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Special Issue "Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yeshaiahu Fainman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Interests: biosensing; nanophotonics; optofluidics; nanoplasmonics; quantum/classical information processing; nanolithography
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical resonant sensors utilizing optical feedback in a resonator or resonant wave-coupling to achieve “longer” interaction length for enhanced sensitivity have been developed for many years. The feedback mechanism in such resonant geometries as microcavity in a photonic crystal lattice, microring, microsphere, microtoroid and microdisk have been employed for shaping resonant transmission or reflection spectrum with the objective to enhance its spectral resolution. A complementary approach uses surface plasmon-polariton resonance (SPR) phenomena for sensing applications. In SPR sensor, an evanescently coupled optical field resonantly excites a surface plasmon-polariton wave which is employed to monitor the metal-dielectric interface by monitoring the resonantly transmitted or reflected light which provide comparable sensor sensitivity. Recent advance in micro/nano fabrication technology allows for miniaturization and cost-effective manufacturing of such optical resonant sensor devices with retained sensing sensitivity. Moreover, chip-scale integration of microfluidics with optics will enable analyte preparation and delivery for optical interrogation by photonic integrated circuit that includes light source, light guiding, manipulation, optical resonant sensor and detection elements. Ideal biomedical sensors will not only maximize the optical localization (i.e., localize the electromagnetic energy in a small mode volume) but also enforce maximal overlap between this localized field and the volume of biomolecular interactions. Furthermore, because of its smaller footprint dimensions, a large array of sensors can be made on the single sensor chip allowing us to perform high throughput monitoring and detection to realize multiple sensing modalities, employ signal and information processing with sensor fusion, and, thereby, improve detection accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Various potential applications such as label-free immunoassays, projection on biomarkers, chemical sensors, and precision temperature and pressure measurements will benefit from the developments of resonant microsensors arrays integrated with analyte or sample delivery subsystem on the same chip-scale platform to enable fusion of detected information exploiting advanced signal and information processing methods.

Prof. Dr. Yeshaiahu (Shaya) Fainman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • optical resonator
  • plasmon resonance
  • resonant cavity
  • microcavity
  • surface plasmon resonance
  • nanoplasmonic sensor
  • whispering-gallery mode
  • high Q-factor resonant microsensor
  • photonic crystal resonator
  • waveguide resonator
  • microtoroidal structure
  • microsensor chip
  • microring
  • microdisk
  • microsphere
  • microfluidic
  • protein chips
  • immunochips
  • microarrays
  • immunosensors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Mass Detection in Viscous Fluid Utilizing Vibrating Micro- and Nanomechanical Mass Sensors under Applied Axial Tensile Force
Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19351-19368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s150819351 - 06 Aug 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
Vibrating micro- and nanomechanical mass sensors are capable of quantitatively determining attached mass from only the first three (two) measured cantilever (suspended) resonant frequencies. However, in aqueous solutions that are relevant to most biological systems, the mass determination is challenging because the quality [...] Read more.
Vibrating micro- and nanomechanical mass sensors are capable of quantitatively determining attached mass from only the first three (two) measured cantilever (suspended) resonant frequencies. However, in aqueous solutions that are relevant to most biological systems, the mass determination is challenging because the quality factor (Q-factor) due to fluid damping decreases and, as a result, usually just the fundamental resonant frequencies can be correctly identified. Moreover, for higher modes the resonance coupling, noise, and internal damping have been proven to strongly affect the measured resonances and, correspondingly, the accuracy of estimated masses. In this work, a technique capable of determining the mass for the cantilever and also the position of nanobeads attached on the vibrating micro-/nanomechanical beam under intentionally applied axial tensile force from the measured fundamental flexural resonant frequencies is proposed. The axial force can be created and controlled through an external electrostatic or magnetostatic field. Practicality of the proposed technique is confirmed on the suspended multi-walled carbon nanotube and the rectangular silicon cantilever-based mass sensors. We show that typically achievable force resolution has a negligibly small impact on the accuracy of mass measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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Article
A New Z-axis Resonant Micro-Accelerometer Based on Electrostatic Stiffness
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 687-702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s150100687 - 05 Jan 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3637
Abstract
Presented in the paper is the design, the simulation, the fabrication and the experiment of a new z-axis resonant accelerometer based on the electrostatic stiffness. The new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer, which consists of a torsional accelerometer and two plane resonators, decouples [...] Read more.
Presented in the paper is the design, the simulation, the fabrication and the experiment of a new z-axis resonant accelerometer based on the electrostatic stiffness. The new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer, which consists of a torsional accelerometer and two plane resonators, decouples the sensing movement of the accelerometer from the oscillation of the plane resonators by electrostatic stiffness, which will improve the performance. The new structure and the sensitive theory of the acceleration are illuminated, and the equation of the scale factor is deduced under ideal conditions firstly. The Ansys simulation is implemented to verify the basic principle of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator individually. The structure simulation results prove that the effective frequency of the torsional accelerometer and the plane resonator are 0.66 kHz and 13.3 kHz, respectively. Then, the new structure is fabricated by the standard three-mask deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process and encapsulated by parallel seam welding. Finally, the detecting and control circuits are designed to achieve the closed-loop self-oscillation, to trace the natural frequency of resonator and to measure the system frequency. Experimental results show that the new z-axis resonant accelerometer has a scale factor of 31.65 Hz/g, a bias stability of 727 µg and a dynamic range of over 10 g, which proves that the new z-axis resonant micro-accelerometer is practicable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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Article
An Improved Performance Frequency Estimation Algorithm for Passive Wireless SAW Resonant Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22261-22273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s141222261 - 25 Nov 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3224
Abstract
Passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonant sensors are suitable for applications in harsh environments. The traditional SAW resonant sensor system requires, however, Fourier transformation (FT) which has a resolution restriction and decreases the accuracy. In order to improve the accuracy and resolution [...] Read more.
Passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonant sensors are suitable for applications in harsh environments. The traditional SAW resonant sensor system requires, however, Fourier transformation (FT) which has a resolution restriction and decreases the accuracy. In order to improve the accuracy and resolution of the measurement, the singular value decomposition (SVD)-based frequency estimation algorithm is applied for wireless SAW resonant sensor responses, which is a combination of a single tone undamped and damped sinusoid signal with the same frequency. Compared with the FT algorithm, the accuracy and the resolution of the method used in the self-developed wireless SAW resonant sensor system are validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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Article
Temperature Sensing in Seawater Based on Microfiber Knot Resonator
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 18515-18525; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s141018515 - 08 Oct 2014
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
Ocean internal-wave phenomena occur with the variation in seawater vertical temperature, and most internal-wave detections are dependent on the measurement of seawater vertical temperature. A seawater temperature sensor based on a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) is designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally in this [...] Read more.
Ocean internal-wave phenomena occur with the variation in seawater vertical temperature, and most internal-wave detections are dependent on the measurement of seawater vertical temperature. A seawater temperature sensor based on a microfiber knot resonator (MKR) is designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally in this paper. Especially, the dependences of sensing sensitivity on fiber diameter and probing wavelength are studied. Calculated results show that sensing sensitivity increases with the increasing microfiber diameter with the range of 2.30–3.91 μm and increases with the increasing probing wavelength, which reach good agreement with results obtained by experiments. By choosing the appropriate parameters, the maximum sensitivity measured can reach to be 22.81 pm/°C. The seawater temperature sensor demonstrated here shows advantages of small size, high sensitivity, easy fabrication, and easy integration with fiber systems, which may offer a new optical method to detect temperature of seawater or ocean internal-wave phenomenon and offer valuable reference for assembling micro sensors used for other parameters related to seawater, such as salinity, refractive index, concentration of NO3 and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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Review

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Review
Nucleic Acid Aptamers: An Emerging Tool for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sensing
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 16281-16313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s150716281 - 06 Jul 2015
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 5714
Abstract
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities [...] Read more.
Detection of small molecules or proteins of living cells provides an exceptional opportunity to study genetic variations and functions, cellular behaviors, and various diseases including cancer and microbial infections. Our aim in this review is to give an overview of selected research activities related to nucleic acid-based aptamer techniques that have been reported in the past two decades. Limitations of aptamers and possible approaches to overcome these limitations are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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Review
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing: Current Challenges and Approaches
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 15684-15716; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s150715684 - 02 Jul 2015
Cited by 245 | Viewed by 9381
Abstract
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has emerged as a leader among label-free biosensing techniques in that it offers sensitive, robust, and facile detection. Traditional LSPR-based biosensing utilizes the sensitivity of the plasmon frequency to changes in local index of refraction at the nanoparticle [...] Read more.
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has emerged as a leader among label-free biosensing techniques in that it offers sensitive, robust, and facile detection. Traditional LSPR-based biosensing utilizes the sensitivity of the plasmon frequency to changes in local index of refraction at the nanoparticle surface. Although surface plasmon resonance technologies are now widely used to measure biomolecular interactions, several challenges remain. In this article, we have categorized these challenges into four categories: improving sensitivity and limit of detection, selectivity in complex biological solutions, sensitive detection of membrane-associated species, and the adaptation of sensing elements for point-of-care diagnostic devices. The first section of this article will involve a conceptual discussion of surface plasmon resonance and the factors affecting changes in optical signal detected. The following sections will discuss applications of LSPR biosensing with an emphasis on recent advances and approaches to overcome the four limitations mentioned above. First, improvements in limit of detection through various amplification strategies will be highlighted. The second section will involve advances to improve selectivity in complex media through self-assembled monolayers, “plasmon ruler” devices involving plasmonic coupling, and shape complementarity on the nanoparticle surface. The following section will describe various LSPR platforms designed for the sensitive detection of membrane-associated species. Finally, recent advances towards multiplexed and microfluidic LSPR-based devices for inexpensive, rapid, point-of-care diagnostics will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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Review
Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Versatile Technique for Biosensor Applications
Sensors 2015, 15(5), 10481-10510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s150510481 - 05 May 2015
Cited by 517 | Viewed by 15856
Abstract
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free detection method which has emerged during the last two decades as a suitable and reliable platform in clinical analysis for biomolecular interactions. The technique makes it possible to measure interactions in real-time with high sensitivity and [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free detection method which has emerged during the last two decades as a suitable and reliable platform in clinical analysis for biomolecular interactions. The technique makes it possible to measure interactions in real-time with high sensitivity and without the need of labels. This review article discusses a wide range of applications in optical-based sensors using either surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). Here we summarize the principles, provide examples, and illustrate the utility of SPR and SPRI through example applications from the biomedical, proteomics, genomics and bioengineering fields. In addition, SPR signal amplification strategies and surface functionalization are covered in the review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonant Sensors and Sensor Fusion)
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