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Special Issue "Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Susana Lagüela López
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cartographic and Land Engineering Department, Higher Polytechnic School of Avila, University of Salamanca, Hornos Caleros, 50 05003 Avila, Spain
Interests: infrared thermography; laser scanning; ground-penetrating radar; 3D modeling; renewable energy; civil and environmental engineering; geographic information systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Susana Del Pozo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cartographic and Land Engineering Department, Higher Polytechnic School of Avila, University of Salamanca, Hornos Caleros, 50 05003, Avila, Spain
Interests: multisensor multi-source data analysis; satellite imagery; geographic information systems; crop mapping; irrigation activity detection; remote sensing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rocío Ballesteros González
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Crop Production and Agricultural Technology Department, Higher Agricultural and Forestry Engineering School, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n 02051 Albacete, Spain
Interests: precision agriculture; forestry; unmanned aerial vehicles; satellite imagery; irrigation management; soil science; fertility; remote sensing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the main goals of global sustainable development is environmental care in order to ensure terrestrial ecosystems and oceans conservation for the future. For this purpose, new methods and strategies, such as data acquisition from space-borne and aerial platforms, provide a wide range of possibilities related to analysing, controlling, and monitoring large forestry and agricultural ecosystems and studying their evolution or conservation status.

Deeper knowledge of natural resources, both land and water, requires the availability of data from multiple sources that allow their characterization by performing different analyses, such as energy, mass, and thermal balances. The different nature of required parameters opens the field, not only to electrical, structural, and meteorological sensors, but also to 2D and 3D sensors, such as multispectral, LiDAR, and geophysical sensors. The need to control the specific location of each measurement in order to associate each parameter with its coordinates includes the need for positioning sensors, such as GPS and INSS.

The association of parameters measured with sensors of different nature makes essential acquisition developing and processing strategies that ensure sensor synchronization and further data coregistration.

This Special Issue welcomes original contributions to the field of telemetry and monitoring applied to land covers studies.

Topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Novel sensor networks for land and water monitoring;
  • Novel sensors and strategies for land and water studies;
  • Satellite and aerial platforms for large-scale data acquisition;
  • Techniques for data processing applied to land and water observation;
  • Modelling of land cover changes;
  • Water resources modelling;
  • Data acquisition and transmission under extreme events.

Dr. Susana Lagüela López
Dr. Susana Del Pozo
Dr. Rocío Ballesteros González
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Remote sensing
  • Water monitoring
  • Land monitoring
  • Crop monitoring
  • Land resources management
  • Soil moisture
  • Optical sensing
  • Thermal sensing
  • Sensing technologies.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Advanced Real-Time Monitoring of Rainfall Using Commercial Satellite Broadcasting Service: A Case Study
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s21030691 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Correct regulation of meteoric surface and subsurface flow waters is a fundamental goal for the sustainable development of the territories. A new system, aimed at real-time monitoring of the rainfall and of the cumulated rainfall, is introduced and discussed in the present paper. [...] Read more.
Correct regulation of meteoric surface and subsurface flow waters is a fundamental goal for the sustainable development of the territories. A new system, aimed at real-time monitoring of the rainfall and of the cumulated rainfall, is introduced and discussed in the present paper. The system implements a Sensor Network based on the IoT paradigm and can cover safety-critical “hot spots” with a relatively small number of sensors, strategically placed, in areas not covered by traditional weather radars and rain gauges, and lowering the costs of deployment and maintenance with respects to these devices. A real application case, based on the implementation of the pilot plant at the Monte Scarpino landfill (Genoa, Italy), is presented and discussed. The system performances are assessed on the basis of comparisons with data provided by a polarimetric weather radar and by a traditional rain gauge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Article
Coastal Land Cover Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using Attention-Driven Context Encoding Network
Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7032; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20247032 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
Low inter-class variance and complex spatial details exist in ground objects of the coastal zone, which leads to a challenging task for coastal land cover classification (CLCC) from high-resolution remote sensing images. Recently, fully convolutional neural networks have been widely used in CLCC. [...] Read more.
Low inter-class variance and complex spatial details exist in ground objects of the coastal zone, which leads to a challenging task for coastal land cover classification (CLCC) from high-resolution remote sensing images. Recently, fully convolutional neural networks have been widely used in CLCC. However, the inherent structure of the convolutional operator limits the receptive field, resulting in capturing the local context. Additionally, complex decoders bring additional information redundancy and computational burden. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel attention-driven context encoding network to solve these problems. Among them, lightweight global feature attention modules are employed to aggregate multi-scale spatial details in the decoding stage. Meanwhile, position and channel attention modules with long-range dependencies are embedded to enhance feature representations of specific categories by capturing the multi-dimensional global context. Additionally, multiple objective functions are introduced to supervise and optimize feature information at specific scales. We apply the proposed method in CLCC tasks of two study areas and compare it with other state-of-the-art approaches. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves the optimal performances in encoding long-range context and recognizing spatial details and obtains the optimum representations in evaluation indexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Article
Implementation and Evaluation of Open-Source Hardware to Monitor Water Quality in Precision Aquaculture
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20216112 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
Precision aquaculture is a new field that allows farmers to have better control over aquaculture processes, facilitating decision-making and improving efficiency. The implementation and evaluation of a low-cost water-quality monitoring system based on open-source hardware, which is easy to rebuild for scientific applications, [...] Read more.
Precision aquaculture is a new field that allows farmers to have better control over aquaculture processes, facilitating decision-making and improving efficiency. The implementation and evaluation of a low-cost water-quality monitoring system based on open-source hardware, which is easy to rebuild for scientific applications, is reported in this paper. The proposed system measures temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, taking records and sending information through a wireless protocol (ZigBee) to a graphical user interface which can display information numerically and graphically, as well as simultaneously storing the information in a database. These variables are very important for aquaculture, as they have a direct influence on critical culture parameters such as growth and survival. Although it is a low-cost system, it offers good quality data and demonstrates efficiency for its use in precision aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Article
Multiplexed Immunosensor Based on the Amperometric Transduction for Monitoring of Marine Pollutants in Sea Water
Sensors 2020, 20(19), 5532; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20195532 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Environmental pollutants vigilance is one of the main problems that the aquaculture industry has to face with the objective to ensure the quality of their products and prevent entrance in the food chain that finally may arrive to the consumer. Contaminants such as [...] Read more.
Environmental pollutants vigilance is one of the main problems that the aquaculture industry has to face with the objective to ensure the quality of their products and prevent entrance in the food chain that finally may arrive to the consumer. Contaminants such as hormones, antibiotics or biocides are especially relevant due to their toxicity, pharmacological effect or hormonal activity that can be considered harmful for the final consumer. The contaminants can be detected in the environment where the food is growing, and their concentration can be found (i.e., seawater) in the range of µg·L−1, ng·L−1 or even in lower concentrations. Thus, sensitive and selective methods for their monitoring are required to avoid their arrival in the food chain. Here, the development of a multiplexed amperometric biosensor is described, based on the use of specific antibodies to reach the necessary detectability to measure the targeted contaminants directly in seawater. The multiplexed immunosensor allows the detection of four relevant pollutants, such as el Irgarol 1051, sulfapyridine, chloramphenicol and estradiol, reaching an IC50 of 5.04 ± 0.29, 3.45 ± 0.29, 4.17 ± 0.44 and 5.94 ± 0.28 µg·L−1, directly measured in seawater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Article
Bathymetric Monitoring of Alluvial River Bottom Changes for Purposes of Stability of Water Power Plant Structure with a New Methodology for River Bottom Hazard Mapping (Wloclawek, Poland)
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 5004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20175004 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 677
Abstract
The aim of this research was to produce a new methodology for a special river bottom hazard mapping for the stability purposes of the biggest Polish water power plant: Włocławek. During the operation period of the water power plant, an engineering-geological issue in [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to produce a new methodology for a special river bottom hazard mapping for the stability purposes of the biggest Polish water power plant: Włocławek. During the operation period of the water power plant, an engineering-geological issue in the form of pothole formation on the Wisła River bed in the gravel-sand alluvium was observed. This was caused by increased fluvial erosion resulting from a reduced water level behind the power plant, along with frequent changes in the water flow rates and water levels caused by the varying technological and economic operation needs of the power plant. Data for the research were obtained by way of a 4-year geodetic/bathymetric monitoring of the river bed implemented using integrated GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), RTS (Robotized Total Station) and SBES (Single Beam Echo Sounder) methods. The result is a customized river bottom hazard map which takes into account a high, medium, and low risk levels of the potholes for the water power plant structure. This map was used to redevelop the river bed by filling. The findings show that high hazard is related to 5% of potholes (capacity of 4308 m3), medium with 38% of potholes (capacity of 36,455 m3), and low hazard with 57% of potholes (capacity of 54,396 m3). Since the construction of the dam, changes due to erosion identified by the monitoring have concerned approximately 405,252 m3 of the bottom, which corresponds to 130 Olympic-size pools. This implies enormous changes, while a possible solution could be the construction of additional cascades on the Wisła River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Article
Multi-Faceted Environmental Analysis to Improve the Quality of Anthropogenic Water Reservoirs (Paprocany Reservoir Case Study)
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2626; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20092626 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Maintaining good condition of dam reservoirs in urban areas seems increasingly important due to their valuable role in mitigating the effects of global warming. The aim of this study is to analyze possibilities to improve water quality and ecosystem condition of the Paprocany [...] Read more.
Maintaining good condition of dam reservoirs in urban areas seems increasingly important due to their valuable role in mitigating the effects of global warming. The aim of this study is to analyze possibilities to improve water quality and ecosystem condition of the Paprocany dam reservoir (highly urbanized area of southern Poland) using current data of the water parameters, historical sources, and DPSIR (Driver–Pressure–State–Impact–Response) and 3D modeling concerning human activity and the global warming effects. In its history Paprocany reservoir overcame numerous hydrotechnical changes influencing its present functioning. Also, its current state is significantly influenced by saline water from the coal mine (5 g L−1 of chlorides and sulphates) and biogenic elements in recreational area (about 70 mg L−1 of chlorate and to 1.9 mg L−1 Kjeldahl nitrogen) and in sediments (222.66 Mg of Kjeldahl nitrogen, 45.65 Mg of P, and 1.03 Mg of assimilable phosphorus). Concluding, the best solutions to improve the Paprocany reservoir water quality comprise: increasing alimentation with water and shortening the water exchange time, restoration of the 19th century water treatment plant, and wetlands and reed bed area revitalization. The study also proved the applicability of mathematical models in planning of the actions and anticipating their efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Article
Design and Experiments of a Water Color Remote Sensing-Oriented Unmanned Surface Vehicle
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20082183 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Integrated and intelligent in situ observations are important for the remote sensing monitoring of dynamic water environments. To meet the field investigation requirements of ocean color remote sensing, we developed a water color remote sensing-oriented unmanned surface vehicle (WC-USV), which consisted of an [...] Read more.
Integrated and intelligent in situ observations are important for the remote sensing monitoring of dynamic water environments. To meet the field investigation requirements of ocean color remote sensing, we developed a water color remote sensing-oriented unmanned surface vehicle (WC-USV), which consisted of an unmanned surface vehicle platform with ground control station, data acquisition, and transmission modules. The WC-USV was designed with functions, such as remote controlling, status monitoring, automatic obstacle avoidance, and water and meteorological parameter measurement acquisition, transmission, and processing. The key data acquisition module consisted of four parts: A floating optical buoy (FOBY) for collecting remote sensing reflectance ( R r s ) via the skylight-blocked approach; a water sample autocollection system that can collect 12 1-L bottles for analysis in the laboratory; a water quality measurement system for obtaining water parameters, including Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), turbidity, and water temperature, among others; and meteorological sensors for measuring wind speed and direction, air pressure, temperature, and humidity. Field experiments were conducted to validate the performance of the WC-USV on 23–28 March 2018 in the Honghu Lake, which is the seventh largest freshwater lake in China. The tests proved the following: (1) The WC-USV performed well in terms of autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance; (2) the mounted FOBY-derived R r s showed good precision in terms of the quality assurance score (QAS), which was higher than 0.98; (3) the Chl-a and suspended matters (SPM) as ocean color parameters measured by the WC-USV were highly consistent with laboratory analysis results, with determination coefficients (R2) of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively; and (4) meteorological parameters could be continuously and stably measured by WC-USV. Results demonstrated the feasibility and practicability of the WC-USV for automatic in situ observations. The USV provided a new way of thinking for the future development of intelligent automation of the aquatic remote sensing ground verification system. It could be a good option to conduct field investigations for ocean color remote sensing and provide an alternative for highly polluted and/or shallow high-risk waters which large vessels have difficulty reaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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Letter
Measuring Floodplain Inundation Using Diel Amplitude of Temperature
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s20216189 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Assessment of inundation patterns across large and remote floodplains is challenging and costly. Inexpensive loggers that record the damping of the diel amplitude of temperature (DAT) when submerged compared to overlying air can indirectly indicate inundation. We assessed the efficacy of this approach [...] Read more.
Assessment of inundation patterns across large and remote floodplains is challenging and costly. Inexpensive loggers that record the damping of the diel amplitude of temperature (DAT) when submerged compared to overlying air can indirectly indicate inundation. We assessed the efficacy of this approach in tropical, subtropical, and temperate floodplains by comparing direct water level measurements using pressure transducers with the indirect indication of inundation ascertained from the DAT at the same location. The approach worked better in tropical than in subtropical and temperate floodplains. However, the relatively small DATs of air in humid and densely vegetated settings made estimation of inundation more challenging compared to the drier and less vegetated settings, where a large diel range of air temperature was markedly damped beneath the water. The indirect temperature approach must be calibrated for a particular ecosystem using direct water-level measurements to define DAT thresholds that are indicative of submergence of the sensors. Temperature provides an inexpensive indicator of duration of inundation that can be particularly useful in studies of large and remote floodplains, although the development of inexpensive sensors that directly measure submergence (e.g., by resistivity) will likely become a better option in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Telemetry and Monitoring for Land and Water Ecosystems)
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