of different channels filled with water-based graphite-SiO2 hybrid nanofluid. In this work, the performance evaluation criteria (PEC) index is employed as the target parameter to attain optimum [...] Read more.
In the current numerical study, various wall shape effects are investigated on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of different channels filled with water-based graphite-SiO2 hybrid nanofluid. In this work, the performance evaluation criteria (PEC) index is employed as the target parameter to attain optimum geometry. Six different cases are studied in this research, and each case has different geometrical dimensions. The inlet temperature for the fluids in the channel is 300 K, over a range of different flow velocities. According to the obtained results, an increase in the volume fraction of nanoparticles results in higher PEC values. In addition, an increase in Reynolds number to Re = leads to an increase in the PEC index. The results clearly show that increasing the Reynolds number has two consequences: on the one hand, it increases the pressure drop penalty; on the other hand, it improves heat transfer. Therefore, the maximum value of the PEC index occurs at Re = 15,000. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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Article
Effect of Aminosilane Coupling Agent-Modified Nano-SiO2 Particles on Thermodynamic Properties of Epoxy Resin Composites
Processes 2021, 9(5), 771; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9050771 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
From the perspective of improving the thermodynamic properties of epoxy resin, it has become the focus of research to enhance the operational stability of GIS (Gas Insulated Substation) basin insulators for UHV (Ultra-High Voltage) equipment. In this paper, three aminosilane coupling agents with [...] Read more.
From the perspective of improving the thermodynamic properties of epoxy resin, it has become the focus of research to enhance the operational stability of GIS (Gas Insulated Substation) basin insulators for UHV (Ultra-High Voltage) equipment. In this paper, three aminosilane coupling agents with different chain lengths, (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (KH550), Aminoethyl)-γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (KH792) and 3-[2-(2-Aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (TAPS), were used to modify nano-SiO2 and doped into epoxy resin, respectively, using a combination of experimental and molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental results showed that the surface-grafted KH792 model of nano-SiO2 exhibited the most significant improvement in thermal properties compared with the undoped nanoparticle model. The storage modulus increased by 276 MPa and the Tg increased by 61 K. The simulation results also showed that the mechanical properties of the nano-SiO2 surface-grafted KH792 model were about 3 times higher than that of the undoped nanoparticle model, the Tg increased by 36.5 K, and the thermal conductivity increased by 24.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Nanocomposites and Nanofluids)
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