Special Issue "Progress in Food Processing"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Dziki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 31 Głęboka St., 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: food processing; milling; grinding; drying; baking; extrusion; bioactive compounds of food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Progress in food processing enables the food industry to create products with special characteristics and increases the availability of various forms of food products. Many scientists are focusing on the development of new functional products with health promoting properties. The broad spectrum of products needed for meeting consumer requirements and the increasing world population necessitates the introduction of new technologies with improved energy efficiency, water savings, and the use food industry by-products.

This Special Issue is focused on all aspects of progress in food processing and especially gathers experimental, theoretical, and computational research on new processes development or processes improvement in this field. Chemical and biochemical reaction processes, mass transfer, grinding, separation and purification processes, nanotechnology in food processes, heat transfer systems, mixing and fluid processes, integrated process design and scale-up, process modelling, simulation, optimization, and control are all topics that may be included in this Issue. Review papers concerning advances in food processing are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Dziki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging technologies
  • minimal food processing
  • sustainable food processing
  • food quality
  • energy and water saving
  • waste reduction
  • use of food by-products

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Article
Vis-NIR Hyperspectral Imaging for Online Quality Evaluation during Food Processing: A Case Study of Hot Air Drying of Purple-Speckled Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott)
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1804; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9101804 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
In this study, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and chemometrics were implemented to develop prediction models for moisture, colour, chemical and structural attributes of purple-speckled cocoyam slices subjected to hot-air drying. Since HSI systems are costly and computationally demanding, the selection of a narrow band [...] Read more.
In this study, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and chemometrics were implemented to develop prediction models for moisture, colour, chemical and structural attributes of purple-speckled cocoyam slices subjected to hot-air drying. Since HSI systems are costly and computationally demanding, the selection of a narrow band of wavelengths can enable the utilisation of simpler multispectral systems. In this study, 19 optimal wavelengths in the spectral range 400–1700 nm were selected using PLS-BETA and PLS-VIP feature selection methods. Prediction models for the studied quality attributes were developed from the 19 wavelengths. Excellent prediction performance (RMSEP < 2.0, r2P > 0.90, RPDP > 3.5) was obtained for MC, RR, VS and aw. Good prediction performance (RMSEP < 8.0, r2P = 0.70–0.90, RPDP > 2.0) was obtained for PC, BI, CIELAB b*, chroma, TFC, TAA and hue angle. Additionally, PPA and WI were also predicted successfully. An assessment of the agreement between predictions from the non-invasive hyperspectral imaging technique and experimental results from the routine laboratory methods established the potential of the HSI technique to replace or be used interchangeably with laboratory measurements. Additionally, a comparison of full-spectrum model results and the reduced models demonstrated the potential replacement of HSI with simpler imaging systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Application of a MOGA Algorithm and ANN in the Optimization of Apple Drying and Rehydration Processes
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081415 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 414
Abstract
The aim of the study was to estimate the optimal parameters of apple drying and the rehydration temperature of the obtained dried apple. Conducting both processes under such conditions is aimed at restoring the rehydrated apple to the raw material properties. The obtained [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to estimate the optimal parameters of apple drying and the rehydration temperature of the obtained dried apple. Conducting both processes under such conditions is aimed at restoring the rehydrated apple to the raw material properties. The obtained drying parameters allow the drying process to be carried out in a short drying time (DT) and at low energy consumption (EC). The effect of air velocity (vd), drying temperature (Td), characteristic dimension (CD), and rehydration temperature (Tr) on rehydrated apple quality was studied. Quality parameters of the rehydrated apple as: color change (CC), mass gain ratio (MG), solid loss ratio (SL), volume gain ratio (VG) together with DT and EC were taken into consideration. The artificial neural network was used for modeling of rehydrated apple quality parameters, DT, and EC. A multi-objective genetic algorithm was developed in order to optimize parameters of the drying and rehydration processes. The simultaneous minimization of CC, SL, DT, EC, and the maximization of MG and VG were considered with the following drying and rehydration processes parameters: Td: 50–70 °C, vd: 0.01–2 m/s, Tr: 20–70 °C. The best solution has been found at drying temperature 56.1 °C, air velocity 1.3 m/s, characteristic dimension 2.0 mm, and rehydration temperature 59.2 °C. This apple drying and rehydration resulted in MG = 3.51, SL = 0.57, VG = 4.77, CC = 11.2, DT = 5.4 h, EC = 159.8 GJ/kg. The parameters of apple drying and rehydration processes can be recommended for the industry application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Impact of Various Vacuum Impregnation Methods on Viability of Cereal Grains
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081368 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Grain viability is of key importance in the production of malt. This paper presents the results of research on the influence of vacuum impregnation of grains of various cereals on theirservice life. One malting barley cultivar, two wheat cultivars, and a rye cultivar [...] Read more.
Grain viability is of key importance in the production of malt. This paper presents the results of research on the influence of vacuum impregnation of grains of various cereals on theirservice life. One malting barley cultivar, two wheat cultivars, and a rye cultivar mix were tested. The grain was subjected to wet vacuum impregnation and wet vacuum impregnation carried out cyclically under the pressure of 5 kPa. Then, samples of the impregnated grain were sown and its germination capacity was tested every 24 h to 120 h. The control sample was grain soaked under atmospheric pressure. Vacuum impregnation did not cause any significant changes in the germination capacity of the examined cereal varieties. The vacuum-impregnated grain displayed a higher initial water content and germinated faster. It was found that the impregnation did not disturb the internal structure of the grain, indicated by the fact that the most delicate part of the grain, i.e., the embryo, retained its vital functions in every examined case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Application of Deep, Vacuum, and Air Frying Methods to Fry Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071225 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
Frying is an old method of processing food, especially fish. Mackerel is one of the most consumed fish worldwide because of its high nutritional value. Previously, only a study on the effects of deep frying of fried mackerel has been performed. However, no [...] Read more.
Frying is an old method of processing food, especially fish. Mackerel is one of the most consumed fish worldwide because of its high nutritional value. Previously, only a study on the effects of deep frying of fried mackerel has been performed. However, no study has been conducted on the effects of different frying methods on the physiochemical and nutritional properties of chub mackerel. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the physiochemical and nutritional characteristics of deep fried, vacuum fried, and air fried chub mackerel. Thawing methods were compared and the best method was selected. High frequency defrosting (HFD) was used to thaw frozen fillet mackerel before frying. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the temperature and frying time of the three frying methods. The physiochemical and nutritional characteristics, including volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, overall acceptance, proximate, fatty acid, and amino acids of fried mackerel were investigated. The HFD exhibited the lowest number of drips with a short thawing time. The RSM showed that the optimum temperature and frying time for deep, vacuum, and air frying were 165 °C for 3 min, 95 °C for 7 min, and 160 °C for 15 min, respectively. Vacuum frying showed the lowest increase in VBN, TBARS, and pH, and significantly (p < 0.05) differed from the others. It also resulted in increased amino acid and preserved fatty acid content. These findings suggest that vacuum frying is the best frying method which has little oxidation and can maintain nutrition. The results of this study could be applied in the fisheries industry to produce the best fried mackerel and preserve its high nutritive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Improvement for Oxidative Stability and Sensory Properties of Sunflower Oil Flavored by Huai Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. Essential Oil during Accelerated Storage
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071199 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Flavored oils, as one of the most important condiments in cuisine, are widely used in vegetable oils all over the world. The oxidative stability and sensory qualities of sunflower oil, flavored by essential oil obtained from Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. (HCEO) extraction, were [...] Read more.
Flavored oils, as one of the most important condiments in cuisine, are widely used in vegetable oils all over the world. The oxidative stability and sensory qualities of sunflower oil, flavored by essential oil obtained from Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. (HCEO) extraction, were studied. After the accelerated storage at 65 °C for 30 days, HCEO (1600 mg/kg) was able to markedly inhibit the increase in some important indicators of lipid alteration, among which acidity, peroxide, ρ-anisidine and total oxidation values, together with other parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and trienes). Finally, it was observed that the sunflower oil flavored by HCEO (1600 mg/kg) restrain the modifications of fatty acid compositions and showed improved sensory properties in respect to non-added oil. Consequently, HCEO can be considered a valid additive for flavored vegetable oils with antioxidant effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Development of a Multihole Atmospheric Plasma Jet for Growth Rate Enhancement of Broccoli Seeds
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071134 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
This work aims to develop a multihole atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) device to increase the plasma area and apply it to a continuous seed treatment system. Broccoli seed was used to study the effects of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet on seed [...] Read more.
This work aims to develop a multihole atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) device to increase the plasma area and apply it to a continuous seed treatment system. Broccoli seed was used to study the effects of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet on seed germination and growth rate. An argon flow rate of 4.2 lpm, a plasma power of 412 W, and discharge frequency of 76 kHz were used for seed treatment. The contact angle decreased strongly with the increase in treatment time from 20 s to 80 s. The broccoli seed’s outer surface morphology seemed to have been slightly modified to a smoother surface by the plasma treatment during the treatment time of 80 s. However, the cross-sectional images resulted from Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) confirmed no significant difference between seeds untreated and treated by plasma for 80 s. This result indicates that plasma does not affect the bulk characteristics of the seed but does provide delicate changes to the top thin layer on the seed surface. After seven days of cultivation, the seed treated by plasma for 30 s achieved the highest germination and yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Analysis of the Physical Properties of Seeds of Selected Viburnum Species for the Needs of Seed Sorting Operations
Processes 2021, 9(4), 711; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040711 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Viburnum is a genus of colorful and ornamental plants popular in landscape design on account of their high esthetic appeal. The physical properties of viburnum seeds have not been investigated in the literature to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Viburnum is a genus of colorful and ornamental plants popular in landscape design on account of their high esthetic appeal. The physical properties of viburnum seeds have not been investigated in the literature to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the seeds of selected Viburnum species and to search for potential relationships between their physical attributes for the needs of seed sorting operations. The basic physical parameters of the seeds of six Viburnum species were measured, and the relationships between these attributes were determined in correlation and regression analyses. The average values of the evaluated parameters were determined in the following range: terminal velocity—from 5.6 to 7.9 m s−1, thickness—from 1.39 to 1.87 mm, width—from 3.59 to 6.33 mm, length—from 5.58 to 7.44 mm, angle of external friction—from 36.7 to 43.8°, mass—from 16.7 to 35.0 mg. The seeds of V. dasyanthum, V. lentago and V. sargentii should be sorted in air separators, and the seeds of V. lantana and V. opulus should be processed with the use of mesh screens with round apertures to obtain uniform size fractions. The seeds of V. rhytodophyllum cannot be effectively sorted into batches with uniform seed mass, but they can be separated into groups with similar dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Gluten-Free Rice Instant Pasta: Effect of Extrusion-Cooking Parameters on Selected Quality Attributes and Microstructure
Processes 2021, 9(4), 693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040693 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
In the present study, we applied extrusion-cooking to polished rice flour so as to prepare gluten-free pasta. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of feed moisture (28, 30 and 32%) and screw speed (60, 80 and 100 rpm) on [...] Read more.
In the present study, we applied extrusion-cooking to polished rice flour so as to prepare gluten-free pasta. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of feed moisture (28, 30 and 32%) and screw speed (60, 80 and 100 rpm) on selected rice pasta quality attributes (water absorption, cooking loss, firmness, stickiness and microstructure) and extrusion response (specific mechanical energy). Our results showed that feed moisture significantly affected all tested quality attributes of the rice pasta, while screw speed exhibited a significant effect on all quality attributes except cooking time and stickiness. Moreover, raising the feed moisture increased the cooking time, water absorption, cooking loss, hardness and stickiness, but decreased the firmness at high screw speed. In addition, increasing the screw speed enhanced the cooking loss and hardness, but diminished the water absorption and firmness of pasta with low feed moisture. Rice pasta prepared with 30% moisture content and at 80 rpm showed adequate quality, as confirmed by a firm texture and low cooking loss and stickiness. Microstructure analysis showed a compact and dense internal structure of the dry pasta, and the surface was smooth and even when at least 30% moisture was applied at 80 rpm screw speed during processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Communication
Is the Household Microwave Recommended to Obtain Antioxidant-Rich Extracts from Lycium barbarum Leaves?
Processes 2021, 9(4), 656; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040656 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Nowadays, much interest is devoted to the extraction of plant materials, considering also their waste and by-products, to obtain antioxidant-rich products. The effect of household microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Lycium barbarum leaf extracts was investigated. An [...] Read more.
Nowadays, much interest is devoted to the extraction of plant materials, considering also their waste and by-products, to obtain antioxidant-rich products. The effect of household microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Lycium barbarum leaf extracts was investigated. An experimental design approach was adopted considering solid/liquid ratio (1, 3, and 5 g of leaves in 150 mL water), irradiation time (1, 3, and 5 min), and microwave power (300, 400, and 500 W) as independent variables. These three factors and their interactions were studied to evaluate the effect of MAE conditions on the responses of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and chlorogenic acid content. The results showed that the analytical parameters were positively influenced by the solid/liquid ratio and time. On the contrary, microwave power was inversely correlated with the investigated responses. This research revealed that microwave extraction conditions should be carefully monitored to obtain bioactive-rich aqueous extracts with high antioxidant activity. A comparison with household traditional methods showed an unexpected lower phenolic content and antioxidant activity for MAE extract in respect to the decoction and infusion. In fact, it was found that L. barbarum leaf infusion had the best functional properties, regarding the investigated characteristics. The outcome of this study has implications for raising awareness that household preparation conditions strongly affect the health properties of herbal extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Blending of Sunflower Oil with Pomegranate Seed Oil from Blanched Seeds: Impact on Functionality, Oxidative Stability, and Antioxidant Properties
Processes 2021, 9(4), 635; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040635 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Seed oil blending is a novel approach that may enhance the oil antioxidant capacity. The study evaluated the effect of blending sunflower oil (SO) with pomegranate seed oil (BPSO) from blanched seeds (95 °C/ 3 min) on oxidative stability and antioxidant properties of [...] Read more.
Seed oil blending is a novel approach that may enhance the oil antioxidant capacity. The study evaluated the effect of blending sunflower oil (SO) with pomegranate seed oil (BPSO) from blanched seeds (95 °C/ 3 min) on oxidative stability and antioxidant properties of the oil blends. SO and pomegranate seed oil from unblanched seeds (PSO) were used as controls. Blending SO with BPSO and PSO was assessed in the following respective proportions: 90:10, 85:15, and 80:20 (w/w) with respect to total phenolic content, total carotenoids content, tocopherols content, and fatty acid composition to establish the best blending ratio. An accelerated storage test was conducted using the best blending ratio (85:15) at 60 ± 2 °C for 20 days. The evolution of peroxide value, ρ-anisidine value and, total oxidation value, together with the depletion of the oils’ 2.2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and radicals scavenging capacity were evaluated. Volatile oxidation compounds (VOCs) were assessed at the end of the accelerated storage test. Blended oils exhibited better oxidative stability than SO. Nevertheless, the oxidative stability of SO:PSO and SO:BPSO blends did not significantly vary. Additionally, blended oils showed a lower rate of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity depletion than SO, although this did not significantly vary between the oil blends. The concentration of VOCs was significantly higher in SO than blended oils. No significant difference in the content of VOCs was observed between SO:PSO and SO:BPSO blends. The findings of this study are valuable to the food industry, which is presently interested in nonconventional oils and functional foods to improve health and human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Centrifugal Filter-Assisted Block Freeze Crystallization Applied to Blueberry Juice
Processes 2021, 9(3), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9030421 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 470
Abstract
The impact of centrifugal-filter assisted block freeze crystallization (CFBFC) on the physicochemical parameters, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AA) and process parameters applied to blueberry juice was studied. Additionally, CFBFC was contrasted with [...] Read more.
The impact of centrifugal-filter assisted block freeze crystallization (CFBFC) on the physicochemical parameters, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AA) and process parameters applied to blueberry juice was studied. Additionally, CFBFC was contrasted with gravitational BFC (GBFC) and centrifugal BFC (CBFC) techniques. For CFBFC process, the solutes values were ≈35.9 °Brix (fresh juice ≈13.8 °Brix), with a very dark red/purple color. Moreover, the bioactive components values presented a significant increase of 2.1, 2.0, 1.8, and 3.1 times compared to the initial TPC, TAC, TFC, and AA values, respectively, and these values were higher than GBFC and CBFC techniques. For efficiency, percentage of concentrate, and solute yield, CFBFC showed values close to 86%, 81%, and 0.9 (kg/kg), respectively, which were higher values than GBFC (48%, 38%, and 0.5 (kg/kg)) and CBFC (79%, 68%, and 0.7 (kg/kg)). Therefore, this research offers new benefits with the addition of the filter in the centrifugal BFC, and thus, CFBFC offers an advantage due to the better separation than GBFC and CBFC, since the filter can be designated as a second separation stage, and only one cycle is necessary to obtain high quality properties in the final solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Wheat Grinding Process with Low Moisture Content: A New Approach for Wholemeal Flour Production
Processes 2021, 9(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9010032 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the grinding characteristics of wheat with a low moisture content. Two kinds of wheat—soft spelt wheat and hard Khorasan wheat—were dried at 45 °C to reduce the moisture content from 12% to 5% (wet basis). [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the grinding characteristics of wheat with a low moisture content. Two kinds of wheat—soft spelt wheat and hard Khorasan wheat—were dried at 45 °C to reduce the moisture content from 12% to 5% (wet basis). Air drying at 45 °C and storage in a climatic chamber (45 °C, 10% relative humidity) were the methods used for grain dehydration. The grinding process was carried out using a knife mill. After grinding, the particle size distribution, average particle size and grinding energy indices were determined. In addition, the dough mixing properties of wholemeal flour dough were studied using a farinograph. It was observed that decreasing the moisture content in wheat grains from 12% to 5% made the grinding process more effective. As a result, the average particle size of the ground material was decreased. This effect was found in both soft and hard wheat. Importantly, lowering the grain moisture led to about a twofold decrease in the required grinding energy. Moreover, the flour obtained from the dried grains showed higher water absorption and higher dough stability during mixing. However, the method of grain dehydration had little or no effect on the results of the grinding process or dough properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Apple Juices
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1457; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111457 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The paper presents the comparison of quality of six different commercial apple juices produced in Poland. The apple juices came from two different Polish companies. From each manufacturer three various juices were selected: two cloudy and clarified one produced as a mixture of [...] Read more.
The paper presents the comparison of quality of six different commercial apple juices produced in Poland. The apple juices came from two different Polish companies. From each manufacturer three various juices were selected: two cloudy and clarified one produced as a mixture of different apple varieties. The following properties were evaluated: density, soluble solid content, viscosity, total phenolic contents, phenolic acid, and antiradical activity. The obtained results showed that three from fourth cloudy juices (M1Sz, M1A and M2A) differed from clarified juices. The highest differences were noticed for total phenolic contents, phenolic acids, antiradical activity and viscosity. The values of these properties ranged between 60.72–103.6 mg GAE·100−1 mL−1 for phenolic contents, 78.3–90.9% for antiradical activity and 2.68–5.79 mPa·s for viscosity. The remaining cloudy juice (M2Sz) was more similar to the clarified ones. The strong correlation between total phenolic content and antiradical activity of apple juices was found. The high correlation coefficient obtained between these features indicates that both producers do not apply excessive amounts of vitamin C during the production of cloudy apple juices. There was also a strong interrelation between the density of juice and solid soluble content. However, no correlation was found between the solid soluble content and the viscosity of the tested juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Phenolic Acids from Lycium barbarum Leaves: In Vitro and In Silico Studies of the Inhibitory Activity against Porcine Pancreatic α-Amylase
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111388 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Nowadays, bioactive compounds from vegetable food and waste are of great interest for their inhibitory potential against digestive enzymes. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of methanolic extract from Lycium barbarum leaves on porcine pancreas α-amylase has been studied. The α-amylase inhibitory [...] Read more.
Nowadays, bioactive compounds from vegetable food and waste are of great interest for their inhibitory potential against digestive enzymes. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of methanolic extract from Lycium barbarum leaves on porcine pancreas α-amylase has been studied. The α-amylase inhibitory activity of the constituent phenolic acids was also investigated. The leaves were extracted by ultrasound-assisted method, one of the most efficient techniques for bioactive extraction from plant materials, and then the phenolic acids were identified by Accurate-Mass Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Chlorogenic and salicylic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in L. barbarum leaf extract. The inhibitory effect against α-amylase, determined for individual compounds by in vitro assay, was higher for chlorogenic, salicylic, and caffeic acids. L. barbarum leaf extract showed an appreciable α-amylase inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Docking studies of the considered phenolic acids into the active site of α-amylase suggested a conserved binding mode that is mainly stabilized through H-bonds and π-π stacking interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Evaluation of Color, Texture, Sensory and Antioxidant Properties of Gels Composed of Freeze-Dried Maqui Berries and Agave Sugar
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8101294 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The study aimed to determine the textural, sensory, and antioxidant properties of gels composed of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berries. These freeze-dried berries were tested in a powdered form as an additive (0–5%) to agave sugar (20%) gels. Freeze-dried maqui powdered berries [...] Read more.
The study aimed to determine the textural, sensory, and antioxidant properties of gels composed of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berries. These freeze-dried berries were tested in a powdered form as an additive (0–5%) to agave sugar (20%) gels. Freeze-dried maqui powdered berries were dark purple to almost black in color and were characterized by an L* value of 16.3, an a* value of 8.3, and a b* value of −9.6. The b* values decreased from 11.8 to 2.3 with the increase in the amount of berry powder. There were no significant changes in the color of gels composed of berries at 4% and 5% concentration. Gels lost (almost twice) their hardness as the amount of maqui increased. The lowest values of hardness and the highest values of elasticity, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness were observed at 4% concentration of dried berries. The type of sugar did not affect the lightness of the gels (L* parameter) and the a* value. The assessors evaluated the gels composed of agave sugar (20%) and 4% maqui and 0.5% citric acid to be the best. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity were significantly higher in these gels compared to the control gels. After obtaining this low sugar gels, consumers could enrich their diets with healthier products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca L.: Kinetics of Fruit Drying and Quality Characteristics of the Dried Fruits
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8101265 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the temperature of convection and freeze–drying of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca L. fruits on the drying kinetics and on selected quality features of the dried fruits. The process of convection drying was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the temperature of convection and freeze–drying of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca L. fruits on the drying kinetics and on selected quality features of the dried fruits. The process of convection drying was carried out at the temperatures of 25 °C, 40 °C, and 60 °C, whereas freeze–drying was carried out at the temperatures of 20 °C, 40 °C, and 60 °C of the heating shelves and at the pressure of 63 Pa in the lyophilizer chamber. The drying kinetics were best described by the Midilli model for both drying methods. An increase of the drying temperature to 60 °C, for both convection drying and freeze–drying, resulted in a decrease of the total content of phenolic compounds and of the antioxidant activity of the dried fruits. An increase in the temperature of convection drying reduced the lightness of the dried fruits. However, during freeze–drying, these features changed little despite the increase in the drying temperature. The dried fruits with the highest brightness were obtained at a freeze–drying temperature of 60 °C. The method of freeze–drying is proposed as the best because of the resulting color, L-ascorbic acid retention, and antioxidant properties of the dried fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Preparation of Spray-Dried Functional Food: Effect of Adding Bacillus clausii Bacteria as a Co-Microencapsulating Agent on the Conservation of Resveratrol
Processes 2020, 8(7), 849; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8070849 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The effect of bacteria (Bacillus clausii) addition on the culturability and antioxidant activity of resveratrol prepared by spray drying was studied in this work. Inulin and lactose were employed as carrying agents and their performance compared. Resveratrol microencapsulated in inulin showed [...] Read more.
The effect of bacteria (Bacillus clausii) addition on the culturability and antioxidant activity of resveratrol prepared by spray drying was studied in this work. Inulin and lactose were employed as carrying agents and their performance compared. Resveratrol microencapsulated in inulin showed the highest antioxidant activity (26%) against free radicals. The co-encapsulated materials (bacteria and resveratrol) in inulin and lactose showed similar activities (21%, and 23%, respectively) suggesting that part of resveratrol was absorbed by the bacteria. Particles showed a regular spherical morphology with smooth surfaces, and size in the micrometer range (2–25 μm). The absence of bacteria in the SEM micrographs and the culturability activity suggested the preservation of the organisms within the micro and co-microencapsulated particles. The present work proposes the preparation of a functional food with probiotic and antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Effects of UV-C Irradiation and Thermal Processing on the Microbial and Physicochemical Properties of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul Extracts at Various pH Values
Processes 2020, 8(7), 841; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8070841 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The effects of UV-C irradiation (at doses of 8.16, 10.93, 16.17, and 33.29 mJ/cm2) on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Agave tequilana Weber extracts at various pH values (4.5, 5.5, and 6.5) were evaluated. Thermal treatment (TT) was used as [...] Read more.
The effects of UV-C irradiation (at doses of 8.16, 10.93, 16.17, and 33.29 mJ/cm2) on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Agave tequilana Weber extracts at various pH values (4.5, 5.5, and 6.5) were evaluated. Thermal treatment (TT) was used as a control (85 °C for 30 s). Both processed (UV-C or TT) and unprocessed (UP) extracts were investigated. The UV-C dose and the pH significantly (p < 0.05) affected the inactivation of total coliforms (TC), total aerobic mesophiles (TAM), and yeasts and molds (YM). UV-C doses of 10.93 mJ/cm2 at pH 4.5 and 33.29 mJ/cm2 at any agave extract pH completely inactivated the native microbial load compared to TT. The total polyphenols (TP), antioxidant activity (AA), and sugar content did not change in the agave extracts at any dose, but the total flavonoid (TF) content decreased at doses > 16.17 mJ/cm2 at the evaluated pH values. Although the color of the agave extracts (L*, a*, and b*) was significantly affected, the total color difference (∆E) did not change after processing compared to the ∆E in the UP extracts. TT further reduced all the physicochemical properties of the agave extracts compared to UV-C processing. The results suggest that UV-C continuous flow technology can be used to stabilize agave extracts at doses of 10.93 mJ/cm2 and pH 4.5, while preserving their functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Review

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Review
Encapsulation of Active Ingredients in Food Industry by Spray-Drying and Nano Spray-Drying Technologies
Processes 2020, 8(8), 889; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8080889 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Since its invention in 1872 by Samuel Percy, the spray drying of food products has been widely used, whether in products consumed by babies in milk formulations, powdered sweets and cocoa soluble in milk for children, or food supplements rich in proteins, vitamins, [...] Read more.
Since its invention in 1872 by Samuel Percy, the spray drying of food products has been widely used, whether in products consumed by babies in milk formulations, powdered sweets and cocoa soluble in milk for children, or food supplements rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals for adults. All of these products were first formulated in solution and then converted into powders to facilitate the transport and preservation of the properties during storage. In recent years, novel technologies such as nano spray drying have emerged for the development of food formulations with high-cost active ingredients. The aim of the present work is to present a review of the literature reported in the last 10 years related to these technologies. The basis of the spray-drying technologies i.e., conventional and nano, are described and compared, emphasizing the instrumental processing conditions for achieving a desired product. Examples of some unwanted reactions presented during the encapsulation of active ingredients are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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