Special Issue "Driving Simulator"

A special issue of Safety (ISSN 2313-576X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Martin Lavallière
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of health sciences, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi (UQAC), QC, Canada
Interests: evaluation and intervention; aging; mobility; prevention; work-related collisions; first responders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is with great pleasure that I invite you to contribute to this Special Issue of Safety with an emphasis on Driving Simulators.

The contribution of driving simulators to evaluation, education, and training in driving has been discussed for many years. There are several advantages to using a driving simulator, as it allows users to perform specific maneuvers more repeatedly and promptly due to programming that enables the repetition of a driving event that would rarely occur or is too sparse physically. Driving situations’ difficulty and complexity can also be increased gradually to expose drivers to challenges more progressively. Moreover, the simulation provides access to driving conditions directly without having to travel to the physical place to practice the determined situation. Finally, driving simulators allow you to practice in an environment without risks and consequences in the event of a collision for the driver and the other road users. Such a tool is of utmost interest to organizations with employees who are exposed to potential work-related collisions.

Therefore, this Special Issue offers researchers and clinicians an opportunity to present the latest advancements in the development of tools, interventions, or specially designed scenarios for the evaluation or the enhancement of driving performance from a human health safety perspective.

Topics of interest include the following concepts:

  • Evaluation of fitness to drive using simulators
  • Interventions aimed at improving road safety through the following:
    • roads and infrastructures design in a simulator
    • design and interface of vehicles
    • enhancement of drivers’ performance
  • Mitigation system of distraction and/or fatigue
  • Human factors and design of the vehicle’s interface

Prof. Dr. Martin Lavallière
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Safety is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Using Video Replay of Simulated Driving to Estimate Driving Safety and Cognitive Status
Safety 2021, 7(2), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020045 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Cognitive decline resulting from Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT) can lead to reduced ability to perform complex daily tasks required for independent living, including driving an automobile. This study explores the ability of untrained observers to classify driving safety using short video clips [...] Read more.
Cognitive decline resulting from Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type (DAT) can lead to reduced ability to perform complex daily tasks required for independent living, including driving an automobile. This study explores the ability of untrained observers to classify driving safety using short video clips of simulated driving through intersections; it also examined whether untrained observers could predict whether the driver was cognitively healthy or cognitively impaired. Participants (n = 54) were shown a series of 30 video clips arranged in an online survey and asked to answer questions following each clip regarding the safety of the maneuver and the cognitive status of the driver. Results showed that participants’ subjectively rated DAT drivers as significantly less safe in comparison to control drivers, F (1, 52) = 228.44, p < 0.001. Participant’s classification of DAT drivers and controls was also significantly higher than chance (i.e., >50% correct). Findings provide preliminary support for the development of a clinical decision-making aid using video replay of driving simulator performance in fitness-to-drive assessments for individuals with cognitive impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers
Safety 2021, 7(2), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020036 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. [...] Read more.
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. Experiments in a driving simulator are a good choice to eliminate the risk for crashes and to present highly standardized stimulus combinations. In the present study, 72 subjects from four age groups completed a driving task that required occasional responses to the brake lights of a car in front. In addition, in certain experimental conditions, subjects had to respond to distracting visual or auditory stimuli. In addition to behavioral data, electrophysiological correlates of stimulus processing were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). In the two older groups, braking response times increased even in a simple task condition when visual distraction stimuli occurred. In more complex task conditions braking response times increased with acoustic and visual distractors in the middle-aged group as well. In these complex task conditions braking error rates, especially the missing of braking reaction in favor of the distracting task, increased under visual distraction with increasing age. Associated with this, a reduced P3b component in the event-related potential indicated an unfavorable allocation of mental resources. The study demonstrates the potential of driving simulators for studying effects of distraction, but also their limitations with respect to the interpretability of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Incorporation of Modeling, Simulation, and Game-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics Education towards Improving Vehicle Design and Driver Safety
Safety 2021, 7(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020030 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
As educational tools continue to evolve technologically, game-based learning (GBL) has emerged for its ability to improve specific learning outcomes such as motivation, engagement, and knowledge acquisition and retention. Despite recent advances with educators incorporating games and gaming strategies into higher-learning curricula, there [...] Read more.
As educational tools continue to evolve technologically, game-based learning (GBL) has emerged for its ability to improve specific learning outcomes such as motivation, engagement, and knowledge acquisition and retention. Despite recent advances with educators incorporating games and gaming strategies into higher-learning curricula, there is a current void in the literature that clarifies the critical relationship between GBL implementations and learning outcomes. In this effort, we build upon previous research by detailing the specification, design, and deployment of a series of GBL experiential learning interventions intended to improve conceptual understanding of vehicle dynamics. This implementation should result in positive downstream impacts on safety, both for the vehicle (i.e., design/interface)—and its driver. In our intervention, we deploy three separate pilot studies in a graduate engineering vehicle dynamics course, all of which leverage advanced GBL environments deployed on a high-fidelity motion-based driving simulator. The primary goals of the pilot studies are to interactively achieve an enhanced understanding of: (i) oversteer/understeer vehicles at ever-increasing speed; (ii) an optimal cornering strategy subject to the tire conditions of the vehicle; and (iii) lateral handling and yaw stabilization of a vehicle within an extreme evasive maneuver at varying entry speeds. The outcomes of the current effort serve to promote a future Theory of Change for planned best practices to improve human factors and human–vehicle machine interfaces through authentication of GBL in engineering education on a broader scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Older Drivers’ Motion and Simulator Sickness before and after Automated Vehicle Exposure
Safety 2021, 7(2), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020026 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Older drivers desire independence in mobility, and automated vehicles hold plausible opportunities to realize this goal. Motion sickness (automated shuttle exposure) or simulator sickness (automated driving simulator exposure) may affect acceptance of these technologies. This study investigated the onset of motion and simulator [...] Read more.
Older drivers desire independence in mobility, and automated vehicles hold plausible opportunities to realize this goal. Motion sickness (automated shuttle exposure) or simulator sickness (automated driving simulator exposure) may affect acceptance of these technologies. This study investigated the onset of motion and simulator sickness in older drivers (mean age = 74.29, SD = 5.96; female = 54%) after exposure to an automated shuttle and automated driving simulator and assessed age and sex as determinants of motion and/or simulator sickness. Using a repeated measures design, 104 older drivers were randomly allocated to the shuttle and simulator. Baseline, as well as post exposures, were measured using the Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire (domains: sweatiness, queasiness, dizziness, nauseousness). Older drivers who were exposed to the simulator show a statistically significant increase in simulator sickness symptoms across the four domains compared to the same group being tested in the shuttle. No age and sex differences were detected within the groups and no participants dropped out of the study due to motion or simulator sickness. The automated shuttle and simulator hold plausible opportunities for continued exposure of older drivers to these technologies, as long as motion or driving simulator sickness protocols are used properly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Developing an Unreal Engine 4-Based Vehicle Driving Simulator Applicable in Driver Behavior Analysis—A Technical Perspective
Safety 2021, 7(2), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020025 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Vehicle safety remains a topic of major interest, and diverse assistance systems are implemented that focus primarily on analyzing the immediate vicinity of the car and the driver’s control inputs. In this paper, by contrast, we emphasize understanding the driver’s control performance via [...] Read more.
Vehicle safety remains a topic of major interest, and diverse assistance systems are implemented that focus primarily on analyzing the immediate vicinity of the car and the driver’s control inputs. In this paper, by contrast, we emphasize understanding the driver’s control performance via obtaining valuable data and relevant characteristics. To acquire the data, we employed an in-house-designed, laboratory-built vehicle driving simulator. This simulator exploits the Unreal Engine 4 framework to deliver a high level of realism. The fact that the actual designing and associated processes were materialized through our own efforts has brought advantages such as simplified data acquisition, possibility of creating custom scenarios, and modification of the virtual elements according to our specific needs. We also developed an application to analyze the measured data from the perspective of control theory, establishing a set of parameters that provided the basis for an early version of a driver performance index indicator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Blueprint for a Simulation Framework to Increase Driver Training Safety in North America: Case Study
Safety 2021, 7(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7020024 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Despite numerous recent advances in the classroom and in-vehicle driver training and education over the last quarter-century, traffic accidents remain a leading cause of mortality for young adults—particularly, those between the ages of 16 and 19. Obviously, despite recent advances in conventional driver [...] Read more.
Despite numerous recent advances in the classroom and in-vehicle driver training and education over the last quarter-century, traffic accidents remain a leading cause of mortality for young adults—particularly, those between the ages of 16 and 19. Obviously, despite recent advances in conventional driver training (e.g., classroom, in-vehicle, Graduated Driver Licensing programs), this remains a critical public safety and public health concern. As advanced vehicle technologies continue to evolve, so too does the unintended potential for mechanical, visual, and/or cognitive driver distraction and adverse safety events on national highways. For these reasons, a physics-based modeling and high-fidelity simulation have great potential to serve as a critical supplementary component of a near-future teen-driver training framework. Here, a case study is presented that examines the specification, development, and deployment of a “blueprint” for a simulation framework intended to increase driver training safety in North America. A multi-measure assessment of simulated driver performance was developed and instituted, including quantitative (e.g., simulator-measured), qualitative (e.g., evaluator-observed), and self-report metrics. Preliminary findings are presented, along with a summary of novel contributions through the deployment of the training framework, as well as planned improvements and suggestions for future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
Driving with Hemianopia VIII: Effects of a Vibro-Tactile Assistance System on Safety and Gaze Behavior in Pedestrian Crossing Situations
Safety 2021, 7(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety7010018 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 2133
Abstract
People with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs), the loss of vision in the same half of the visual field in both eyes, are permitted to drive in some jurisdictions. However, the HVFD may cause difficulties in detecting hazards approaching on the side of [...] Read more.
People with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs), the loss of vision in the same half of the visual field in both eyes, are permitted to drive in some jurisdictions. However, the HVFD may cause difficulties in detecting hazards approaching on the side of the field loss (the blind side). An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) could assist with hazard detection, but little research has been conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of an ADAS for visually impaired drivers. We developed a prototype vibro-tactile assistance system for drivers with HVFDs and conducted a proof-of-concept driving simulation study to evaluate the system. Given that pedestrian accidents are the second most frequent cause of death in road traffic and most of those accidents occur in urban scenarios, we evaluated the potential of the assistance system to improve responses to pedestrian hazards in a city environment. Sixteen participants, of which eight had HVFDs and eight had normal vision, took part. Our analyses evaluated the effects of the driver assistance system, crossing direction, and pedestrian behavior on the safety of pedestrian events and the participant’s gaze behavior at each of the 256 crossing situations. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to assess binomial outcome variables. Despite the limited sample size, the results suggest that the vibro-tactile directional warnings were effective in directing the drivers’ gaze so that they were looking in the necessary direction before a potential hazard occurred. More time was spent fixating pedestrians on the blind side when the ADAS was engaged, and as a result, the safety of street crossings from the blind side improved. The effect of the ADAS was greater on responses to pedestrians from the blind than the seeing side. With an activated ADAS, crossings from the participants’ blind sides were as safe as crossings from their seeing sides, and it was as safe as the crossings when normally sighted participants were driving. The results suggest that the vibro-tactile ADAS is a promising approach to improve the safety of drivers with HVFD and surrounding traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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