Special Issue "Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases"

A special issue of Reports (ISSN 2571-841X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Juan Luis Fernandez-Morera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Sección de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital V. Álvarez Buylla, Calle Vistalegre, 2, 33611 Mieres, Asturias, Spain
2. Epigenética del Cáncer y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Avda. Hospital Universitario s/n, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: autoimmunity; T1D; cancer; epigenetics; aging
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The immune system has two complementary functions. The most intuitive known function is to identify foreign or abnormal elements in the organism to which it belongs, such as bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells, and control and eliminate them—this is habitually called the immune response. Another obvious but much less represented function of the immune system, however, is that it must identify healthy structures belonging to the said organism and respect them—this is known as immunological tolerance. This narrow field where the immune system should operate is located between two frontiers: the inability to respond adequately to nosological threats, which would imply a certain degree of immunodeficiency, and the inability to respect its own healthy structures, which would imply the processes of autoimmunity.

Up to 10% of the population has a diagnosis of an autoimmune disease, and such diseases are a common cause of medical consultation. Scientific advances and new therapeutic approaches (cancer immunotherapy, new immunosuppressants) and diagnostic tests (nuclear medicine imaging, radiometabolic studies, molecular biology, and genetics studies) have renewed interest in these diseases in the medical field. Their variability of clinical expression both by the structures that may be affected (connective tissue, skin, nervous system, endocrine, digestive, hematological) as well as the abnormal activation of different arms of the immune system and the degree of intensity of the underlying inflammation make each patient a particular case to study and learn about, and case reports are adequate tools to define specific characteristics of these diseases.

For this Special Issue, we are inviting manuscripts in “Case report” format with clinical interest related to this topic that shall allow further advancements in our knowledge of autoimmunity. We are particularly interested in pathophysiological studies, but diagnostic or therapeutic approaches will also be welcome.

Dr. Juan Luis Fernandez-Morera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Reports is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • autoimmunity
  • immune response
  • autoantibodies
  • immunotolerance
  • autoimmune diseases

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Case Report
Acute Facial Edema in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Reports 2021, 4(3), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030022 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Allergies have been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, few reports have described angioedema occurring in elderly men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old man who presented with angioedema with eosinophilia. The patient [...] Read more.
Allergies have been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, few reports have described angioedema occurring in elderly men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old man who presented with angioedema with eosinophilia. The patient was initially thought to have a drug-induced allergy. The differentiation between allergic reactions caused by drugs and those caused by eosinophilia with SLE can be challenging. The effect of the withdrawal of the suspected culprit drug and allergic dermal findings can be key to differentiating the two conditions. SLE is prevalent among younger generations; hence, active immunity can induce various symptoms, including eosinophilia, which causes angioedema. Even older people with SLE can have a strong immune reaction, resulting in angioedema with eosinophilia. In cases of localized facial edema in elderly patients with SLE, it is critical to consider angioedema caused by eosinophilia as a differential diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases)
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Case Report
Targeted Therapy with Sirolimus and Nivolumab in a Child with Refractory Multifocal Anaplastic Ependymoma
Reports 2021, 4(2), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4020012 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
Pediatric ependymoma (EPN) is the third most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor, with 90% arising intracranially. Management typically involves maximal surgical resection and radiotherapy, but patients’ outcome is poor. Moreover, there are only a few therapeutical options available for recurrent or refractory [...] Read more.
Pediatric ependymoma (EPN) is the third most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor, with 90% arising intracranially. Management typically involves maximal surgical resection and radiotherapy, but patients’ outcome is poor. Moreover, there are only a few therapeutical options available for recurrent or refractory disease. In this report, we present the case of a 7-year-old girl with relapsed refractory multifocal grade III EPN who failed conventional treatments and experienced a stable and durable response to the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) nivolumab in association with the mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitor sirolimus. This experimental therapy was targeted on immune phenotypical analyses of the patient’s last relapse tumor sample, and this procedure should be routinely done to find new possible therapeutical approaches in recurrent solid tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases)
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Case Report
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Triggered after CTLA-4 and PD-1L Immunotherapy Treatment
Reports 2021, 4(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010001 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Background: CTLA-4 and PD-1L are novel immune checkpoint targets for cancer treatment with specific side effects such as autoimmune diseases. Less frequently, the presence of several autoimmune diseases in the same patient has been described. In this communication, we illustrate the case of [...] Read more.
Background: CTLA-4 and PD-1L are novel immune checkpoint targets for cancer treatment with specific side effects such as autoimmune diseases. Less frequently, the presence of several autoimmune diseases in the same patient has been described. In this communication, we illustrate the case of a 45-year-old patient with a previous diagnosis of advanced cancer that, after starting treatment with this immunotherapy, developed in the following months autoimmune diabetes, lymphocytic hypophysitis, and a Hashimoto thyroiditis in an abrupt and intense manner that would correspond to an autoimmune polyglandular disease. Discussion: The activation of autoimmunity and associated diseases is increasing in parallel with augmented indication of these immunotherapeutic treatments in cancer patients. A closer follow-up of these patients could be necessary for an optimal approach to this type of pathology. Conclusions: Different autoimmune diseases can converge in the same patient when immunotherapy for cancer is indicated to boost immune response against tumor, caused by altering immune tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases)
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