Special Issue "Extraction and Fractionation Processes of Functional Components in Food Engineering"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega De Moura Bell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology and Biological and Agricultural Engineering Departments, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616-8507, USA
Interests: enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction; membrane filtration; fermentation; bioprocessing
Dr. Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Dr. Roberta Claro da Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Family and Consumer Sciences Department, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences (CAES), North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
Interests: lipid science; dairy science; sensory evaluation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet plays an unquestinable role on the growth, development, and mantainance of all body functions. Foods are a source of a multitude of compounds, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, peptides, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, among others, that go beyond basic nutrition. Harnessing the full potential of the diversity of the nutrients in foods becomes essential in order to enable its use as prophylactic therapy, with the potential to minimize the incidence of several metabolic disorders affecting humans. Food processing is evolving from a tradional approach, where the technical aspects were the main focus, toward a bioguided strategy, which strives to maintain the original biological and functional properties of food compounds. The development of a holistic approach, where cost competitive yet bio-guided food processing strategies, is needed in order to deliver healthy and nutritious food for everyone.

This Special Issue on the "Extraction and Fractionation Processes of Functional Components in Food Engineering" aims to bring together novel advances in the development and application of innovative processing strategies to extract, isolate, and modify food compounds to produce ingredients and foods with improved nutritional, functional, and biological properties. Topics include, but are not limited to, he following:

  • Development of innovative processing strategies to extract, modify, and recover food compounds;
  • Effects of industrial processes on the functionality and biological activities of food compounds;
  • Bioconversion of agricultural waste streams and food byproducts into added valuable compounds;
  • Challenges associated with processing scale-up.

Dr. Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega De Moura Bell
Dr. Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
Dr. Roberta Claro da Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food processing
  • functional properties
  • biological properties
  • health
  • nutrition
  • food byproducts

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Characterization of Acid-Soluble Collagen from Food Processing By-Products of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata)
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071188 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The isolation of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from by-products of snakehead fish (Channa striata), including skin and the mixture of skin and scale, has been investigated. The recovery yield of fish skin ASC (13.6%) was higher than ASC from fish skin and [...] Read more.
The isolation of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from by-products of snakehead fish (Channa striata), including skin and the mixture of skin and scale, has been investigated. The recovery yield of fish skin ASC (13.6%) was higher than ASC from fish skin and scale (12.09%). Both ASCs were identified as type I collagen and showed maximal solubility at pH 2. Collagen samples from the mixture of skin and scale had higher imino acid content (226 residues/1000 residues) and lower wavenumber in the amide I and amide III region (1642 and 1203 cm−1, respectively) than the fish skin ASC (the imino acid content was 220 residues/1000 residues and the wavenumber in the amide I and amide III were 1663 and 1206 cm−1, respectively. The difference scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed higher thermal stability in ASC from the mixture of skin and scale (Td of 35.78 °C) than fish skin ASC (34.21 °C). From the result, the denaturation temperature of ASC had a close relationship with the content of imino acid as well as with the degradation of α-helix in amide I and III. These results suggest that collagen could be obtained effectively from snakehead fish by-products and has potential as a realistic alternative to mammalian collagens. Full article
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Article
Optimization and Validation of Rancimat Operational Parameters to Determine Walnut Oil Oxidative Stability
Processes 2021, 9(4), 651; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040651 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
This study was performed to optimize and validate Rancimat (Metrohm Ltd., Herisau, Switzerland) operational parameters including temperature, air-flow, and sample weight to minimize Induction-Time (IT) and IT-Coefficient-of-Variation (CV), using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). According to a Box–Behnken experimental [...] Read more.
This study was performed to optimize and validate Rancimat (Metrohm Ltd., Herisau, Switzerland) operational parameters including temperature, air-flow, and sample weight to minimize Induction-Time (IT) and IT-Coefficient-of-Variation (CV), using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). According to a Box–Behnken experimental design, walnut oil equivalent to 3-, 6-, or 9-g was added to each reaction vessel and heated to 100, 110, or 120 °C, while an air-flow equal to 10-, 15-, or 20-L·h−1 was forced through the reaction vessels. A stationary point was found per response variable (IT and CV), and optimal parameters were defined considering the determined stationary points for both response variables at 100 °C, 25 L·h−1, and 3.9 g. Optimal parameters provided an IT of 5.42 ± 0.02 h with a CV of 1.25 ± 0.83%. RSM proved to be a useful methodology to find Rancimat operational parameters that translate to accurate and efficient values of walnut oil IT. Full article
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Article
Characterization and Demulsification of the Oil-Rich Emulsion from the Aqueous Extraction Process of Almond Flour
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8101228 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
The aqueous extraction process (AEP) allows the concurrent extraction of oil and protein from almond flour without the use of harsh solvents. However, the majority of the oil extracted in the AEP is present in an emulsion that needs to be demulsified for [...] Read more.
The aqueous extraction process (AEP) allows the concurrent extraction of oil and protein from almond flour without the use of harsh solvents. However, the majority of the oil extracted in the AEP is present in an emulsion that needs to be demulsified for subsequent industrial utilization. The effects of scaling-up the AEP of almond flour from 0.7 to 7 L and the efficiency of enzymatic and chemical approaches to demulsify the cream were evaluated. The AEP was carried out at pH 9.0, solids-to-liquid ratio of 1:10, and constant stirring of 120 rpm at 50 °C. Oil extraction yields of 61.9% and protein extraction yields of 66.6% were achieved. At optimum conditions, enzymatic and chemical demulsification strategies led to a sevenfold increase (from 8 to 66%) in the oil recovery compared with the control. However, enzymatic demulsification resulted in significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the cream protein and faster demulsification (29% reduction in the incubation time and a small reduction in the demulsification temperature from 55 to 50 °C) compared with the chemical approach. Reduced cream stability after enzymatic demulsification could be attributed to the hydrolysis of the amandin α-unit and reduced protein hydrophobicity. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of the AEP oil obtained from both demulsification strategies was similar to the hexane extracted oil. Full article
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Article
Comparative Study of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibition of Soy Foods as Affected by Processing Methods and Protein Isolation
Processes 2020, 8(8), 978; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8080978 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I into the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and eventually elevates blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Studies show peptides present anti-hypertensive activity by ACE inhibition. During food processing and [...] Read more.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I into the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and eventually elevates blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Studies show peptides present anti-hypertensive activity by ACE inhibition. During food processing and digestion, food proteins may be hydrolyzed and release peptides. Our objective was to determine and compare the ACE inhibitory potential of fermented and non-fermented soy foods and isolated 7S and 11S protein fractions. Soy foods (e.g., soybean, natto, tempeh, yogurt, soymilk, tofu, soy-sprouts) and isolated proteins were in vitro digested prior to the determination of ACE inhibitory activity. Peptide molecular weight distribution in digested samples was analyzed and correlated with ACE inhibitory capacity. Raw and cooked soymilk showed the highest ACE inhibitory potential. Bacteria-fermented soy foods had higher ACE inhibitory activity than fungus-fermented soy food, and 3 day germinated sprouts had higher ACE inhibition than those germinated for 5 and 7 days. The 11S hydrolysates showed higher ACE inhibitory capacity than 7S. Peptides of 1–4.5 kDa showed a higher contribution to reducing IC50. This study provides evidence that soy foods and isolated 7S and 11S proteins may be used as functional foods or ingredients to prevent or control hypertension. Full article
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Review

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Review
Extraction Methods of Oils and Phytochemicals from Seeds and Their Environmental and Economic Impacts
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1839; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9101839 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Over recent years, the food industry has striven to reduce waste, mostly because of rising awareness of the detrimental environmental impacts of food waste. While the edible oils market (mostly represented by soybean oil) is forecasted to reach 632 million tons by 2022, [...] Read more.
Over recent years, the food industry has striven to reduce waste, mostly because of rising awareness of the detrimental environmental impacts of food waste. While the edible oils market (mostly represented by soybean oil) is forecasted to reach 632 million tons by 2022, there is increasing interest to produce non-soybean, plant-based oils including, but not limited to, coconut, flaxseed and hemp seed. Expeller pressing and organic solvent extractions are common methods for oil extraction in the food industry. However, these two methods come with some concerns, such as lower yields for expeller pressing and environmental concerns for organic solvents. Meanwhile, supercritical CO2 and enzyme-assisted extractions are recognized as green alternatives, but their practicality and economic feasibility are questioned. Finding the right balance between oil extraction and phytochemical yields and environmental and economic impacts is challenging. This review explores the advantages and disadvantages of various extraction methods from an economic, environmental and practical standpoint. The novelty of this work is how it emphasizes the valorization of seed by-products, as well as the discussion on life cycle, environmental and techno-economic analyses of oil extraction methods. Full article
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Review
A Review on the Extraction and Processing of Natural Source-Derived Proteins through Eco-Innovative Approaches
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1626; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091626 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
In addition to their nutritional and physiological role, proteins are recognized as the major compounds responsible for the rheological properties of food products and their stability during manufacture and storage. Furthermore, proteins have been shown to be source of bioactive peptides able to [...] Read more.
In addition to their nutritional and physiological role, proteins are recognized as the major compounds responsible for the rheological properties of food products and their stability during manufacture and storage. Furthermore, proteins have been shown to be source of bioactive peptides able to exert beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, scholarly interest has focused on the incorporation of high-quality proteins into the diet. This fact, together with the new trends of consumers directed to avoid the intake of animal proteins, has boosted the search for novel and sustainable protein sources and the development of suitable, cost-affordable, and environmentally friendly technologies to extract high concentrations of valuable proteins incorporated into food products and supplements. In this review, current data on emergent and promising methodologies applied for the extraction of proteins from natural sources are summarized. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these novel methods, compared with conventional methods, are detailed. Additionally, this work describes the combination of these technologies with the enzymatic hydrolysis of extracted proteins as a powerful strategy for releasing bioactive peptides. Full article
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Review
The Potential Production of the Bioactive Compound Pinene Using Whey Permeate
Processes 2020, 8(3), 263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8030263 - 26 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Pinene is a secondary plant metabolite that has functional properties as a flavor additive as well as potential cognitive health benefits. Although pinene is present in low concentrations in several plants, it is possible to engineer microorganisms to produce pinene. However, feedstock cost [...] Read more.
Pinene is a secondary plant metabolite that has functional properties as a flavor additive as well as potential cognitive health benefits. Although pinene is present in low concentrations in several plants, it is possible to engineer microorganisms to produce pinene. However, feedstock cost is currently limiting the industrial scale-up of microbial pinene production. One potential solution is to leverage waste streams such as whey permeate as an alternative to expensive feedstocks. Whey permeate is a sterile-filtered dairy effluent that contains 4.5% weight/weight lactose, and it must be processed or disposed of due its high biochemical oxygen demand, often at significant cost to the producer. Approximately 180 million m3 of whey is produced annually in the U.S., and only half of this quantity receives additional processing for the recovery of lactose. Given that organisms such as recombinant Escherichia coli grow on untreated whey permeate, there is an opportunity for dairy producers to microbially produce pinene and reduce the biological oxygen demand of whey permeate via microbial lactose consumption. The process would convert a waste stream into a valuable coproduct. This review examines the current approaches for microbial pinene production, and the suitability of whey permeate as a medium for microbial pinene production. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: A review on the extraction, characterization, and processing of natural sources-derived proteins through eco-innovative approaches

Author: Giselle Franca-Oliveira, Mónica Rodríguez-Risco, Tiziana Fornari, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma

Affiliation: CSIC-UAM – Institute of Food Science Research

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