Special Issue "Power System Expansion Planning"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Matti Lehtonen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Interests: power and energy systems; demand response; power grids; renewable energy sources; power system economics; electrical load modeling; electric vehicle charging; energy storages; heating system electrification
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Amir Safdarian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1136511155, Iran
Interests: Distribution system operation and planning; Smart grid issues; Power system optimization; Power system reliability and resilience.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy is the prerequisite of industrial activities, a necessity for human communities, and a basic requirement for food production. As the world population grows, the demand of energy also increases.  At the same time, climate change is accelerating and raw materials are being depleted. To meet the above challenges, the world is currently undergoing a radical transition towards sustainable energy. In many cases, this means electrification of energy uses in traffic, heating systems, and industrial processes. The increased demand of carbon-free electricity leads to the extensive utilization of weather-dependent variable renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. This calls for new flexibility in power and energy systems which can be achieved—in addition to energy-storage solutions—by the sector coupling of power and heat, as well as the utilization of the flexibility of power uses in industrial processes, electrified traffic, and power-to-X applications.

Prof. Dr. Matti Lehtonen
Prof. Dr. Amir Safdarian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Power and energy system optimization
  • Power and energy system expansion planning
  • Community energy systems
  • Multi-energy systems
  • Sector coupling of power and heat
  • Power-to-X applications
  • Heat and power storages
  • Heating system electrification
  • Traffic electrification
  • Industrial processes electrification

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Article
Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Measurements for Effective Condition Assessment of Transformer Insulating Oil
Processes 2021, 9(5), 732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9050732 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 528
Abstract
Condition assessment of insulating oil is crucial for the reliable long-term operation of power equipment, especially power transformers. Under thermal aging, critical degradation in oil properties, including chemical, physical, and dielectric properties, occurs due to the generation of aging byproducts. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Condition assessment of insulating oil is crucial for the reliable long-term operation of power equipment, especially power transformers. Under thermal aging, critical degradation in oil properties, including chemical, physical, and dielectric properties, occurs due to the generation of aging byproducts. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was recently proposed for the condition assessment of mineral oil. However, this absorption technique may involve all electronic states of the investigated material which typically yield a broad spectrum, and thus cannot precisely reflect the electronic structure of aged oil samples. It also cannot be implemented as an online sensor of oil degradation. In this paper, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is introduced, for the first time, for effective condition assessment of insulating oil. The PL technique involves emission processes that only occur between a narrow band of electronic states that are occupied by thermalized electrons and consequently yields a spectrum that is much narrower than that of the absorption spectrum. Aged oil samples with different aging extents were prepared in the laboratory using accelerated aging tests at 120 °C, under which 1 day of laboratory aging is equivalent to approximately 1 year of aging in the field. These aged samples were then tested using PL spectroscopy with a wavelength ranging from 150 nm to 1500 nm. Two main parameters were evaluated for quantitative analysis of PL spectra: The full width at half-maximum and the enclosed area under the PL spectra. These parameters were correlated to the aging extent. In conjunction with PL spectroscopy, the aged oil samples were tested for the dielectric dissipation factor as an indication of the number of aging byproducts. Interestingly, we find a correlation between the PL spectra and the dielectric dissipation factor. The results of PL spectroscopy were compared to those of UV-Vis spectroscopy for the same samples and the parameters extracted from PL spectra were compared to the aging b-products extracted from UV-Vis spectra. Finally, the corresponding physical mechanisms were discussed considering the obtained results and the spectral shift for each spectrum. It was proved that PL spectroscopy is a promising technique for the condition assessment of insulating oil when compared to conventional transformer oil assessment measuring techniques and even to other optical absorption techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Accurate Insulating Oil Breakdown Voltage Model Associated with Different Barrier Effects
Processes 2021, 9(4), 657; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040657 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
In modern power systems, power transformers are considered vital components that can ensure the grid’s continuous operation. In this regard, studying the breakdown in the transformer becomes necessary, especially its insulating system. Hence, in this study, Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to introduce [...] Read more.
In modern power systems, power transformers are considered vital components that can ensure the grid’s continuous operation. In this regard, studying the breakdown in the transformer becomes necessary, especially its insulating system. Hence, in this study, Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to introduce a prediction model of the breakdown voltage (VBD) for the transformer insulating oil in the presence of different barrier effects for point/plane gap arrangement with alternating current (AC) voltage. Interestingly, the BBD reduces the required number of experiments and their costs to examine the barrier parameter effect on the existing insulating oil VBD. The investigated variables were the barrier location in the gap space (a/d)%, the relative permittivity of the barrier materials (εr), the hole radius in the barrier (hr), the barrier thickness (th), and the barrier inclined angle (θ). Then, only 46 experiment runs are required to build the BBD model for the five barrier variables. The BBD prediction model was verified based on the statistical study and some other experiment runs. Results explained the influence of the inclined angle of the barrier and its thickness on the VBD. The obtained results indicated that the designed BBD model provides less than a 5% residual percentage between the measured and predicted VBD. The findings illustrated the high accuracy and robustness of the proposed insulating oil breakdown voltage predictive model linked with diverse barrier effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Estimating Parameters of Photovoltaic Models Using Accurate Turbulent Flow of Water Optimizer
Processes 2021, 9(4), 627; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9040627 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
Recently, the use of diverse renewable energy resources has been intensively expanding due to their technical and environmental benefits. One of the important issues in the modeling and simulation of renewable energy resources is the extraction of the unknown parameters in photovoltaic models. [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of diverse renewable energy resources has been intensively expanding due to their technical and environmental benefits. One of the important issues in the modeling and simulation of renewable energy resources is the extraction of the unknown parameters in photovoltaic models. In this regard, the parameters of three models of photovoltaic (PV) cells are extracted in this paper with a new optimization method called turbulent flow of water-based optimization (TFWO). The applications of the proposed TFWO algorithm for extracting the optimal values of the parameters for various PV models are implemented on the real data of a 55 mm diameter commercial R.T.C. France solar cell and experimental data of a KC200GT module. Further, an assessment study is employed to show the capability of the proposed TFWO algorithm compared with several recent optimization techniques such as the marine predators algorithm (MPA), equilibrium optimization (EO), and manta ray foraging optimization (MRFO). For a fair performance evaluation, the comparative study is carried out with the same dataset and the same computation burden for the different optimization algorithms. Statistical analysis is also used to analyze the performance of the proposed TFWO against the other optimization algorithms. The findings show a high closeness between the estimated power–voltage (P–V) and current–voltage (I–V) curves achieved by the proposed TFWO compared with the experimental data as well as the competitive optimization algorithms, thanks to the effectiveness of the developed TFWO solution mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
An Effective Bi-Stage Method for Renewable Energy Sources Integration into Unbalanced Distribution Systems Considering Uncertainty
Processes 2021, 9(3), 471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9030471 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
The output generations of renewable energy sources (RES) depend basically on climatic conditions, which are the main reason for their uncertain nature. As a result, the performance and security of distribution systems can be significantly worsened with high RES penetration. To address these [...] Read more.
The output generations of renewable energy sources (RES) depend basically on climatic conditions, which are the main reason for their uncertain nature. As a result, the performance and security of distribution systems can be significantly worsened with high RES penetration. To address these issues, an analytical study was carried out by considering different penetration strategies for RES in the radial distribution system. Moreover, a bi-stage procedure was proposed for optimal planning of RES penetration. The first stage was concerned with calculating the optimal RES locations and sites. This stage aimed to minimize the voltage variations in the distribution system. In turn, the second stage was concerned with obtaining the optimal setting of the voltage control devices to improve the voltage profile. The multi-objective cat swarm optimization (MO-CSO) algorithm was proposed to solve the bi-stages optimization problems for enhancing the distribution system performance. Furthermore, the impact of the RES penetration level and their uncertainty on a distribution system voltage were studied. The proposed method was tested on the IEEE 34-bus unbalanced distribution test system, which was analyzed using backward/forward sweep power flow for unbalanced radial distribution systems. The proposed method provided satisfactory results for increasing the penetration level of RES in unbalanced distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Transient Thermal Performance of Power Cable Ascertained Using Finite Element Analysis
Processes 2021, 9(3), 438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9030438 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 483
Abstract
This paper presents the computation of the cable ampacity and the temperature distribution through long duration based on the equivalent thermal circuit based on IEC 60287 standard and the Finite element method using COMSOL (Multiphysics environment, version 5.5). This study investigated the cable [...] Read more.
This paper presents the computation of the cable ampacity and the temperature distribution through long duration based on the equivalent thermal circuit based on IEC 60287 standard and the Finite element method using COMSOL (Multiphysics environment, version 5.5). This study investigated the cable ampacity and the temperature rise of the cable core and sheath at steady state and emergency conditions. The cable ampacity was investigated at different conditions such as the variation of cable depth, soil properties, and soil temperature. The results confirmed the adaptation between the thermal circuit results and the COMSOL results as well as the effectiveness of using the numerical method to compute the cable ampacity. Using the COMSOL-based thermal properties evaluations, the transient performance of the cable is ascertained. The transient study is performed for different cable loading currents and dry zone sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Determination of Transformers’ Insulating Paper State Based on Classification Techniques
Processes 2021, 9(3), 427; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9030427 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 320
Abstract
The continuity of transformer operation is very necessary for utilities to maintain a continuity of power flow in networks and achieve a desired revenue. Most failures in a transformer are due to the degradation of the insulating system, which consists of insulating oil [...] Read more.
The continuity of transformer operation is very necessary for utilities to maintain a continuity of power flow in networks and achieve a desired revenue. Most failures in a transformer are due to the degradation of the insulating system, which consists of insulating oil and paper. The degree of polymerization (DP) is a key detector of insulating paper state. Most research in the literature has computed the DP as a function of furan compounds, especially 2-furfuraldehyde (2-FAL). In this research, a prediction model was constructed based on some of most periodical tests that were conducted on transformer insulating oil, which were used as predictors of the insulating paper state. The tests evaluated carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), breakdown voltage (VBD), interfacial tension (IF), acidity (ACY), moisture (M), oil color (OC), and 2-furfuraldehyde (2-FAL). The DP, which was used as the key indicator for the paper state, was categorized into five classes labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 to express the insulating paper normal aging rate, accelerating aging rate, excessive aging danger zone, high risk of failure, and the end of expected life, respectively. The classification techniques were applied to the collected data samples to construct a prediction model for the insulating paper state, and the results revealed that the fine tree was the best classifier of the data samples, with a 96.2% prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Sustainable Rural Electrification Through Solar PV DC Microgrids—An Architecture-Based Assessment
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1417; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111417 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
Solar photovoltaic (PV) direct current (DC) microgrids have gained significant popularity during the last decade for low cost and sustainable rural electrification. Various system architectures have been practically deployed, however, their assessment concerning system sizing, losses, and operational efficiency is not readily available [...] Read more.
Solar photovoltaic (PV) direct current (DC) microgrids have gained significant popularity during the last decade for low cost and sustainable rural electrification. Various system architectures have been practically deployed, however, their assessment concerning system sizing, losses, and operational efficiency is not readily available in the literature. Therefore, in this research work, a mathematical framework for the comparative analysis of various architectures of solar photovoltaic-based DC microgrids for rural applications is presented. The compared architectures mainly include (a) central generation and central storage architecture, (b) central generation and distributed storage architecture, (c) distributed generation and central storage architecture, and (d) distributed generation and distributed storage architecture. Each architecture is evaluated for losses, including distribution losses and power electronic conversion losses, for typical power delivery from source end to the load end in the custom village settings. Newton–Raphson method modified for DC power flow was used for distribution loss analysis, while power electronic converter loss modeling along with the Matlab curve-fitting tool was used for the evaluation of power electronic losses. Based upon the loss analysis, a framework for DC microgrid components (PV and battery) sizing was presented and also applied to the various architectures under consideration. The case study results show that distributed generation and distributed storage architecture with typical usage diversity of 40% is the most feasible architecture from both system sizing and operational cost perspectives and is 13% more efficient from central generation and central storage architecture for a typical village of 40 houses. The presented framework and the analysis results will be useful in selecting an optimal DC microgrid architecture for future rural electrification implementations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Experimental Determination of the Energetic Performance of a Racing Motorcycle Battery-Pack
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1391; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111391 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 504
Abstract
This paper presents the evaluation of the energetic performance of the battery-pack from the motorcycle prototype EME 16E. This racing prototype was developed by a student team from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) to participate in the MotoStudent competition during 2015–2016. This [...] Read more.
This paper presents the evaluation of the energetic performance of the battery-pack from the motorcycle prototype EME 16E. This racing prototype was developed by a student team from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) to participate in the MotoStudent competition during 2015–2016. This study includes the sizing and assembly of the motorcycle’s battery-pack under strict regulations and a limited budget. The prototype was also tested under different performance conditions, such as laboratory tests and racing circuits. Experimental results show that the proposed battery-pack is capable of supplying the energy and power necessary to drive the motorcycle in all cases analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Non-Intrusive Monitoring Algorithm for Resident Loads with Similar Electrical Characteristic
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111385 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 513
Abstract
Non-intrusive load monitoring is a vital part of an overall load management scheme. One major disadvantage of existing non-intrusive load monitoring methods is the difficulty to accurately identify loads with similar electrical characteristics. To overcome the various switching probability of loads with similar [...] Read more.
Non-intrusive load monitoring is a vital part of an overall load management scheme. One major disadvantage of existing non-intrusive load monitoring methods is the difficulty to accurately identify loads with similar electrical characteristics. To overcome the various switching probability of loads with similar characteristics in a specific time period, a new non-intrusive load monitoring method is proposed in this paper which will modify monitoring results based on load switching probability distribution curve. Firstly, according to the addition theorem of load working currents, the complex current is decomposed into the independently working current of each load. Secondly, based on the load working current, the initial identification of load is achieved with current frequency domain components, and then the load switching times in each hour is counted due to the initial identified results. Thirdly, a back propagation (BP) neural network is trained by the counted results, the switching probability distribution curve of an identified load is fitted with the BP neural network. Finally, the load operation pattern is profiled according to the switching probability distribution curve, the load operation pattern is used to modify identification result. The effectiveness of the method is verified by the measured data. This approach combines the operation pattern of load to modify the identification results, which improves the ability to identify loads with similar electrical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Carbon Emission Reduction Potential in the Finnish Energy System Due to Power and Heat Sector Coupling with Different Renovation Scenarios of Housing Stock
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111368 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
In the pursuit of mitigating the effects of climate change the European Union and the government of Finland have set targets for emission reductions for the near future. This study examined the carbon emission reduction potential in the Finnish energy system with power-to-heat [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of mitigating the effects of climate change the European Union and the government of Finland have set targets for emission reductions for the near future. This study examined the carbon emission reduction potential in the Finnish energy system with power-to-heat (P2H) coupling of the electricity and heat sectors with different housing renovation levels. The measures conducted in the energy system were conducted as follows. Wind power generation was increased in the Finnish power system with 10 increments. For each of these, the operation of hydropower was optimized to maximize the utilization of new wind generation. The excess wind generation was used to replace electricity and heat from combined heat and power production for district heating. The P2H conversion was performed by either 2000 m deep borehole heat exchangers coupled to heat pumps, with possible priming of heat, or with electrode boilers. The housing stock renovated to different levels affected both the electricity and district heating demands. The carbon emission reduction potential of the building renovation measures, and the energy system measures were determined over 25 years. Together with the required investment costs for the different measures, unit costs of emission reductions, €/t-CO2, were determined. The lowest unit cost solution of different measures was established, for which the unit cost of emission reductions was 241 €/t-CO2 and the reduced carbon emissions 11.3 Mt-CO2 annually. Moreover, the energy system measures were found to be less expensive compared to the building renovation measures, in terms of unit costs, and the P2H coupling a cost-efficient manner to increase the emission reductions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Comparison of Solar Collector Testing Methods—Theory and Practice
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8111340 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
One of the most important problems of operating solar heating systems involves variable efficiency depending on operating conditions. This problem is more pronounced in hybrid energy systems, where a solar installation cooperates with other segments based on conventional carriers of energy or renewable [...] Read more.
One of the most important problems of operating solar heating systems involves variable efficiency depending on operating conditions. This problem is more pronounced in hybrid energy systems, where a solar installation cooperates with other segments based on conventional carriers of energy or renewable sources of energy. The operating cost of each segment of a hybrid system depends mainly on the resulting efficiency of solar installation. For over 40 years, the procedures of testing solar collectors have been undergoing development, testing, comparison and verification in order to create a procedure that would allow determining the thermal behavior of a solar collector without performing expensive and complicated experimental tests, usually based on the steady state condition. The proper determination of the static and dynamic properties of a solar collector is of key significance, as they constitute a basis for the design of a solar heating installation, as well as a control system. It is therefore important to conduct simulating and operating tests enabling the performance of a comparative analysis intended to indicate the degree to which the static and dynamic properties of a solar collector depend on the method used for their determination. The paper compares the static and dynamic properties of a flat solar collector determined by means of various methods. Based on the produced results, it has been concluded that the static and dynamic properties of a collector determined using various methods may differ from each other even by 50%. This means that it is possible to increase the efficiency of a solar heating installation via the use of an adaptive control algorithm, enabling real-time calculation of the values of characteristic parameters of solar installation, e.g., the time constant under operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Distributed Optimization for Active Distribution Network Considering the Balance of Multi-Stakeholder
Processes 2020, 8(8), 987; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8080987 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Nowadays, distributed power generation is highly valued and fully developed since the energy crisis is worsening. At the same time, the distribution system operator is becoming a new stakeholder to take part in the dispatch of the active distribution network (ADN) with the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, distributed power generation is highly valued and fully developed since the energy crisis is worsening. At the same time, the distribution system operator is becoming a new stakeholder to take part in the dispatch of the active distribution network (ADN) with the power market being further reformed. Some new challenges to the dispatching of the ADN are brought by these distribution system operators (DSO), which break the traditional requirement of the lowest operating cost. In this paper, the relationship between the maximum revenue and the minimum operating cost of the ADN is fully considered, and the model of the bi-level distributed ADN considering the benefits and privacy protection of multi-stakeholder is established precisely. Further, the model is solved by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) in which the safety and economy of the ADN are fully considered. Finally, the validity of the model and the feasibility of the algorithm are verified by using the adjusted IEEE 33 bus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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Article
Analyzing Renewable Energy Sources of a Developing Country for Sustainable Development: An Integrated Fuzzy Based-Decision Methodology
Processes 2020, 8(7), 825; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr8070825 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Global human pollutant activities have raised greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which have directly affected the climate. Fossil fuel-based energy has brought a negative impact on the environment and is considered one of the largest sources of GHG emissions. It is envisaged that GHG [...] Read more.
Global human pollutant activities have raised greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which have directly affected the climate. Fossil fuel-based energy has brought a negative impact on the environment and is considered one of the largest sources of GHG emissions. It is envisaged that GHG emissions will increase in the future due to rapid population growth and industrialization. Thus, it is imperative to mitigate climate variability and reduce GHGs by adopting renewable energy (RE) sources for electricity generation. In this regard, the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process would serve the purpose of framing out energy policy to analyze these environmentally friendly energy sources. This study uses an integrated decision methodology—a combination of Delphi, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), and the fuzzy weighted aggregated sum product assessment (FWASPAS)—for the adoption of RE sources for electricity generation in Turkey. Initially, the study identified five main criteria and seventeen sub-criteria using the Delphi method. Then, the FAHP method was used to evaluate and rank the main criteria and sub-criteria. Finally, the FWASPAS method was used to assess and prioritize five major RE sources for electricity generation. The FAHP analysis indicated that political criteria are the most influential, followed by economic and technical criteria. Further, the FWASPAS method revealed that wind energy is the most significant option for electricity generation. This decision-making process can help the energy planners to utilize RE sources for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Expansion Planning)
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