Special Issue "Sustainable Short Sea Shipping"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Johan Woxenius
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business Administration, University of Gothenburg, Box 610, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
Interests: maritime transport; intermodal freight transport; transport system sustainability; city logistics; logistics
Dr. Anastasia Christodoulou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Associate, World Maritime University, Fiskehamnsgatan 1, P.O. Box 500, 201 24 Malmö, Sweden
Interests: maritime economics and logistics; sustainable maritime transport; intermodal transport chains

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainability in maritime transport has been an issue of major concern during the last few decades, mainly due to the global nature of shipping that makes it difficult to allocate responsibility by country and complicates its inclusion in global agreements for the abatement of global warming and climate change. Various operational and market-based policy instruments targeting the reduction of maritime greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been developed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in addition to fiscal and economic incentives introduced in national or regional level for the stimulation of the employment of these policies. Nevertheless, evidence and literature review clearly suggest that the implementation of these measures alone could not result in sufficient emissions reductions, given the expected growth of shipping, but innovative technical and operational solutions as well as combinations need to be developed.

Short Sea Shipping (SSS), here simply defined as maritime transport that does not cross oceans, is less researched than deep sea shipping and it deserves more scientific attention. This is particularly true for the SSS signature market segment of RoRo and RoPax but SSS also includes dry and wet bulk, ferry services and, with the operational definition of this special issue, also transport on inland waterways.

This Special Issue intends to look into innovative ideas, trends and efforts, especially applications, with good potentials to increase the sustainability of SSS. Special emphasis is given to the operational measures and economic incentives with potential to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution from SOx, NOx and particles. Articles with a strong empirical content, such as case studies that provide critical overview and reflect the cutting-edge progress in this field are particularly sought after.

Topics of interest of this Special Issue on sustainable SSS include, but are not limited to:

  • Operational issues for energy efficient maritime transport
  • Fiscal/economic incentives for sustainable shipping
  • Sustainable maritime-based transport chains
  • Maritime logistics operations and emissions/energy consumption
  • Private firm strategies and public interventions targeting maritime GHG emissions and air pollution
  • Role of policies/regulations for sustainable maritime growth

Prof. Dr. Johan Woxenius
Dr. Anastasia Christodoulou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Short sea shipping
  • Sustainable maritime chains
  • Energy efficiency
  • Maritime GHG emissions
  • Sustainable maritime growth

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Sustainable Short Sea Shipping
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2847; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11102847 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Sustainability in maritime transport has been an issue of major concern during the last decades [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)

Research

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Article
The Integration of RoRo Shipping in Sustainable Intermodal Transport Chains: The Case of a North European RoRo Service
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2422; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11082422 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Roll on–roll off (RoRo) shipping represents a maritime segment that could easily form part of an intermodal transport system, as cargo does not need to be lifted in ports; it is ‘rolled’ to and from sea. This paper investigates the operation of RoRo [...] Read more.
Roll on–roll off (RoRo) shipping represents a maritime segment that could easily form part of an intermodal transport system, as cargo does not need to be lifted in ports; it is ‘rolled’ to and from sea. This paper investigates the operation of RoRo shipping services in Northern Europe, focusing on a set of services chartered by a major shipper whose demand has a great impact on the service design, potentially affecting the frequency of departures and even stipulating the use of specific vessels. The case of cooperation between Stora Enso, a major forest company in Sweden and Finland, and the shipping company Swedish Orient Line (SOL) is analysed, giving some insight into the way these RoRo services operate and manage to integrate successfully into sustainable intermodal transport chains. Despite various initiatives taken by different stakeholders, the level of integration of shipping in intermodal transport chains has been quite slow. This paper’s results could contribute to the identification of barriers that prevent RoRo shipping from being a viable alternative to road transport for certain transport routes and assist in the discovery of policies and incentives that could lead to developing sustainable intermodal transport chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)
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Article
Pollution Tradeoffs for Conventional and Natural Gas-Based Marine Fuels
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11082235 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
This paper presents a life-cycle emissions analysis of conventional and natural gas-based marine transportation in the United States. We apply a total fuel cycle—or “well-to-propeller”—analysis that evaluates emissions along the fuel production and delivery pathway, including feedstock extraction, processing, distribution, and use. We [...] Read more.
This paper presents a life-cycle emissions analysis of conventional and natural gas-based marine transportation in the United States. We apply a total fuel cycle—or “well-to-propeller”—analysis that evaluates emissions along the fuel production and delivery pathway, including feedstock extraction, processing, distribution, and use. We compare emissions profiles for methanol, liquefied natural gas, and low sulfur marine fuel in our analysis, with a focus on exploring tradeoffs across the following pollutants: greenhouse gases, particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides. For our greenhouse gas analysis, we apply global warming potentials that consider both near-term (20-year) and long-term (100-year) climate forcing impacts. We also conduct uncertainty analysis to evaluate the impacts of methane leakage within the natural gas recovery, processing, and distribution stages of its fuel cycle. Our results indicate that natural-gas based marine fuels can provide significant local environmental benefits compared to distillate fuel; however, these benefits come with a near-term—and possibly long-term—global warming penalty, unless such natural gas-based fuels are derived from renewable feedstock, such as biomass. These results point to the importance of controlling for methane leaks along the natural gas production process and the important role that renewable natural gas can play in the shipping sector. Decision-makers can use these results to inform decisions related to increasing the use of alternative fuels in short sea and coast-wise marine transportation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)
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Article
Sustainability Transitions in Baltic Sea Shipping: Exploring the Responses of Firms to Regulatory Changes
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1916; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11071916 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
This study investigates how the introduction of more stringent environmental regulation regarding sulphur and nitrogen emission control areas induced shipping companies to react to a new situation and opened up a window of opportunity for build-up of niches for alternative vessel energy sources. [...] Read more.
This study investigates how the introduction of more stringent environmental regulation regarding sulphur and nitrogen emission control areas induced shipping companies to react to a new situation and opened up a window of opportunity for build-up of niches for alternative vessel energy sources. By drawing on a multi-level perspective from the socio-technical transition literature, the study provides empirical evidence for how realignments in the environmental regulatory regime alter incumbent actors’ positions and produce varying environmental innovation responses to reduce air-borne pollution from shipping. The study illustrates that the stringency of a regional command-and-control regulation in combination with evolving pressures in the external landscape environment and shipping companies’ task environments are essential components shaping the adoption of environmental innovations. Although incremental innovations seem to dominate in a fossil fuel-based maritime transportation socio-technical system, our results demonstrate the role of regulations and the behaviour of frontrunners in the context of regime fragmentation and sustainability transition processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)
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Article
Port-2-Port Communication Enhancing Short Sea Shipping Performance: The Case Study of Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1912; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11071912 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
The sustainability of Short Sea Shipping (SSS) is central to a clean, safe, and efficient European Union (EU) transport system. We report on key challenges for advancing reliability, quality, and safety, and removing unnecessary costs and delays at SSS hubs, with a particular [...] Read more.
The sustainability of Short Sea Shipping (SSS) is central to a clean, safe, and efficient European Union (EU) transport system. We report on key challenges for advancing reliability, quality, and safety, and removing unnecessary costs and delays at SSS hubs, with a particular focus on Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean. Specifically, we consider the effect of port-2-port (P2P) communication on port efficiency by investigating the factors influencing the various waiting times at the Port of Limassol, both from a qualitative and a quantitative perspective. The qualitative results are based on the views of key stakeholders involved in the port call process. The quantitative analysis relies on data from over 8000 port calls during 2017–2018, which are analyzed with respect to ship type, port of origin, and shipping agent. The calculated Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) include arrival punctuality, berth waiting, and berth utilization. The analysis clearly reveals considerable variation in agent performance regarding the KPIs, suggesting a lack of attention to the social aspect of a port’s socio-technical system. We propose measures for improving agent performance based on the principles of Port Collaborative Decision Making (PortCDM), including P2P communication, data sharing and transparency among all involved in a port call process including the agents, and open dissemination of agent-specific KPIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)
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Article
Barriers and Enablers for Short Sea Shipping in the Southern African Development Community
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1532; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11061532 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) region is an economic community comprised of 16 countries in Southern Africa with a goal to achieve development, peace, security, and economic growth. Developing the regional freight transport system is essential for accomplishing these objectives. This paper [...] Read more.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) region is an economic community comprised of 16 countries in Southern Africa with a goal to achieve development, peace, security, and economic growth. Developing the regional freight transport system is essential for accomplishing these objectives. This paper investigates the potential of short sea shipping (SSS) in an African context, highlighting policy initiatives related to SSS development and identifying barriers and enablers of SSS to support international trade in the SADC region. According to our findings, SSS has the theoretical potential to work in the SADC given the large geographic region, projected freight volumes, and customs and trade policies the SADC region is pursuing. Such a system would have three main roles: to offer unimodal freight transport between port cities, to offer the main leg of an intermodal route, and to offer feeder services to deep sea shipping in a hub-and-spoke cycle. However, freight transport in the SADC region has a number of shortfalls that need to be addressed—of note, port competitiveness, customs provisions, and policies for intra-regional trade require impetus. Additional work is required in terms of policy to support SSS. Furthermore, considering the importance of synergies, the role of policy makers in improving trust, and developing cooperation among transport chain members needs to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)
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Article
Slow Steaming as Part of SECA Compliance Strategies among RoRo and RoPax Shipping Companies
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11051435 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Many geographically peripheral member states of the EU are critically dependent on short sea Roll-on/Roll-off (RoRo) and mixed freight–passenger (RoPax) shipping services for intra-European trade. The implementation of the Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) regulation was expected to raise the operating cost for [...] Read more.
Many geographically peripheral member states of the EU are critically dependent on short sea Roll-on/Roll-off (RoRo) and mixed freight–passenger (RoPax) shipping services for intra-European trade. The implementation of the Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA) regulation was expected to raise the operating cost for RoRo and RoPax shipping, and slow steaming was proposed as an immediate solution to save the increased cost. Previous research has investigated the issue of slow steaming and SECA using a quantitative approach. However, the reaction of the RoRo and RoPax shipping firms toward slow steaming as a mitigating factor in the face of expected additional SECA compliance costs using qualitative methodology has not been explored yet. In addition, the knowledge regarding the impact of slow steaming on the competitiveness of short sea RoRo and RoPax with respect to service quality is limited. This article has addressed these issues through the analysis of multiple cases focusing on RoRo and RoPax firms operating in the North and Baltic Seas. Overall, our findings suggest that the 0.1% SECA regulation of 2015 requiring the use of higher-priced MGO has not caused slow steaming in the RoRo and RoPax segments to a large extent. The increased bunker prices are partially transferred to the customers via increased Bunker Adjustment Factor and partly borne by the shipowners. We have found that out of 11 case firms in our study only one RoRo and one RoPax firm have reduced vessel speeds to compensate for the additional SECA compliance costs. We conclude that for RoPax and RoRo segment bunker prices, rigorous competition and, most important, different service quality requirements have significantly restricted the potential implementation of slow steaming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Short Sea Shipping)
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