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Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Ultra Stable Molecular Sensors by Submicron Referencing and Why They Should Be Interrogated by Optical Diffraction—Part II. Experimental Demonstration
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s21010009 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Label-free optical biosensors are an invaluable tool for molecular interaction analysis. Over the past 30 years, refractometric biosensors and, in particular, surface plasmon resonance have matured to the de facto standard of this field despite a significant cross reactivity to environmental and experimental [...] Read more.
Label-free optical biosensors are an invaluable tool for molecular interaction analysis. Over the past 30 years, refractometric biosensors and, in particular, surface plasmon resonance have matured to the de facto standard of this field despite a significant cross reactivity to environmental and experimental noise sources. In this paper, we demonstrate that sensors that apply the spatial affinity lock-in principle (part I) and perform readout by diffraction overcome the drawbacks of established refractometric biosensors. We show this with a direct comparison of the cover refractive index jump sensitivity as well as the surface mass resolution of an unstabilized diffractometric biosensor with a state-of-the-art Biacore 8k. A combined refractometric diffractometric biosensor demonstrates that a refractometric sensor requires a much higher measurement precision than the diffractometric to achieve the same resolution. In a conceptual and quantitative discussion, we elucidate the physical reasons behind and define the figure of merit of diffractometric biosensors. Because low-precision unstabilized diffractometric devices achieve the same resolution as bulky stabilized refractometric sensors, we believe that label-free optical sensors might soon move beyond the drug discovery lab as miniaturized, mass-produced environmental/medical sensors. In fact, combined with the right surface chemistry and recognition element, they might even bring the senses of smell/taste to our smart devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biophotonic Sensors)
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Article
Parkinson’s Disease Tremor Detection in the Wild Using Wearable Accelerometers
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20205817 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Continuous in-home monitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) symptoms might allow improvements in assessment of disease progression and treatment effects. As a first step towards this goal, we evaluate the feasibility of a wrist-worn wearable accelerometer system to detect PD tremor in the wild [...] Read more.
Continuous in-home monitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) symptoms might allow improvements in assessment of disease progression and treatment effects. As a first step towards this goal, we evaluate the feasibility of a wrist-worn wearable accelerometer system to detect PD tremor in the wild (uncontrolled scenarios). We evaluate the performance of several feature sets and classification algorithms for robust PD tremor detection in laboratory and wild settings. We report results for both laboratory data with accurate labels and wild data with weak labels. The best performance was obtained using a combination of a pre-processing module to extract information from the tremor spectrum (based on non-negative factorization) and a deep neural network for learning relevant features and detecting tremor segments. We show how the proposed method is able to predict patient self-report measures, and we propose a new metric for monitoring PD tremor (i.e., percentage of tremor over long periods of time), which may be easier to estimate the start and end time points of each tremor event while still providing clinically useful information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Sensors)
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Article
Social Distance Monitor with a Wearable Magnetic Field Proximity Sensor
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20185101 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
Social distancing and contact/exposure tracing are accepted to be critical strategies in the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. They are both closely connected to the ability to reliably establish the degree of proximity between people in real-world environments. We proposed, implemented, and evaluated [...] Read more.
Social distancing and contact/exposure tracing are accepted to be critical strategies in the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. They are both closely connected to the ability to reliably establish the degree of proximity between people in real-world environments. We proposed, implemented, and evaluated a wearable proximity sensing system based on an oscillating magnetic field that overcomes many of the weaknesses of the current state of the art Bluetooth based proximity detection. In this paper, we first described the underlying physical principle, proposed a protocol for the identification and coordination of the transmitter (which is compatible with the current smartphone-based exposure tracing protocols). Subsequently, the system architecture and implementation were described, finally an elaborate characterization and evaluation of the performance (both in systematic lab experiments and in real-world settings) were performed. Our work demonstrated that the proposed system is much more reliable than the widely-used Bluetooth-based approach, particularly when it comes to distinguishing between distances above and below the 2.0 m threshold due to the magnetic field’s physical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors 2020)
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Article
Structural Health Monitoring: An IoT Sensor System for Structural Damage Indicator Evaluation
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4908; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20174908 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
In the last decades, the applications of structural monitoring are moving toward the field of civil engineering and infrastructures. Nevertheless, if the structures have damages, it does not mean that they have a complete loss of functionality, but rather that the system is [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the applications of structural monitoring are moving toward the field of civil engineering and infrastructures. Nevertheless, if the structures have damages, it does not mean that they have a complete loss of functionality, but rather that the system is no longer in an optimal condition so that, if the damage increases, the structure can collapse. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), a process for the identification of damage, periodically collects data from suitable sensors that allow to characterize the damage and establishes the health status of the structure. Therefore, this monitoring will provide information on the structure condition, mostly about its integrity, in a short time, and, for infrastructures and civil structures, it is necessary to assess performance and health status. The aim of this work is to design an Internet of Things (IoT) system for Structural Health Monitoring to find possible damages and to see how the structure behaves over time. For this purpose, a customized datalogger and nodes have been designed. The datalogger is able to acquire the data coming from the nodes through RS485 communication and synchronize acquisitions. Furthermore, it has an internal memory to allow for the post-processing of the collected data. The nodes are composed of a digital triaxial accelerometer, a general-purpose microcontroller, and an external memory for storage measures. The microcontroller communicates with an accelerometer, acquires values, and then saves them in the memory. The system has been characterized and the damage indicator has been evaluated on a testing structure. Experimental results show that the estimated damage indicator increases when the structure is perturbed. In the present work, the damage indicator increased by a maximum value of 24.65 when the structure is perturbed by a 2.5 mm engraving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring and Seismic Protection)
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Article
Tacsac: A Wearable Haptic Device with Capacitive Touch-Sensing Capability for Tactile Display
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4780; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20174780 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
This paper presents a dual-function wearable device (Tacsac) with capacitive tactile sensing and integrated tactile feedback capability to enable communication among deafblind people. Tacsac has a skin contactor which enhances localized vibrotactile stimulation of the skin as a means of feedback to the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a dual-function wearable device (Tacsac) with capacitive tactile sensing and integrated tactile feedback capability to enable communication among deafblind people. Tacsac has a skin contactor which enhances localized vibrotactile stimulation of the skin as a means of feedback to the user. It comprises two main modules—the touch-sensing module and the vibrotactile module; both stacked and integrated as a single device. The vibrotactile module is an electromagnetic actuator that employs a flexible coil and a permanent magnet assembled in soft poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), while the touch-sensing module is a planar capacitive metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure. The flexible coil was fabricated on a 50 µm polyimide (PI) sheet using Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) micromoulding technique. The Tacsac device has been tested for independent sensing and actuation as well as dual sensing-actuation mode. The measured vibration profiles of the actuator showed a synchronous response to external stimulus for a wide range of frequencies (10 Hz to 200 Hz) within the perceivable tactile frequency thresholds of the human hand. The resonance vibration frequency of the actuator is in the range of 60–70 Hz with an observed maximum off-plane displacement of 0.377 mm at coil current of 180 mA. The capacitive touch-sensitive layer was able to respond to touch with minimal noise both when actuator vibration is ON and OFF. A mobile application was also developed to demonstrate the application of Tacsac for communication between deafblind person wearing the device and a mobile phone user who is not deafblind. This advances existing tactile displays by providing efficient two-way communication through the use of a single device for both localized haptic feedback and touch-sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tactile Sensors for Robotic Applications)
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Article
In Vivo Tumor Vascular Imaging with Light Emitting Diode-Based Photoacoustic Imaging System
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20164503 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has shown tremendous promise for imaging tumor vasculature and its function at deeper penetration depths without the use of exogenous contrast agents. Traditional PA imaging systems employ expensive and bulky class IV lasers with low pulse repetition rate, due to [...] Read more.
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has shown tremendous promise for imaging tumor vasculature and its function at deeper penetration depths without the use of exogenous contrast agents. Traditional PA imaging systems employ expensive and bulky class IV lasers with low pulse repetition rate, due to which its availability for preclinical cancer research is hampered. In this study, we evaluated the capability of a Light-Emitting Diode (LED)-based PA and ultrasound (US) imaging system for monitoring heterogeneous microvasculature in tumors (up to 10 mm in depth) and quantitatively compared the PA images with gold standard histology images. We used a combination of a 7 MHz linear array US transducer and 850 nm excitation wavelength LED arrays to image blood vessels in a subcutaneous tumor model. After imaging, the tumors were sectioned and stained for endothelial cells to correlate with PA images across similar cross-sections. Analysis of 30 regions of interest in tumors from different mice showed a statistically significant R-value of 0.84 where the areas with high blood vessel density had high PA response while low blood vessel density regions had low PA response. Our results confirm that LED-based PA and US imaging can provide 2D and 3D images of tumor vasculature and the potential it has as a valuable tool for preclinical cancer research. Full article
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Article
3D-Printed Flow Cells for Aptamer-Based Impedimetric Detection of E. coli Crooks Strain
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20164421 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Electrochemical spectroscopy enables rapid, sensitive, and label-free analyte detection without the need of extensive and laborious labeling procedures and sample preparation. In addition, with the emergence of commercially available screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), a valuable, disposable alternative to costly bulk electrodes for electrochemical (bio-)sensor [...] Read more.
Electrochemical spectroscopy enables rapid, sensitive, and label-free analyte detection without the need of extensive and laborious labeling procedures and sample preparation. In addition, with the emergence of commercially available screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), a valuable, disposable alternative to costly bulk electrodes for electrochemical (bio-)sensor applications was established in recent years. However, applications with bare SPEs are limited and many applications demand additional/supporting structures or flow cells. Here, high-resolution 3D printing technology presents an ideal tool for the rapid and flexible fabrication of tailor-made, experiment-specific systems. In this work, flow cells for SPE-based electrochemical (bio-)sensor applications were designed and 3D printed. The successful implementation was demonstrated in an aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor approach for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) Crooks strain as a proof of concept. Moreover, further developments towards a 3D-printed microfluidic flow cell with an integrated micromixer also illustrate the great potential of high-resolution 3D printing technology to enable homogeneous mixing of reagents or sample solutions in (bio-)sensor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing Technologies in Electrochemical (Bio)Sensing)
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Article
Sensing the Generation of Intracellular Free Electrons Using the Inactive Catalytic Subunit of Cytochrome P450s as a Sink
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 4050; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20144050 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) abstracts electrons from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate H (NADPH), transferring them to an active Cytochrome P450 (CYP) site to provide a functional CYP. In the present study, a yeast strain was genetically engineered to delete the endogenous CPR gene. [...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) abstracts electrons from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate H (NADPH), transferring them to an active Cytochrome P450 (CYP) site to provide a functional CYP. In the present study, a yeast strain was genetically engineered to delete the endogenous CPR gene. A human CYP expressed in a CPR-null (yRD) strain was inactive. It was queried if Bax—which induces apoptosis in yeast and human cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS)—substituted for the absence of CPR. Since Bax-generated ROS stems from an initial release of electrons, is it possible for these released electrons to be captured by an inactive CYP to make it active once again? In this study, yeast cells that did not contain any CPR activity (i.e., because the yeasts’ CPR gene was completely deleted) were used to show that (a) human CYPs produced within CPR-null (yRD-) yeast cells were inactive and (b) low levels of the pro-apoptotic human Bax protein could activate inactive human CYPs within this yeast cells. Surprisingly, Bax activated three inactive CYP proteins, confirming that it could compensate for CPR’s absence within yeast cells. These findings could be useful in research, development of bioassays, bioreactors, biosensors, and disease diagnosis, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Article
A Spatially Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor for Applications in the Steel Industry
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3900; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20143900 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
This paper presents a spatially distributed fiber-optic sensor system designed for demanding applications, like temperature measurements in the steel industry. The sensor system employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to interrogate Rayleigh backscattering signals in single-mode optical fibers. Temperature measurements employing the OFDR [...] Read more.
This paper presents a spatially distributed fiber-optic sensor system designed for demanding applications, like temperature measurements in the steel industry. The sensor system employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to interrogate Rayleigh backscattering signals in single-mode optical fibers. Temperature measurements employing the OFDR system were compared with conventional thermocouple measurements, accentuating the spatially distributed sensing capability of the fiber-optic system. Experiments were designed and conducted to test the spatial thermal mapping capability of the fiber-optic temperature measurement system. Experimental simulations provided evidence that the optical fiber system could resolve closely spaced temperature features, due to the high spatial resolution and fast measurement rates of the OFDR system. The ability of the fiber-optic system to perform temperature measurements in a metal casting was tested by monitoring aluminum solidification in a sand mold. The optical fiber, encased in a stainless steel tube, survived both mechanically and optically at temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The ability to distinguish between closely spaced temperature features that generate information-rich thermal maps opens up many applications in the steel industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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Article
Antiresonant Hollow-Core Fiber-Based Dual Gas Sensor for Detection of Methane and Carbon Dioxide in the Near- and Mid-Infrared Regions
Sensors 2020, 20(14), 3813; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20143813 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
In this work, we present for the first time a laser-based dual gas sensor utilizing a silica-based Antiresonant Hollow-Core Fiber (ARHCF) operating in the Near- and Mid-Infrared spectral region. A 1-m-long fiber with an 84-µm diameter air-core was implemented as a low-volume absorption [...] Read more.
In this work, we present for the first time a laser-based dual gas sensor utilizing a silica-based Antiresonant Hollow-Core Fiber (ARHCF) operating in the Near- and Mid-Infrared spectral region. A 1-m-long fiber with an 84-µm diameter air-core was implemented as a low-volume absorption cell in a sensor configuration utilizing the simple and well-known Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) method. The fiber was filled with a mixture of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and a simultaneous detection of both gases was demonstrated targeting their transitions at 3.334 µm and 1.574 µm, respectively. Due to excellent guidance properties of the fiber and low background noise, the proposed sensor reached a detection limit down to 24 parts-per-billion by volume for CH4 and 144 parts-per-million by volume for CO2. The obtained results confirm the suitability of ARHCF for efficient use in gas sensing applications for over a broad spectral range. Thanks to the demonstrated low loss, such fibers with lengths of over one meter can be used for increasing the laser-gas molecules interaction path, substituting bulk optics-based multipass cells, while delivering required flexibility, compactness, reliability and enhancement in the sensor’s sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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Article
Positioning Performance Limits of GNSS Meta-Signals and HO-BOC Signals
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20123586 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are the main source of position, navigation, and timing (PNT) information and will be a key player in the next-generation intelligent transportation systems and safety-critical applications, but several limitations need to be overcome to meet the stringent performance [...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are the main source of position, navigation, and timing (PNT) information and will be a key player in the next-generation intelligent transportation systems and safety-critical applications, but several limitations need to be overcome to meet the stringent performance requirements. One of the open issues is how to provide precise PNT solutions in harsh propagation environments. Under nominal conditions, the former is typically achieved by exploiting carrier phase information through precise positioning techniques, but these methods are very sensitive to the quality of phase observables. Another option that is gaining interest in the scientific community is the use of large bandwidth signals, which allow obtaining a better baseband resolution, and therefore more precise code-based observables. Two options may be considered: (i) high-order binary offset carrier (HO-BOC) modulations or (ii) the concept of GNSS meta-signals. In this contribution, we assess the time-delay and phase maximum likelihood (ML) estimation performance limits of such signals, together with the performance translation into the position domain, considering single point positioning (SPP) and RTK solutions, being an important missing point in the literature. A comprehensive discussion is provided on the estimators’ behavior, the corresponding ML threshold regions, the impact of good and bad satellite constellation geometries, and final conclusions on the best candidates, which may lead to precise solutions under harsh conditions. It is found that if the receiver is constrained by the receiver bandwidth, the best choices are the L1-M or E6-Public Regulated Service (PRS) signals. If the receiver is able to operate at 60 MHz, it is recommended to exploit the full-bandwidth Galileo E5 signal. In terms of robustness and performance, if the receiver can operate at 135 MHz, the best choice is to use the GNSS meta-signals E5 + E6 or B2 + B3, which provide the best overall performances regardless of the positioning method used, the satellite constellation geometry, or the propagation conditions. Full article
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Article
An Efficient Distributed Area Division Method for Cooperative Monitoring Applications with Multiple UAVs
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3448; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20123448 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This article addresses the area division problem in a distributed manner providing a solution for cooperative monitoring missions with multiple UAVs. Starting from a sub-optimal area division, a distributed online algorithm is presented to accelerate the convergence of the system to the optimal [...] Read more.
This article addresses the area division problem in a distributed manner providing a solution for cooperative monitoring missions with multiple UAVs. Starting from a sub-optimal area division, a distributed online algorithm is presented to accelerate the convergence of the system to the optimal solution, following a frequency-based approach. Based on the “coordination variables” concept and on a strict neighborhood relation to share information (left, right, above and below neighbors), this technique defines a distributed division protocol to determine coherently the size and shape of the sub-area assigned to each UAV. Theoretically, the convergence time of the proposed solution depends linearly on the number of UAVs. Validation results, comparing the proposed approach with other distributed techniques, are provided to evaluate and analyze its performance following a convergence time criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAV-Based Smart Sensor Systems and Applications)
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Article
Layered Double Hydroxide-Modified Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Glucose and Lactate Biosensing
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3453; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20123453 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
Biosensors based on Organic Electrochemical Transistors (OECTs) are developed for the selective detection of glucose and lactate. The transistor architecture provides signal amplification (gain) with respect to the simple amperometric response. The biosensors are based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) channel and the gate [...] Read more.
Biosensors based on Organic Electrochemical Transistors (OECTs) are developed for the selective detection of glucose and lactate. The transistor architecture provides signal amplification (gain) with respect to the simple amperometric response. The biosensors are based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) channel and the gate electrode is functionalised with glucose oxidase (GOx) or lactate oxidase (LOx) enzymes, which are immobilised within a Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) through a one-step electrodeposition procedure. The here-designed OECT architecture allows minimising the required amount of enzyme during electrodeposition. The output signal of the biosensor is the drain current (Id), which decreases as the analyte concentration increases. In the optimised conditions, the biosensor responds to glucose in the range of 0.1–8.0 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02 mM. Two regimes of proportionality are observed. For concentrations lower than 1.0 mM, a linear response is obtained with a mean gain of 360, whereas for concentrations higher than 1.0 mM, Id is proportional to the logarithm of glucose concentration, with a gain of 220. For lactate detection, the biosensor response is linear in the whole concentration range (0.05–8.0 mM). A LOD of 0.04 mM is reached, with a net gain equal to 400. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation of Electrochemical Sensors)
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Article
Development of Taste Sensor to Detect Non-Charged Bitter Substances
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3455; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20123455 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
A taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes is one of the devices that can evaluate taste objectively. However, the conventional taste sensor cannot measure non-charged bitter substances, such as caffeine contained in coffee, because the taste sensor uses the potentiometric measurement based mainly on [...] Read more.
A taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes is one of the devices that can evaluate taste objectively. However, the conventional taste sensor cannot measure non-charged bitter substances, such as caffeine contained in coffee, because the taste sensor uses the potentiometric measurement based mainly on change in surface electric charge density of the membrane. In this study, we aimed at the detection of typical non-charged bitter substances such as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine included in beverages and pharmaceutical products. The developed sensor is designed to detect the change in the membrane potential by using a kind of allosteric mechanism of breaking an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the carboxy group and hydroxy group of aromatic carboxylic acid (i.e., hydroxy-, dihydroxy-, and trihydroxybenzoic acids) when non-charged bitter substances are bound to the hydroxy group. As a result of surface modification by immersing the sensor electrode in a modification solution in which 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid was dissolved, it was confirmed that the sensor response increased with the concentration of caffeine as well as allied substances. The threshold and increase tendency were consistent with those of human senses. The detection mechanism is discussed by taking into account intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which cause allostery. These findings suggest that it is possible to evaluate bitterness caused by non-charged bitter substances objectively by using the taste sensor with allosteric mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Strain Transfer in Surface-Bonded Optical Fiber Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20113100 - 30 May 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
Fiber optic sensors represent one of the most promising technologies for the monitoring of various engineering structures. A major challenge in the field is to analyze and predict the strain transfer to the fiber core reliably. Many authors developed analytical models of a [...] Read more.
Fiber optic sensors represent one of the most promising technologies for the monitoring of various engineering structures. A major challenge in the field is to analyze and predict the strain transfer to the fiber core reliably. Many authors developed analytical models of a coated optical fiber, assuming null strain at the ends of the bonding length. However, this configuration only partially reflects real experimental setups in which the cable structure can be more complex and the strains do not drastically reduce to zero. In this study, a novel strain transfer model for surface-bonded sensing cables with multilayered structure was developed. The analytical model was validated both experimentally and numerically, considering two surface-mounted cable prototypes with three different bonding lengths and five load cases. The results demonstrated the capability of the model to predict the strain profile and, differently from the available strain transfer models, that the strain values at the extremities of the bonded fiber length are not null. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Optic Sensing Technology)
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Article
SPR Biosensor Based on Polymer Multi-Mode Optical Waveguide and Nanoparticle Signal Enhancement
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2889; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20102889 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
We present a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor that is based on a planar-optical multi-mode (MM) polymer waveguide structure applied for the detection of biomolecules in the lower nano-molar (nM) range. The basic sensor shows a sensitivity of 608.6 nm/RIU when exposed to [...] Read more.
We present a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor that is based on a planar-optical multi-mode (MM) polymer waveguide structure applied for the detection of biomolecules in the lower nano-molar (nM) range. The basic sensor shows a sensitivity of 608.6 nm/RIU when exposed to refractive index changes with a measurement resolution of 4.3 × 10−3 RIU. By combining the SPR sensor with an aptamer-functionalized, gold-nanoparticle (AuNP)-enhanced sandwich assay, the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) in a buffer solution was achieved with a response of 0.118 nm/nM. Due to the multi-mode polymer waveguide structure and the simple concept, the reported biosensor is well suited for low-cost disposable lab-on-a-chip applications and can be used with rather simple and economic devices. In particular, the sensor offers the potential for fast and multiplexed detection of several biomarkers on a single integrated platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Photonics for Novel Sensing and Measurement Applications)
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Article
Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Gas Sensing
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2807; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20102807 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
A novel and compact interferometric refractive index (RI) point sensor is developed using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) and experimentally demonstrated for high sensitivity detection and measurement of pure gases. To construct the device, the sensing element fiber (HC-PCF) was placed between two [...] Read more.
A novel and compact interferometric refractive index (RI) point sensor is developed using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) and experimentally demonstrated for high sensitivity detection and measurement of pure gases. To construct the device, the sensing element fiber (HC-PCF) was placed between two single-mode fibers with airgaps at each side. Great measurement repeatability was shown in the cyclic test for the detection of various gases. The RI sensitivity of 4629 nm/RIU was demonstrated in the RI range of 1.0000347–1.000436 for the sensor with an HC-PCF length of 3.3 mm. The sensitivity of the proposed Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) sensor increases when the length of the sensing element decreases. It is shown that response and recovery times of the proposed sensor inversely change with the length of HC-PCF. Besides, spatial frequency analysis for a wide range of air-gaps revealed information on the number and power distribution of modes. It is shown that the power is mainly carried by two dominant modes in the proposed structure. The proposed sensors have the potential to improve current technology’s ability to detect and quantify pure gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Optic Sensors in Chemical and Biological Applications)
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Article
Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings due to Land Subsidence Using InSAR Data in the Ancient Historical City of Pistoia (Italy)
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2749; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20102749 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
The launch of the medium resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 constellation in 2014 has allowed public and private organizations to introduce SAR interferometry (InSAR) products as a valuable option in their monitoring systems. The massive stacks of displacement data resulting from the [...] Read more.
The launch of the medium resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 constellation in 2014 has allowed public and private organizations to introduce SAR interferometry (InSAR) products as a valuable option in their monitoring systems. The massive stacks of displacement data resulting from the processing of large C-B and radar images can be used to highlight temporal and spatial deformation anomalies, and their detailed analysis and postprocessing to generate operative products for final users. In this work, the wide-area mapping capability of Sentinel-1 was used in synergy with the COSMO-SkyMed high resolution SAR data to characterize ground subsidence affecting the urban fabric of the city of Pistoia (Tuscany Region, central Italy). Line of sight velocities were decomposed on vertical and E–W components, observing slight horizontal movements towards the center of the subsidence area. Vertical displacements and damage field surveys allowed for the calculation of the probability of damage depending on the displacement velocity by means of fragility curves. Finally, these data were translated to damage probability and potential loss maps. These products are useful for urban planning and geohazard management, focusing on the identification of the most hazardous areas on which to concentrate efforts and resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Geohazards)
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Article
Examination of Multi-Receiver GPS/EGNOS Positioning with Kalman Filtering and Validation Based on CORS Stations
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20092732 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
This paper presents the concept of precise navigation based on SBAS technology and CORS stations. In a kinematic test, three rover Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, properly spaced relatively to each other, were used in order to estimate reliable and redundant GPS/EGNOS positions. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the concept of precise navigation based on SBAS technology and CORS stations. In a kinematic test, three rover Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, properly spaced relatively to each other, were used in order to estimate reliable and redundant GPS/EGNOS positions. Next, the Kalman filter was employed to give the final solution. It was proven that EGNOS positioning allows to obtain an accuracy in the range of about 0.5–1.5 m. The proposed solution involving the use of three mobile receivers and Kalman filtering allowed to reduce the 3D error to a level below 0.3 m. Such an accuracy was achieved using only GPS L1 code observations and EGNOS corrections. Additionally, a reliable monitoring of quality of GPS/EGNOS positioning in the test area based on CORS stations was presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Sensors in Aerial Navigation)
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Article
Multi-Addressed Fiber Bragg Structures for Microwave-Photonic Sensor Systems
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20092693 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
The new theory and technique of Multi-Addressed Fiber Bragg Structure (MAFBS) usage in Microwave Photonics Sensor Systems (MPSS) is presented. This theory is the logical evolution of the theory of Addressed Fiber Bragg Structure (AFBS) usage as sensors in MPSS. The mathematical model [...] Read more.
The new theory and technique of Multi-Addressed Fiber Bragg Structure (MAFBS) usage in Microwave Photonics Sensor Systems (MPSS) is presented. This theory is the logical evolution of the theory of Addressed Fiber Bragg Structure (AFBS) usage as sensors in MPSS. The mathematical model of additive response from a single MAFBS is presented. The MAFBS is a special type of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), the reflection spectrum of which has three (or more) narrow notches. The frequencies of narrow notches are located in the infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum, while differences between them are located in the microwave frequency range. All cross-differences between optical frequencies of single MAFBS are called the address frequencies set. When the additive optical response from a single MAFBS, passed through an optic filter with an oblique amplitude–frequency characteristic, is received on a photodetector, the complex electrical signal, which consists of all cross-frequency beatings of all optical frequencies, which are included in this optical signal, is taken at its output. This complex electrical signal at the photodetector’s output contains enough information to determine the central frequency shift of the MAFBS. The method of address frequencies analysis with the microwave-photonic measuring conversion method, which allows us to define the central frequency shift of a single MAFBS, is discussed in the work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Bragg Grating Based Sensors and Systems)
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Article
UAV and Machine Learning Based Refinement of a Satellite-Driven Vegetation Index for Precision Agriculture
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2530; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20092530 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 23
Abstract
Precision agriculture is considered to be a fundamental approach in pursuing a low-input, high-efficiency, and sustainable kind of agriculture when performing site-specific management practices. To achieve this objective, a reliable and updated description of the local status of crops is required. Remote sensing, [...] Read more.
Precision agriculture is considered to be a fundamental approach in pursuing a low-input, high-efficiency, and sustainable kind of agriculture when performing site-specific management practices. To achieve this objective, a reliable and updated description of the local status of crops is required. Remote sensing, and in particular satellite-based imagery, proved to be a valuable tool in crop mapping, monitoring, and diseases assessment. However, freely available satellite imagery with low or moderate resolutions showed some limits in specific agricultural applications, e.g., where crops are grown by rows. Indeed, in this framework, the satellite’s output could be biased by intra-row covering, giving inaccurate information about crop status. This paper presents a novel satellite imagery refinement framework, based on a deep learning technique which exploits information properly derived from high resolution images acquired by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) airborne multispectral sensors. To train the convolutional neural network, only a single UAV-driven dataset is required, making the proposed approach simple and cost-effective. A vineyard in Serralunga d’Alba (Northern Italy) was chosen as a case study for validation purposes. Refined satellite-driven normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) maps, acquired in four different periods during the vine growing season, were shown to better describe crop status with respect to raw datasets by correlation analysis and ANOVA. In addition, using a K-means based classifier, 3-class vineyard vigor maps were profitably derived from the NDVI maps, which are a valuable tool for growers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metrology for Agriculture and Forestry 2019)
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Article
Development of an Aptamer Based Luminescent Optical Fiber Sensor for the Continuous Monitoring of Hg2+ in Aqueous Media
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20082372 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
A fluorescent optical fiber sensor for the detection of mercury (Hg2+) ions in aqueous solutions is presented in this work. The sensor was based on a fluorophore-labeled thymine (T)-rich oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ON) sequence that was directly immobilized onto the tip of a [...] Read more.
A fluorescent optical fiber sensor for the detection of mercury (Hg2+) ions in aqueous solutions is presented in this work. The sensor was based on a fluorophore-labeled thymine (T)-rich oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ON) sequence that was directly immobilized onto the tip of a tapered optical fiber. In the presence of mercury ions, the formation of T–Hg2+-T mismatches quenches the fluorescence emission by the labeled fluorophore, which enables the measurement of Hg2+ ions in aqueous solutions. Thus, in contrast to commonly designed sensors, neither a fluorescence quencher nor a complementary ON sequence is required. The sensor presented a response time of 24.8 seconds toward 5 × 10−12 M Hg2+. It also showed both good reversibility (higher than the 95.8%) and selectivity: the I0/I variation was 10 times higher for Hg2+ ions than for Mn2+ ions. Other contaminants examined (Co2+, Ag+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, and Cu2+) presented an even lower interference. The limit of detection of the sensor was 4.73 × 10−13 M Hg2+ in buffer solution and 9.03 × 10−13 M Hg2+ in ultrapure water, and was also able to detect 5 × 10−12 M Hg2+ in tap water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calibration of Chemical Sensors Based on Photoluminescence)
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Article
Privacy-Preserving Overgrid: Secure Data Collection for the Smart Grid
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20082249 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this paper, we present a privacy-preserving scheme for Overgrid, a fully distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture designed to automatically control and implement distributed Demand Response (DR) schemes in a community of smart buildings with energy generation and storage capabilities. To monitor the power [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a privacy-preserving scheme for Overgrid, a fully distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture designed to automatically control and implement distributed Demand Response (DR) schemes in a community of smart buildings with energy generation and storage capabilities. To monitor the power consumption of the buildings, while respecting the privacy of the users, we extend our previous Overgrid algorithms to provide privacy preserving data aggregation (PP-Overgrid). This new technique combines a distributed data aggregation scheme with the Secure Multi-Party Computation paradigm. First, we use the energy profiles of hundreds of buildings, classifying the amount of “flexible” energy consumption, i.e., the quota which could be potentially exploited for DR programs. Second, we consider renewable energy sources and apply the DR scheme to match the flexible consumption with the available energy. Finally, to show the feasibility of our approach, we validate the PP-Overgrid algorithm in simulation for a large network of smart buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Based Smart Grid in Internet of Things Era)
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Article
Concrete Crack Monitoring Using a Novel Strain Transfer Model for Distributed Fiber Optics Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20082220 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
In this paper, we study the strain transfer mechanism between a host material and an optical fiber. A new analytical model handling imperfect bonding between layers is proposed. A general expression of the crack-induced strain transfer from fractured concrete material to optical fiber [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the strain transfer mechanism between a host material and an optical fiber. A new analytical model handling imperfect bonding between layers is proposed. A general expression of the crack-induced strain transfer from fractured concrete material to optical fiber is established in the case of a multilayer system. This new strain transfer model is examined through performing wedge splitting tests on concrete specimens instrumented with embedded and surface-mounted fiber optic cables. The experimental results showed the validity of the crack-induced strain expression fitted to the distributed strains measured using an Optical Backscattering Reflectometry (OBR) system. As a result, precise estimations of the crack openings next to the optical cable location were achieved, as well as the monitoring of the optical cable response through following the strain lag parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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Article
Towards a Remote Monitoring of Patient Vital Signs Based on IoT-Based Blockchain Integrity Management Platforms in Smart Hospitals
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20082195 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 53
Abstract
Over the past several years, many healthcare applications have been developed to enhance the healthcare industry. Recent advancements in information technology and blockchain technology have revolutionized electronic healthcare research and industry. The innovation of miniaturized healthcare sensors for monitoring patient vital signs has [...] Read more.
Over the past several years, many healthcare applications have been developed to enhance the healthcare industry. Recent advancements in information technology and blockchain technology have revolutionized electronic healthcare research and industry. The innovation of miniaturized healthcare sensors for monitoring patient vital signs has improved and secured the human healthcare system. The increase in portable health devices has enhanced the quality of health-monitoring status both at an activity/fitness level for self-health tracking and at a medical level, providing more data to clinicians with potential for earlier diagnosis and guidance of treatment. When sharing personal medical information, data security and comfort are essential requirements for interaction with and collection of electronic medical records. However, it is hard for current systems to meet these requirements because they have inconsistent security policies and access control structures. The new solutions should be directed towards improving data access, and should be managed by the government in terms of privacy and security requirements to ensure the reliability of data for medical purposes. Blockchain paves the way for a revolution in the traditional pharmaceutical industry and benefits from unique features such as privacy and transparency of data. In this paper, we propose a novel platform for monitoring patient vital signs using smart contracts based on blockchain. The proposed system is designed and developed using hyperledger fabric, which is an enterprise-distributed ledger framework for developing blockchain-based applications. This approach provides several benefits to the patients, such as an extensive, immutable history log, and global access to medical information from anywhere at any time. The Libelium e-Health toolkit is used to acquire physiological data. The performance of the designed and developed system is evaluated in terms of transaction per second, transaction latency, and resource utilization using a standard benchmark tool known as Hyperledger Caliper. It is found that the proposed system outperforms the traditional health care system for monitoring patient data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Privacy for the Internet of Things)
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Article
Edge Computing Resource Allocation for Dynamic Networks: The DRUID-NET Vision and Perspective
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20082191 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
The potential offered by the abundance of sensors, actuators, and communications in the Internet of Things (IoT) era is hindered by the limited computational capacity of local nodes. Several key challenges should be addressed to optimally and jointly exploit the network, computing, and [...] Read more.
The potential offered by the abundance of sensors, actuators, and communications in the Internet of Things (IoT) era is hindered by the limited computational capacity of local nodes. Several key challenges should be addressed to optimally and jointly exploit the network, computing, and storage resources, guaranteeing at the same time feasibility for time-critical and mission-critical tasks. We propose the DRUID-NET framework to take upon these challenges by dynamically distributing resources when the demand is rapidly varying. It includes analytic dynamical modeling of the resources, offered workload, and networking environment, incorporating phenomena typically met in wireless communications and mobile edge computing, together with new estimators of time-varying profiles. Building on this framework, we aim to develop novel resource allocation mechanisms that explicitly include service differentiation and context-awareness, being capable of guaranteeing well-defined Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. DRUID-NET goes beyond the state of the art in the design of control algorithms by incorporating resource allocation mechanisms to the decision strategy itself. To achieve these breakthroughs, we combine tools from Automata and Graph theory, Machine Learning, Modern Control Theory, and Network Theory. DRUID-NET constitutes the first truly holistic, multidisciplinary approach that extends recent, albeit fragmented results from all aforementioned fields, thus bridging the gap between efforts of different communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Communication in UAV Networks)
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Article
LoRaFarM: A LoRaWAN-Based Smart Farming Modular IoT Architecture
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 2028; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20072028 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 34
Abstract
Presently, the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies in the Smart Farming domain is rapidly emerging. The ultimate goal is to collect, monitor, and effectively employ relevant data for agricultural processes, with the purpose of achieving an optimized and more environmentally sustainable [...] Read more.
Presently, the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies in the Smart Farming domain is rapidly emerging. The ultimate goal is to collect, monitor, and effectively employ relevant data for agricultural processes, with the purpose of achieving an optimized and more environmentally sustainable agriculture. In this paper, a low-cost, modular, and Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN)-based IoT platform, denoted as “LoRaWAN-based Smart Farming Modular IoT Architecture” (LoRaFarM), and aimed at improving the management of generic farms in a highly customizable way, is presented. The platform, built around a core middleware, is easily extensible with ad-hoc low-level modules (feeding the middleware with data coming from the sensors deployed in the farm) or high-level modules (providing advanced functionalities to the farmer). The proposed platform has been evaluated in a real farm in Italy, collecting environmental data (air/soil temperature and humidity) related to the growth of farm products (namely grapes and greenhouse vegetables) over a period of three months. A web-based visualization tool for the collected data is also presented, to validate the LoRaFarM architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metrology for Agriculture and Forestry 2019)
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Article
Caching Transient Contents in Vehicular Named Data Networking: A Performance Analysis
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1985; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20071985 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising communication paradigm for the challenging vehicular ad hoc environment. In particular, the built-in pervasive caching capability was shown to be essential for effective data delivery in presence of short-lived and intermittent connectivity. Existing studies have however [...] Read more.
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising communication paradigm for the challenging vehicular ad hoc environment. In particular, the built-in pervasive caching capability was shown to be essential for effective data delivery in presence of short-lived and intermittent connectivity. Existing studies have however not considered the fact that multiple vehicular contents can be transient, i.e., they expire after a certain time period since they were generated, the so-called FreshnessPeriod in NDN. In this paper, we study the effects of caching transient contents in Vehicular NDN and present a simple yet effective freshness-driven caching decision strategy that vehicles can implement autonomously. Performance evaluation in ndnSIM shows that the FreshnessPeriod is a crucial parameter that deeply influences the cache hit ratio and, consequently, the data dissemination performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances and Challenges)
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Article
A Syringe-Based Biosensor to Rapidly Detect Low Levels of Escherichia Coli (ECOR13) in Drinking Water Using Engineered Bacteriophages
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1953; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20071953 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
A sanitized drinking water supply is an unconditional requirement for public health and the overall prosperity of humanity. Potential microbial and chemical contaminants of drinking water have been identified by a joint effort between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations [...] Read more.
A sanitized drinking water supply is an unconditional requirement for public health and the overall prosperity of humanity. Potential microbial and chemical contaminants of drinking water have been identified by a joint effort between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), who together establish guidelines that define, in part, that the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in drinking water is an indication of inadequate sanitation and a significant health risk. As E. coli is a nearly ubiquitous resident of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, no detectable counts in 100 mL of drinking water is the standard used worldwide as an indicator of sanitation. The currently accepted EPA method relies on filtration, followed by growth on selective media, and requires 24–48 h from sample to results. In response, we developed a rapid bacteriophage-based detection assay with detection limit capabilities comparable to traditional methods in less than a quarter of the time. We coupled membrane filtration with selective enrichment using genetically engineered bacteriophages to identify less than 20 colony forming units (CFU) E. coli in 100 mL drinking water within 5 h. The combination of membrane filtration with phage infection produced a novel assay that demonstrated a rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of an indicator organism in large volumes of drinking water as recommended by the leading world regulatory authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Article
Hyperspectral Imaging for the Detection of Glioblastoma Tumor Cells in H&E Slides Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1911; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20071911 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has demonstrated potential to provide useful information about the chemical composition of tissue and its morphological features in a single image modality. Deep learning (DL) techniques have demonstrated the ability of automatic feature extraction from data for a successful [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has demonstrated potential to provide useful information about the chemical composition of tissue and its morphological features in a single image modality. Deep learning (DL) techniques have demonstrated the ability of automatic feature extraction from data for a successful classification. In this study, we exploit HSI and DL for the automatic differentiation of glioblastoma (GB) and non-tumor tissue on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological slides of human brain tissue. GB detection is a challenging application, showing high heterogeneity in the cellular morphology across different patients. We employed an HSI microscope, with a spectral range from 400 to 1000 nm, to collect 517 HS cubes from 13 GB patients using 20× magnification. Using a convolutional neural network (CNN), we were able to automatically detect GB within the pathological slides, achieving average sensitivity and specificity values of 88% and 77%, respectively, representing an improvement of 7% and 8% respectively, as compared to the results obtained using RGB (red, green, and blue) images. This study demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral microscopic imaging and deep learning is a promising tool for future computational pathologies. Full article
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Article
Wearable Hand Module and Real-Time Tracking Algorithms for Measuring Finger Joint Angles of Different Hand Sizes with High Accuracy Using FBG Strain Sensor
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20071921 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
This paper presents a wearable hand module which was made of five fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor and algorithms to achieve high accuracy even when worn on different hand sizes of users. For real-time calculation with high accuracy, FBG strain sensors move [...] Read more.
This paper presents a wearable hand module which was made of five fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor and algorithms to achieve high accuracy even when worn on different hand sizes of users. For real-time calculation with high accuracy, FBG strain sensors move continuously according to the size of the hand and the bending of the joint. Representatively, four algorithms were proposed; point strain (PTS), area summation (AREA), proportional summation (PS), and PS/interference (PS/I or PS/I_ α ). For more accurate and efficient assessments, 3D printed hand replica with different finger sizes was adopted and quantitative evaluations were performed for index~little fingers (77 to 117 mm) and thumb (68~78 mm). For index~little fingers, the optimized algorithms were PS and PS/I_ α . For thumb, the optimized algorithms were PS/I_ α and AREA. The average error angle of the wearable hand module was observed to be 0.47 ± 2.51° and mean absolute error (MAE) was achieved at 1.63 ± 1.97°. These results showed that more accurate hand modules than other glove modules applied to different hand sizes can be manufactured using FBG strain sensors which move continuously and algorithms for tracking this movable FBG sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Bragg Grating Based Sensors and Systems)
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Article
Pattern Recognition and Anomaly Detection by Self-Organizing Maps in a Multi Month E-nose Survey at an Industrial Site
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1887; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20071887 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Currently people are aware of the risk related to pollution exposure. Thus odor annoyances are considered a warning about the possible presence of toxic volatile compounds. Malodor often generates immediate alarm among citizens, and electronic noses are convenient instruments to detect mixture of [...] Read more.
Currently people are aware of the risk related to pollution exposure. Thus odor annoyances are considered a warning about the possible presence of toxic volatile compounds. Malodor often generates immediate alarm among citizens, and electronic noses are convenient instruments to detect mixture of odorant compounds with high monitoring frequency. In this paper we present a study on pattern recognition on ambient air composition in proximity of a gas and oil pretreatment plant by elaboration of data from an electronic nose implementing 10 metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sensors and positioned outdoor continuously during three months. A total of 80,017 e-nose vectors have been elaborated applying the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm and then k-means clustering on SOM outputs on the whole data set evidencing an anomalous data cluster. Retaining data characterized by dynamic responses of the multisensory system, a SOM with 264 recurrent sensor responses to air mixture sampled at the site and four main air type profiles (clusters) have been identified. One of this sensor profiles has been related to the odor fugitive emissions of the plant, by using ancillary data from a total volatile organic compound (VOC) detector and wind speed and direction data. The overall and daily cluster frequencies have been evaluated, allowing us to identify the daily duration of presence at the monitoring site of air related to industrial emissions. The refined model allowed us to confirm the anomaly detection of the sensor responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses and Tongues for Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
Exploiting Smart Contracts for Capability-Based Access Control in the Internet of Things
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1793; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20061793 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 17
Abstract
Due to the rapid penetration of the Internet of Things (IoT) into human life, illegal access to IoT resources (e.g., data and actuators) has greatly threatened our safety. Access control, which specifies who (i.e., subjects) can access what resources (i.e., objects) under what [...] Read more.
Due to the rapid penetration of the Internet of Things (IoT) into human life, illegal access to IoT resources (e.g., data and actuators) has greatly threatened our safety. Access control, which specifies who (i.e., subjects) can access what resources (i.e., objects) under what conditions, has been recognized as an effective solution to address this issue. To cope with the distributed and trust-less nature of IoT systems, we propose a decentralized and trustworthy Capability-Based Access Control (CapBAC) scheme by using the Ethereum smart contract technology. In this scheme, a smart contract is created for each object to store and manage the capability tokens (i.e., data structures recording granted access rights) assigned to the related subjects, and also to verify the ownership and validity of the tokens for access control. Different from previous schemes which manage the tokens in units of subjects, i.e., one token per subject, our scheme manages the tokens in units of access rights or actions, i.e., one token per action. Such novel management achieves more fine-grained and flexible capability delegation and also ensures the consistency between the delegation information and the information stored in the tokens. We implemented the proposed CapBAC scheme in a locally constructed Ethereum blockchain network to demonstrate its feasibility. In addition, we measured the monetary cost of our scheme in terms of gas consumption to compare our scheme with the existing Blockchain-Enabled Decentralized Capability-Based Access Control (BlendCAC) scheme proposed by other researchers. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the BlendCAC scheme in terms of the flexibility, granularity, and consistency of capability delegation at almost the same monetary cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Privacy for the Internet of Things)
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Article
Analysis of Machine Learning-Based Assessment for Elbow Spasticity Using Inertial Sensors
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1622; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20061622 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
Spasticity is a frequently observed symptom in patients with neurological impairments. Spastic movements of their upper and lower limbs are periodically measured to evaluate functional outcomes of physical rehabilitation, and they are quantified by clinical outcome measures such as the modified Ashworth scale [...] Read more.
Spasticity is a frequently observed symptom in patients with neurological impairments. Spastic movements of their upper and lower limbs are periodically measured to evaluate functional outcomes of physical rehabilitation, and they are quantified by clinical outcome measures such as the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). This study proposes a method to determine the severity of elbow spasticity, by analyzing the acceleration and rotation attributes collected from the elbow of the affected side of patients and machine-learning algorithms to classify the degree of spastic movement; this approach is comparable to assigning an MAS score. We collected inertial data from participants using a wearable device incorporating inertial measurement units during a passive stretch test. Machine-learning algorithms—including decision tree, random forests (RFs), support vector machine, linear discriminant analysis, and multilayer perceptrons—were evaluated in combinations of two segmentation techniques and feature sets. A RF performed well, achieving up to 95.4% accuracy. This work not only successfully demonstrates how wearable technology and machine learning can be used to generate a clinically meaningful index but also offers rehabilitation patients an opportunity to monitor the degree of spasticity, even in nonhealthcare institutions where the help of clinical professionals is unavailable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems for Rehabilitation)
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Article
Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Sensing Utilizing Spatial Phase Modulation in an Imaging Interferometer
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1616; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20061616 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Spatial phase modulation in an imaging interferometer is utilized in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensing of liquid analytes. In the interferometer, a collimated light beam from a laser diode irradiating at 637.1 nm is passing through a polarizer and is reflected from [...] Read more.
Spatial phase modulation in an imaging interferometer is utilized in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensing of liquid analytes. In the interferometer, a collimated light beam from a laser diode irradiating at 637.1 nm is passing through a polarizer and is reflected from a plasmonic structure of SF10/Cr/Au attached to a prism in the Kretschmann configuration. The beam passes through a combination of a Wollaston prism, a polarizer and a lens, and forms an interference pattern on a CCD sensor of a color camera. Interference patterns obtained for different liquid analytes are acquired and transferred to the computer for data processing. The sensing concept is based on the detection of a refractive index change, which is transformed via the SPR phenomenon into an interference fringe phase shift. By calculating the phase shift for the plasmonic structure of SF10/Cr/Au of known parameters we demonstrate that this technique can detect different weight concentrations of ethanol diluted in water, or equivalently, different changes in the refractive index. The sensitivity to the refractive index and the detection limit obtained are −278 rad/refractive-index-unit (RIU) and 3.6 × 10 6 RIU, respectively. The technique is demonstrated in experiments with the same liquid analytes as in the theory. Applying an original approach in retrieving the fringe phase shift, we revealed good agreement between experiment and theory, and the measured sensitivity to the refractive index and the detection limit reached −226 rad/RIU and 4.4 × 10 6 RIU, respectively. These results suggest that the SPR interferometer with the detection of a fringe phase shift is particularly useful in applications that require measuring refractive index changes with high sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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Article
Image-Based Phenotyping of Flowering Intensity in Cool-Season Crops
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1450; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20051450 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
The timing and duration of flowering are key agronomic traits that are often associated with the ability of a variety to escape abiotic stress such as heat and drought. Flowering information is valuable in both plant breeding and agricultural production management. Visual assessment, [...] Read more.
The timing and duration of flowering are key agronomic traits that are often associated with the ability of a variety to escape abiotic stress such as heat and drought. Flowering information is valuable in both plant breeding and agricultural production management. Visual assessment, the standard protocol used for phenotyping flowering, is a low-throughput and subjective method. In this study, we evaluated multiple imaging sensors (RGB and multiple multispectral cameras), image resolution (proximal/remote sensing at 1.6 to 30 m above ground level/AGL), and image processing (standard and unsupervised learning) techniques in monitoring flowering intensity of four cool-season crops (canola, camelina, chickpea, and pea) to enhance the accuracy and efficiency in quantifying flowering traits. The features (flower area, percentage of flower area with respect to canopy area) extracted from proximal (1.6–2.2 m AGL) RGB and multispectral (with near infrared, green and blue band) image data were strongly correlated (r up to 0.89) with visual rating scores, especially in pea and canola. The features extracted from unmanned aerial vehicle integrated RGB image data (15–30 m AGL) could also accurately detect and quantify large flowers of winter canola (r up to 0.84), spring canola (r up to 0.72), and pea (r up to 0.72), but not camelina or chickpea flowers. When standard image processing using thresholds and unsupervised machine learning such as k-means clustering were utilized for flower detection and feature extraction, the results were comparable. In general, for applicability of imaging for flower detection, it is recommended that the image data resolution (i.e., ground sampling distance) is at least 2–3 times smaller than that of the flower size. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing imaging for monitoring flowering intensity in multiple varieties of evaluated crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensor Technologies for Crop Phenotyping Application)
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Article
Towards Efficient Electricity Forecasting in Residential and Commercial Buildings: A Novel Hybrid CNN with a LSTM-AE based Framework
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1399; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20051399 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 28
Abstract
Due to industrialization and the rising demand for energy, global energy consumption has been rapidly increasing. Recent studies show that the biggest portion of energy is consumed in residential buildings, i.e., in European Union countries up to 40% of the total energy is [...] Read more.
Due to industrialization and the rising demand for energy, global energy consumption has been rapidly increasing. Recent studies show that the biggest portion of energy is consumed in residential buildings, i.e., in European Union countries up to 40% of the total energy is consumed by households. Most residential buildings and industrial zones are equipped with smart sensors such as metering electric sensors, that are inadequately utilized for better energy management. In this paper, we develop a hybrid convolutional neural network (CNN) with an long short-term memory autoencoder (LSTM-AE) model for future energy prediction in residential and commercial buildings. The central focus of this research work is to utilize the smart meters’ data for energy forecasting in order to enable appropriate energy management in buildings. We performed extensive research using several deep learning-based forecasting models and proposed an optimal hybrid CNN with the LSTM-AE model. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to incorporate the aforementioned models under the umbrella of a unified framework with some utility preprocessing. Initially, the CNN model extracts features from the input data, which are then fed to the LSTM-encoder to generate encoded sequences. The encoded sequences are decoded by another following LSTM-decoder to advance it to the final dense layer for energy prediction. The experimental results using different evaluation metrics show that the proposed hybrid model works well. Also, it records the smallest value for mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) when compared to other state-of-the-art forecasting methods over the UCI residential building dataset. Furthermore, we conducted experiments on Korean commercial building data and the results indicate that our proposed hybrid model is a worthy contribution to energy forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart IoT System for Renewable Energy Resource)
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Article
A Self-Powered Wireless Water Quality Sensing Network Enabling Smart Monitoring of Biological and Chemical Stability in Supply Systems
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20041125 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 15
Abstract
A smart, safe, and efficient management of water is fundamental for both developed and developing countries. Several wireless sensor networks have been proposed for real-time monitoring of drinking water quantity and quality, both in the environment and in pipelines. However, surface fouling significantly [...] Read more.
A smart, safe, and efficient management of water is fundamental for both developed and developing countries. Several wireless sensor networks have been proposed for real-time monitoring of drinking water quantity and quality, both in the environment and in pipelines. However, surface fouling significantly affects the long-term reliability of pipes and sensors installed in-line. To address this relevant issue, we presented a multi-parameter sensing node embedding a miniaturized slime monitor able to estimate the micrometric thickness and type of slime. The measurement of thin deposits in pipes is descriptive of water biological and chemical stability and enables early warning functions, predictive maintenance, and more efficient management processes. After the description of the sensing node, the related electronics, and the data processing strategies, we presented the results of a two-month validation in the field of a three-node pilot network. Furthermore, self-powering by means of direct energy harvesting from the water flowing through the sensing node was also demonstrated. The robustness and low cost of this solution enable its upscaling to larger monitoring networks, paving the way to water monitoring with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Systems in Smart Environments)
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Article
Embedded Fiber Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Strain of Polymeric Parts Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Reinforced with NiTi Wires
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20041122 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper focuses on three main issues regarding Material Extrusion (MEX) Additive Manufacturing (AM) of thermoplastic composites reinforced by pre-functionalized continuous Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) wires: (i) Evaluation of the effect of the MEX process on the properties of the pre-functionalized NiTi, (ii) evaluation of [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on three main issues regarding Material Extrusion (MEX) Additive Manufacturing (AM) of thermoplastic composites reinforced by pre-functionalized continuous Nickel–Titanium (NiTi) wires: (i) Evaluation of the effect of the MEX process on the properties of the pre-functionalized NiTi, (ii) evaluation of the mechanical and thermal behavior of the composite material during usage, (iii) the inspection of the parts by Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). For this purpose, an optical fiber sensing network, based on fiber Bragg grating and a cascaded optical fiber sensor, was successfully embedded during the 3D printing of a polylactic acid (PLA) matrix reinforced by NiTi wires. Thermal and mechanical perturbations were successfully registered as a consequence of thermal and mechanical stimuli. During a heating/cooling cycle, a maximum contraction of ≈100 µm was detected by the cascaded sensor in the PLA material at the end of the heating step (induced by Joule effect) of NiTi wires and a thermal perturbation associated with the structural transformation of austenite to R-phase was observed during the natural cooling step, near 33.0 °C. Regarding tensile cycling tests, higher increases in temperature arose when the applied force ranged between 0.7 and 1.1 kN, reaching a maximum temperature variation of 9.5 ± 0.1 °C. During the unload step, a slope change in the temperature behavior was detected, which is associated with the material transformation of the NiTi wire (martensite to austenite). The embedded optical sensing methodology presented here proved to be an effective and precise tool to identify structural transformations regarding the specific application as a Non-Destructive Testing for AM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring)
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Article
Assessment of the Potential of Wrist-Worn Wearable Sensors for Driver Drowsiness Detection
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1029; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20041029 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
Drowsy driving imposes a high safety risk. Current systems often use driving behavior parameters for driver drowsiness detection. The continuous driving automation reduces the availability of these parameters, therefore reducing the scope of such methods. Especially, techniques that include physiological measurements seem to [...] Read more.
Drowsy driving imposes a high safety risk. Current systems often use driving behavior parameters for driver drowsiness detection. The continuous driving automation reduces the availability of these parameters, therefore reducing the scope of such methods. Especially, techniques that include physiological measurements seem to be a promising alternative. However, in a dynamic environment such as driving, only non- or minimal intrusive methods are accepted, and vibrations from the roadbed could lead to degraded sensor technology. This work contributes to driver drowsiness detection with a machine learning approach applied solely to physiological data collected from a non-intrusive retrofittable system in the form of a wrist-worn wearable sensor. To check accuracy and feasibility, results are compared with reference data from a medical-grade ECG device. A user study with 30 participants in a high-fidelity driving simulator was conducted. Several machine learning algorithms for binary classification were applied in user-dependent and independent tests. Results provide evidence that the non-intrusive setting achieves a similar accuracy as compared to the medical-grade device, and high accuracies (>92%) could be achieved, especially in a user-dependent scenario. The proposed approach offers new possibilities for human–machine interaction in a car and especially for driver state monitoring in the field of automated driving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Machine Interaction and Sensors)
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Article
Evaluation of HoloLens Tracking and Depth Sensing for Indoor Mapping Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20041021 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 19
Abstract
The Microsoft HoloLens is a head-worn mobile augmented reality device that is capable of mapping its direct environment in real-time as triangle meshes and localize itself within these three-dimensional meshes simultaneously. The device is equipped with a variety of sensors including four tracking [...] Read more.
The Microsoft HoloLens is a head-worn mobile augmented reality device that is capable of mapping its direct environment in real-time as triangle meshes and localize itself within these three-dimensional meshes simultaneously. The device is equipped with a variety of sensors including four tracking cameras and a time-of-flight (ToF) range camera. Sensor images and their poses estimated by the built-in tracking system can be accessed by the user. This makes the HoloLens potentially interesting as an indoor mapping device. In this paper, we introduce the different sensors of the device and evaluate the complete system in respect of the task of mapping indoor environments. The overall quality of such a system depends mainly on the quality of the depth sensor together with its associated pose derived from the tracking system. For this purpose, we first evaluate the performance of the HoloLens depth sensor and its tracking system separately. Finally, we evaluate the overall system regarding its capability for mapping multi-room environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Construction Automation and Management)
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Article
Detection of Early Signs of Diabetic Retinopathy Based on Textural and Morphological Information in Fundus Images
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1005; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20041005 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 18
Abstract
Estimated blind people in the world will exceed 40 million by 2025. To develop novel algorithms based on fundus image descriptors that allow the automatic classification of retinal tissue into healthy and pathological in early stages is necessary. In this paper, we focus [...] Read more.
Estimated blind people in the world will exceed 40 million by 2025. To develop novel algorithms based on fundus image descriptors that allow the automatic classification of retinal tissue into healthy and pathological in early stages is necessary. In this paper, we focus on one of the most common pathologies in the current society: diabetic retinopathy. The proposed method avoids the necessity of lesion segmentation or candidate map generation before the classification stage. Local binary patterns and granulometric profiles are locally computed to extract texture and morphological information from retinal images. Different combinations of this information feed classification algorithms to optimally discriminate bright and dark lesions from healthy tissues. Through several experiments, the ability of the proposed system to identify diabetic retinopathy signs is validated using different public databases with a large degree of variability and without image exclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Medical Sensors)
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Article
Processing of Near Real Time Land Surface Temperature and Its Application in Forecasting Forest Fire Danger Conditions
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 984; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20040984 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Near real time (NRT) remote sensing derived land surface temperature (Ts) data has an utmost importance in various applications of natural hazards and disasters. Space-based instrument MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) acquired NRT data products of Ts are made available for the users [...] Read more.
Near real time (NRT) remote sensing derived land surface temperature (Ts) data has an utmost importance in various applications of natural hazards and disasters. Space-based instrument MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) acquired NRT data products of Ts are made available for the users by LANCE (Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability) for Earth Observing System (EOS) of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) free of cost. Such Ts products are swath data with 5 min temporal increments of satellite acquisition, and the average latency is 60-125 min to be available in public domain. The swath data of Ts requires a specialized tool, i.e., HEG (HDF-EOS to GeoTIFF conversion tool) to process and make the data useful for further analysis. However, the file naming convention of the available swath data files in LANCE is not appropriate to download for an area of interest (AOI) to be processed by HEG. In this study, we developed a method/algorithm to overcome such issues in identifying the appropriate swath data files for an AOI that would be able to further processes supported by the HEG. In this case, we used Terra MODIS acquired NRT swath data of Ts, and further applied it to an existing framework of forecasting forest fires (as a case study) for the performance evaluation of our processed Ts. We were successful in selecting appropriate swath data files of Ts for our study area that was further processed by HEG, and finally were able to generate fire danger map in the existing forecasting model. Our proposed method/algorithm could be applied on any swath data product available in LANCE for any location in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics in Wildfire Management)
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Article
Secure Authentication and Credential Establishment in Narrowband IoT and 5G
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 882; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030882 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
Security is critical in the deployment and maintenance of novel IoT and 5G networks. The process of bootstrapping is required to establish a secure data exchange between IoT devices and data-driven platforms. It entails, among other steps, authentication, authorization, and credential management. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Security is critical in the deployment and maintenance of novel IoT and 5G networks. The process of bootstrapping is required to establish a secure data exchange between IoT devices and data-driven platforms. It entails, among other steps, authentication, authorization, and credential management. Nevertheless, there are few efforts dedicated to providing service access authentication in the area of constrained IoT devices connected to recent wireless networks such as narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and 5G. Therefore, this paper presents the adaptation of bootstrapping protocols to be compliant with the 3GPP specifications in order to enable the 5G feature of secondary authentication for constrained IoT devices. To allow the secondary authentication and key establishment in NB-IoT and 4G/5G environments, we have adapted two Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) lower layers, i.e., PANATIKI and LO-CoAP-EAP. In fact, this approach presents the evaluation of both aforementioned EAP lower layers, showing the contrast between a current EAP lower layer standard, i.e., PANA, and one specifically designed with the constraints of IoT, thus providing high flexibility and scalability in the bootstrapping process in 5G networks. The proposed solution is evaluated to prove its efficiency and feasibility, being one of the first efforts to support secure service authentication and key establishment for constrained IoT devices in 5G environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Global IoT Summit)
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Article
Modelling Remote Sensing Reflectance to Detect Dispersed Oil at Sea
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 863; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030863 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
This paper presents a model of upwelling radiation above the seawater surface in the event of a threat of dispersed oil. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate a large number of solar photons in the water, eventually obtaining values of remote [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model of upwelling radiation above the seawater surface in the event of a threat of dispersed oil. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate a large number of solar photons in the water, eventually obtaining values of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Analyses were performed for the optical properties of seawater characteristic for the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea). The case of seawater contaminated by dispersed oil at a concentration of 10 ppm was also discussed for different wind speeds. Two types of oils with extremely different optical properties (refraction and absorption coefficients) were taken into account for consideration. The optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients and angular light scattering distribution) of the oil-in-water dispersion system were determined using the Mie theory. The spectral index for oil detection in seawater for different wind conditions was determined based on the results obtained for reflectance at selected wavelengths in the range 412–676 nm. The determined spectral index for seawater free of oil achieves higher values for seawater contaminated by oil. The analysis of the values of the spectral indices calculated for 28 combinations of wavelengths was used to identify the most universal spectral index of Rrs for 555 nm/440 nm for dispersed oil detection using any optical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour: Theory and Applications)
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Article
5G support for Industrial IoT Applications— Challenges, Solutions, and Research gaps
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 828; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030828 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 46
Abstract
Industrial IoT has special communication requirements, including high reliability, low latency, flexibility, and security. These are instinctively provided by the 5G mobile technology, making it a successful candidate for supporting Industrial IoT (IIoT) scenarios. The aim of this paper is to identify current [...] Read more.
Industrial IoT has special communication requirements, including high reliability, low latency, flexibility, and security. These are instinctively provided by the 5G mobile technology, making it a successful candidate for supporting Industrial IoT (IIoT) scenarios. The aim of this paper is to identify current research challenges and solutions in relation to 5G-enabled Industrial IoT, based on the initial requirements and promises of both domains. The methodology of the paper follows the steps of surveying state-of-the art, comparing results to identify further challenges, and drawing conclusions as lessons learned for each research domain. These areas include IIoT applications and their requirements; mobile edge cloud; back-end performance tuning; network function virtualization; and security, blockchains for IIoT, Artificial Intelligence support for 5G, and private campus networks. Beside surveying the current challenges and solutions, the paper aims to provide meaningful comparisons for each of these areas (in relation to 5G-enabled IIoT) to draw conclusions on current research gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Article
Accuracy of Trajectory Tracking Based on Nonlinear Guidance Logic for Hydrographic Unmanned Surface Vessels
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 832; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030832 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 13
Abstract
A new trend in recent years for hydrographic measurement in water bodies is the use of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). In the process of navigation by USVs, it is particularly important to control position precisely on the measuring profile. Precise navigation with respect [...] Read more.
A new trend in recent years for hydrographic measurement in water bodies is the use of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). In the process of navigation by USVs, it is particularly important to control position precisely on the measuring profile. Precise navigation with respect to the measuring profile avoids registration of redundant data and thus saves time and survey costs. This article addresses the issue of precise navigation of the hydrographic unit on the measuring profile with the use of a nonlinear adaptive autopilot. The results of experiments concerning hydrographic measurements performed in real conditions using an USV are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Vessel Detection and Navigation)
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Article
Evaluating the Vulnerability of Several Geodetic GNSS Receivers under Chirp Signal L1/E1 Jamming
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030814 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
Understanding the factors that might intentionally influence the reception of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals can be a challenging topic today. The focus of this research is to evaluate the vulnerability of geodetic GNSS receivers under the use of a low-cost L1/E1 [...] Read more.
Understanding the factors that might intentionally influence the reception of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals can be a challenging topic today. The focus of this research is to evaluate the vulnerability of geodetic GNSS receivers under the use of a low-cost L1/E1 frequency jammer. A suitable area for testing was established in Slovenia. Nine receivers from different manufacturers were under consideration in this study. While positioning, intentional 3-minute jammings were performed by a jammer that was located statically at different distances from receivers. Furthermore, kinematic disturbances were performed using a jammer placed in a vehicle that passed the testing area at various speeds. An analysis of different scenarios indicated that despite the use of an L1/E1 jammer, the GLONASS (Russian: Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema) and Galileo signals were also affected, either due to the increased carrier-to-noise-ratio (C/N0) or, in the worst cases, by a loss-of-signal. A jammer could substantially affect the position, either with a lack of any practical solution or even with a wrong position. Maximal errors in the carrier-phase positions, which should be considered a concern for geodesy, differed by a few metres from the exact solution. The factor that completely disabled the signal reception was the proximity of a jammer, regardless of its static or kinematic mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Data Processing and Navigation)
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Article
IoT Based Architecture for Model Predictive Control of HVAC Systems in Smart Buildings
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 781; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030781 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 31
Abstract
The efficient management of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart buildings is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. In this paper we propose an IoT based architecture for the implementation of Model Predictive Control [...] Read more.
The efficient management of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart buildings is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. In this paper we propose an IoT based architecture for the implementation of Model Predictive Control (MPC) of HVAC systems in real environments. The considered MPC algorithm optimizes on line, in a closed-loop control fashion, both the indoor thermal comfort and the related energy consumption for a single zone environment. Thanks to the proposed IoT based architecture, the sensing, control, and actuating subsystems are all connected to the Internet, and a remote interface with the HVAC control system is guaranteed to end-users. In particular, sensors and actuators communicate with a remote database server and a control unit, which provides the control actions to be actuated in the HVAC system; users can set remotely the control mode and related set-points of the system; while comfort and environmental indices are transferred via the Internet and displayed on the end-users’ interface. The proposed IoT based control architecture is implemented and tested in a campus building at the Polytechnic of Bari (Italy) in a proof of concept perspective. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is assessed in the real environment evaluating both the thermal comfort results and the energy savings with respect to a classical thermostat regulation approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Based Smart Grid in Internet of Things Era)
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Article
Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Episodes in Long-Term Heart Rhythm Signals Using a Support Vector Machine
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 765; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20030765 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a serious heart arrhythmia leading to a significant increase of the risk for occurrence of ischemic stroke. Clinically, the AF episode is recognized in an electrocardiogram. However, detection of asymptomatic AF, which requires a long-term monitoring, is more efficient [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a serious heart arrhythmia leading to a significant increase of the risk for occurrence of ischemic stroke. Clinically, the AF episode is recognized in an electrocardiogram. However, detection of asymptomatic AF, which requires a long-term monitoring, is more efficient when based on irregularity of beat-to-beat intervals estimated by the heart rate (HR) features. Automated classification of heartbeats into AF and non-AF by means of the Lagrangian Support Vector Machine has been proposed. The classifier input vector consisted of sixteen features, including four coefficients very sensitive to beat-to-beat heart changes, taken from the fetal heart rate analysis in perinatal medicine. Effectiveness of the proposed classifier has been verified on the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database. Designing of the LSVM classifier using very large number of feature vectors requires extreme computational efforts. Therefore, an original approach has been proposed to determine a training set of the smallest possible size that still would guarantee a high quality of AF detection. It enables to obtain satisfactory results using only 1.39% of all heartbeats as the training data. Post-processing stage based on aggregation of classified heartbeats into AF episodes has been applied to provide more reliable information on patient risk. Results obtained during the testing phase showed the sensitivity of 98.94%, positive predictive value of 98.39%, and classification accuracy of 98.86%. Full article
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Article
Video Image Enhancement and Machine Learning Pipeline for Underwater Animal Detection and Classification at Cabled Observatories