Special Issue "Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness in Individual, Combat and Team Sports"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jesús Gustavo Ponce González
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain
2. Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cádiz, Spain
Interests: exercise training; sports; physical fitness; performance; exercise physiology; health; obesity and comorbidities; metabolism; nutrition and endocrine system
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Cristina Casals
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain
2. Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Cádiz, Spain
Interests: sport and exercise physiology; physical exercise; combat sports; cardiorespiratory fitness; athlete performance; nutritional assessment; gut microbiota for health and performance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health-related physical fitness refers to specific components of physical fitness, such as flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and body composition. Health-related physical fitness is considered one of the most important health markers, as well as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in relation to cardiovascular disease. Regular participation in different sport training programs can improve the five health-related fitness components.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide new insights into “Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness in Individual and Team Sports”. We invite investigators to contribute with original research, meta-analysis, reviews, case studies, short communications, and book reviews related to this topic. Special attention will be given, but no limited, to comparison of different sport modes/protocols, individual responsiveness, physiological changes, body composition, effects of the manipulation of different variables, and influence of external and individual factors (such as nutrition, rest, stress, genetics, and concurrent training, amongst others).

Prof. Dr. Jesús Gustavo Ponce-González
Prof. Dr. Cristina Casals
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fitness
  • health
  • athletes
  • resistance training
  • endurance training
  • quality of life
  • exercise physiology
  • sport performance

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Comparison of Morning Heart Rate Variability at the Beginning and End of a Competition Season in Elite Speed Skaters
Sports 2020, 8(12), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8120164 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
The aim of this study was to clarify whether the physiological fatigue status of elite speed skaters is influenced by the approximately five-month international competition season by comparing morning heart rate variability (HRV) at the beginning of the competition season (Japan Single Distances [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to clarify whether the physiological fatigue status of elite speed skaters is influenced by the approximately five-month international competition season by comparing morning heart rate variability (HRV) at the beginning of the competition season (Japan Single Distances Championships: JSDC) with that at the end of the competition season (World Single Distances Championships: WSDC). Five international-class speed skaters participated in the study. HRV indices and subjective fatigue were measured each morning of the four days prior to the first races of the JSDC and WSDC in the 2007/2008 season. The parasympathetic HRV indices: root mean square of the successive R-R interval differences (RMSSD) (JSDC, 61.0 ms; WSDC, 42.1 ms; p < 0.05), high-frequency component power (HF) (JSDC, 1393 ms2; WSDC, 443 ms2; p < 0.05), and normalized unit of HF (HFnu) (JSDC, 53.2%; WSDC, 25.5%; p < 0.05) were lower for the WSDC than for the JSDC. The decrease in these indices may reflect the skaters’ accumulated fatigue during the course of the competition season. Morning measurements of HRV may thus be an efficient way for elite speed skaters and coaches to objectively monitor physiological fatigue throughout the competition season. Full article
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Article
A New Strategy to Integrate Heath–Carter Somatotype Assessment with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Elite Soccer Players
Sports 2020, 8(11), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8110142 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Easy-to-apply and quick methods for evaluate body composition are often preferred when assessing soccer teams. This study aimed to develop new equations for the somatotype quantification that would reduce the anthropometric measurements required by the Heath and Carter method, integrating the somatotype assessment [...] Read more.
Easy-to-apply and quick methods for evaluate body composition are often preferred when assessing soccer teams. This study aimed to develop new equations for the somatotype quantification that would reduce the anthropometric measurements required by the Heath and Carter method, integrating the somatotype assessment to the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). One hundred and seventy-six male elite soccer players (age 26.9 ± 4.5 years), registered in the Italian first division (Serie A), underwent anthropometric measurements and BIA. Endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy were obtained according to the Heath and Carter method, while fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) estimated using a BIA-derived equation specific for athletes. The participants were randomly split into development (n = 117) and validation groups (n = 59, 1/3 of sample). The developed models including resistance2/stature, FM%, FFM, contracted arm and calf circumference, triceps, and supraspinal skinfolds had high predictive ability for endomorphy (R2 = 0.83, Standard Error of Estimate (SEE) = 0.16) mesomorphy (R2 = 0.80, SEE = 0.36), and ectomorphy (endomorphy (R2 = 0.87, SEE = 0.22). Cross validation revealed R2 of 0.80, 0.84, 0.87 for endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy, respectively. The proposed strategy allows the integration of somatotype assessment to BIA in soccer players, reducing the number of instruments and measurements required by the Heath and Carter approach. Full article
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Article
Acute Effects of Supervised Making Weight on Health Markers, Hormones and Body Composition in Muay Thai Fighters
Sports 2020, 8(10), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8100137 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Making weight is a practice often used in combat sports. This consists of a rapid weight loss (RWL) and a subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding competition. However, this practice is often carried out based on anecdotal information provided by [...] Read more.
Making weight is a practice often used in combat sports. This consists of a rapid weight loss (RWL) and a subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding competition. However, this practice is often carried out based on anecdotal information provided by ex-athletes or non-professionals, which has led to several adverse events. This study aimed to assess the acute effects of a supervised nutritional period of RWL/RWG on health markers, hormone concentrations, and body composition. We performed a single-arm repeated-measures (baseline, after RWL and after RWG) clinical trial with twenty-one (8F:16M) Italian Muay Thai fighters. Body mass was significantly lower after the RWL (−4.1%) while there was a significantly higher glucose availability after RWL and RWG. Blood urea nitrogen, lipid profile, and creatinine were within the normal range after RWL/RWG. Testosterone decrease significantly after RWL and RWG in the men group. Male fighters had a significant reduction in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration after the RWL and RWG intervention, but no change was found in women at pre-competition. Bioelectrical parameters were almost fully restored after RWG. An evidence-based and individualized nutrition methodology reduces the adverse events after an RWL and RWG practice, although the impact on the hormonal profile is inevitable. Full article
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Article
Heart Rate Variability and Direct Current Measurement Characteristics in Professional Mixed Martial Arts Athletes
Sports 2020, 8(8), 109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8080109 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
This study’s purpose was to examine heart rate variability (HRV) and direct current potential (DC) measures’ sensitivity and correlations between changes in the acute recovery and stress scale (ARSS) and the previous day’s training load. Training load, HRV, DC and ARSS data were [...] Read more.
This study’s purpose was to examine heart rate variability (HRV) and direct current potential (DC) measures’ sensitivity and correlations between changes in the acute recovery and stress scale (ARSS) and the previous day’s training load. Training load, HRV, DC and ARSS data were collected from fourteen professional mixed martial arts athletes (32.6 ± 5.3 years, 174.8 ± 8.8 cm, 79.2 ± 17.5 kg) the following morning after hard, easy and rest days. Sensitivity was expressed as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, inter-day typical error (TE) or coefficient of variation (%CV) divided by intra-day TE or %CV). Correlations between HRV, DC and ARSS with training load were also examined. The SNRs for the various HRV and DC measures were acceptable to good (1.02–2.85). There was a 23.1% CV average increase between measures taken between different locations versus the same location. Training load changes were not correlated with HRV/DC but were correlated with ARSS stress variables. Practitioners should be aware of HRV/DC variability; however the daily training signal was greater than the test-retest error in this investigation. Upon awakening, HRV/DC measures appear superior for standardization and planning. HRV and DC measures were less sensitive to the previous day’s training load than ARSS measures. Full article
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Article
Physiological Predictors of Performance on the CrossFit “Murph” Challenge
Sports 2020, 8(7), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8070092 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
We examined physiological predictors of performance on the CrossFit Murph challenge (1-mile run, 100 pullups, 200 pushups, 300 air squats, 1-mile run). Male CrossFit athletes (n = 11, 27 ± 3 years) performed a battery of physical assessments including: (1) body composition, [...] Read more.
We examined physiological predictors of performance on the CrossFit Murph challenge (1-mile run, 100 pullups, 200 pushups, 300 air squats, 1-mile run). Male CrossFit athletes (n = 11, 27 ± 3 years) performed a battery of physical assessments including: (1) body composition, (2) upper and lower body strength, (3) upper body endurance, (4) anaerobic power, and (5) maximal oxygen consumption. No less than 72 h later, participants completed the Murph challenge, heart rate was monitored throughout, and blood lactate was obtained pre-post. Correlations between physiological parameters and total Murph time, and Murph subcomponents, were assessed using Pearson’s correlations. Murph completion time was 43.43 ± 4.63 min, and maximum and average heart rate values were 185.63 ± 7.64 bpm and 168.81 ± 6.41 bpm, respectively, and post-Murph blood lactate was 10.01 ± 3.04 mmol/L. Body fat percentage was the only physiological parameter significantly related to total Murph time (r = 0.718; p = 0.013). Total lift time (25.49 ± 3.65 min) was more strongly related (r = 0.88) to Murph time than total run time (17.60 ± 1.97 min; r = 0.65). Greater relative anaerobic power (r = −0.634) and less anaerobic fatigue (r = 0.649) were related to total run time (p < 0.05). Individuals wanting to enhance overall Murph performance are advised to focus on minimizing body fat percentage and improving lift performance. Meanwhile, performance on the run subcomponent may be optimized through improvements in anaerobic power. Full article
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Article
The Federated Practice of Soccer Influences Hamstring Flexibility in Healthy Adolescents: Role of Age and Weight Status
Sports 2020, 8(4), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8040049 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the hamstring flexibility between federated soccer and non-federated adolescents, and also to evaluate the effect of age and weight status on hamstring flexibility. The participants were 234 students (11–18 years old) divided into: (i) G1: [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the hamstring flexibility between federated soccer and non-federated adolescents, and also to evaluate the effect of age and weight status on hamstring flexibility. The participants were 234 students (11–18 years old) divided into: (i) G1: non-federated (n = 127), and (ii) G2: federated in soccer (n = 107). The deep flexion of the trunk (DF) test and the sit and reach test (SRT) were performed. G2 showed higher values for the DF and SRT compared to G1 (p < 0.05). Both flexibility tests correlated positively (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with the DF test (r = −0.3, p < 0.001), but not with the SRT. Divided by BMI, the underweight and normal weight groups had higher scores in the DF test compared with the overweight and obese groups (p < 0.001). BMI was negatively correlated with hamstring flexibility. Federated soccer students present higher scores of hamstring flexibility. Full article
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