sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Green Technologies in Air Treatment"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Chemical Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jacek Gębicki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Interests: monitoring of air pollution; biogas purification; air pollution control systems; biofiltration; ionic liquids; low-cost air pollution monitoring systems; green deodorization methods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. The Main School of Fire Service, Faculty of Fire Safety Engineering, 52/54 Słowackiego St., 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
2. Institute of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Air Protection, 24 Curie-Skłodowskiej St., 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
Interests: aerosol chemistry and physics; particulate matter; air pollution modeling; exposure assessment; risk analysis; environmental statistics; indoor air quality; PM and fires; fire safety engineering; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; toxic elements
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Patrycja Makoś
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Gdańsk 80 233, Poland
Interests: monitoring of air pollution; gas chromatography; biogas purification; new technologies for the deodorization of malodorous gases; absorption methods; deep eutectic solvents; ionic liquids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Green technologies include all technologies that support the fight against adverse changes in the environment. Green technologies lead to a new type of economy. Public expenditure related to the development of green technologies is justified because they prevent climate change and dwindling natural resources.

This Special Issue is devoted to the latest developments in the field of green air cleaning technologies, both internal and external, biogas production and second- and third-generation biofuels, and air quality control systems before and after the purification process. We would like to invite researchers to submit both original and review papers. The contributions should be related to the listed topics.

Scope of the thematic issue:

  • Biogas upgrading;
  • Green deodorization methods (biofiltration, absorption, membrane separation, catalytic oxidation);
  • Ionic liquids in air treatment;
  • Second- and third-generation biofuels;
  • Low-cost air pollution monitoring systems;
  • Air pollution control systems;
  • Air quality management;
  • Modeling and evaluation of air pollution;
  • Indoor air quality and IAQ monitoring;
  • Pollution prevention and environmental regulation;
  • Emissions reduction methods, policies, and trends;
  • Assessment of human exposure to air pollution (methods, measurements, models).

Prof. Dr. Jacek Gębicki
Prof. Dr. Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
Dr. Patrycja Makoś
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air pollution control systems
  • green deodorization methods
  • biogas upgrading
  • second- and third-generation biofuels
  • air quality management

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Analysis of the Impact of Water Flow Rate on the Temperature Variability in a Closed Room during the Extinguishing of A-Group Fire Using a Hybrid Water Mist Suppression System
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12208700 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
The advantage of hybrid fire suppression systems is that they combine the advantages of both water mist and clean agent systems. Currently, this innovative technology is increasingly used in fixed firefighting systems. Available literature both in Polish and around the world describes this [...] Read more.
The advantage of hybrid fire suppression systems is that they combine the advantages of both water mist and clean agent systems. Currently, this innovative technology is increasingly used in fixed firefighting systems. Available literature both in Polish and around the world describes this issue in a fragmentary way. Extinguishing system tests were carried out at the Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. The impact of water mist flow rate on the temperature variability in a closed room during the extinguishing of group A fires using a hybrid water mist system was analyzed. Four different flow rates 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 dm3/min were applied. The temperature variability of selected points of a closed test chamber during extinguishing process are presented. The extinguishing efficiency, taking into account extinguishing time, average speed of temperature drop and other parameters, was estimated on the basis of proposed original criterion. The results obtained showed that water flow rate has a significant impact on temperature variability and included the determination of optimal water flow rate at which the extinguishing efficiency is the highest. The conducted research proved that the hybrid system is more effective than classic mist and gas systems when extinguishing group A fires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Application of Natural Carbon Isotopes for Emission Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in Urban Atmosphere: A Case Study from Krakow, Southern Poland
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5777; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12145777 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
Successful mitigation of air pollution in large cities requires information about the structure of emission sources and their contribution to total atmospheric load. The presented research demonstrates a possibility of application of isotope tracers for the estimation of contribution of different sources to [...] Read more.
Successful mitigation of air pollution in large cities requires information about the structure of emission sources and their contribution to total atmospheric load. The presented research demonstrates a possibility of application of isotope tracers for the estimation of contribution of different sources to the carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5 (Particulate Matter containing fraction below 2.5 μm) collected in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, Poland during the summer and winter seasons. Isotope mass balance approach was used to perform source apportionment analysis for those two seasons. The analysis showed that the dominant source of the carbonaceous fraction of PM2.5 in Krakow is coal burning during the winter season and biogenic emissions during the summer season. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the uncertainty of the percentage contribution of different sources to the overall carbon load of the analyzed PM2.5 fraction is in order of a few percent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Combustion Process of Protective Coating Paints
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4008; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12104008 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Structural elements in buildings exposed to high temperature may lose their original stability. Application of steel structures has several advantages; however, deflection under exposure to high temperatures may be a potential obstacle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine how temperature [...] Read more.
Structural elements in buildings exposed to high temperature may lose their original stability. Application of steel structures has several advantages; however, deflection under exposure to high temperatures may be a potential obstacle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine how temperature affects decomposition of protective paints applied in the construction. A dedicated installation for the analysis of the combustion process of protective coating paints in a laboratory scale was prepared. The experimental device consisted of the following parts: top-loading furnace connected to the gas conditioner, the LAT MG-2 gas mixer, and portable gas analyzer GASMET DX-4010. The following type of the protective powder coating paints were analyzed: alkyd and polyurethane. The obtained results indicated that during thermal decomposition of paints, formaldehyde, benzene, heptane, and butanol were released, however in different concentrations. Moreover, decomposition temperature affected the type and amount of released gas mixture components. With increasing temperature, increased release of formaldehyde and benzene was noticed, while the concentration of butanol and heptane decreased. Finally, the product of thermal decomposition emitted in the highest concentration was formaldehyde, which can cause irritation and sensitization in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Absorptive Desulfurization of Model Biogas Stream Using Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1619; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12041619 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The paper presents a synthesis of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as hydrogen bond acceptor and phenol (Ph), glycol ethylene (EG), and levulinic acid (Lev) as hydrogen bond donors in 1:2 molar ratio. DESs were successfully used as absorption [...] Read more.
The paper presents a synthesis of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as hydrogen bond acceptor and phenol (Ph), glycol ethylene (EG), and levulinic acid (Lev) as hydrogen bond donors in 1:2 molar ratio. DESs were successfully used as absorption solvents for removal of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) from model biogas steam. Several parameters affecting the absorption capacity and absorption rate have been optimized including kinds of DES, temperature, the volume of absorbent, model biogas flow rate, and initial concentration of DMDS. Furthermore, reusability and regeneration of DESs by means of adsorption and nitrogen barbotage followed by the mechanism of absorptive desulfurization by means of density functional theory (DFT) as well as FT-IR analysis were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the most promising DES for biogas purification is ChCl:Ph, due to high absorption capacity, relatively long absorption rate, and easy regeneration. The research on the absorption mechanism revealed that van der Waal interaction is the main driving force for DMDS removal from model biogas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Soluble Inorganic Arsenic Species in Atmospheric Submicron Particles in Two Polish Urban Background Sites
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 837; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12030837 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
This paper presents results of the research on soluble inorganic As(III) and As(V) bound to submicron atmospheric particles (PM1) in two Polish urban background sites (Zabrze and Warsaw). The purpose of the research was to give some insight on the susceptibility to leaching [...] Read more.
This paper presents results of the research on soluble inorganic As(III) and As(V) bound to submicron atmospheric particles (PM1) in two Polish urban background sites (Zabrze and Warsaw). The purpose of the research was to give some insight on the susceptibility to leaching of PM1-bound arsenic species from easily water-soluble compounds, i.e., considered potentially bioavailable based on its daily and seasonal changes. Quantitative analysis for 120 PM1 samples (collected from 24 June 2014 to 8 March 2015) was performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean seasonal concentrations of dominant soluble As specie—As(V)—ranged from 0.27 ng/m3 in the summer season in Warsaw to 2.41 ng/m3 in the winter season in Zabrze. Its mean mass shares in total As were 44% in Warsaw and 75% in Zabrze in the winter and 18% and 48%, respectively, in the summer. Obtained results indicated fossil fuel combustion as the main source of PM1-bound As(V) and road traffic emission as its minor sources. In opposite to As(V), soluble As(III) was not clearly seasonally variable. In both seasons, its mean concentrations were higher in Zabrze than in Warsaw. As(III) concentrations were not preferentially shaped by an exact emission from road traffic in both cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Simultaneous Removal of Hexane and Ethanol from Air in a Biotrickling Filter—Process Performance and Monitoring Using Electronic Nose
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010387 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
Biofiltration is a well-accepted method for the removal of malodorous compounds from air streams. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to investigate the simultaneous removal of hydrophobic hexane with hydrophilic ethanol, resulting in [...] Read more.
Biofiltration is a well-accepted method for the removal of malodorous compounds from air streams. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to investigate the simultaneous removal of hydrophobic hexane with hydrophilic ethanol, resulting in the enhanced removal of hexane in the presence of ethanol. Investigations were performed in a peat-perlite packed biotrickling filter and the process performance was monitored using both gas chromatography and electronic nose techniques. The results indicate that the length as well as the efficiency of biofiltration during the start-up period depend on the feed composition, with higher efficiency obtained when hexane and ethanol were fed together from the process initiation. The experiments in the steady-state period present the biofilter performance when different ratios of hydrophilic to hydrophobic compounds were fed to the biofilter. The obtained results show the synergistic effects of the addition of a hydrophilic compound on the removal efficiency of hydrophobic hexane. The influence of the ratio of hydrophilic to hydrophobic compounds is discussed in terms of enhancing the mass transfer phenomena for hydrophobic volatile organic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Apartment Tightness on the Concentrations of Toxic Gases Emitted During a Fire
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010223 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Due to the thermal modernization process of old residential buildings, there has been a significant increase in the air-tightness of apartments, which may contribute to the deterioration of the safety of users and rescue teams in a fire, for example, the emergence of [...] Read more.
Due to the thermal modernization process of old residential buildings, there has been a significant increase in the air-tightness of apartments, which may contribute to the deterioration of the safety of users and rescue teams in a fire, for example, the emergence of a very dangerous backdraft phenomenon. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of air-tightness of premises on selected fire parameters in particular toxic gas concentrations, which is the most common cause of deaths of people due to fires. In the research, an experimental method was used, consisting of the measurement of concentrations of gases such as oxygen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, propylene, acetylene, hydrogen and nitric oxide, and dioxide, which most often give off during a fire due to modern interior design materials. Two fire tests were carried out, one in a sealed apartment and the other unsealed (one window wing half-open). The concentrations of the previously mentioned gases obtained in both tests are presented and then compared with each other. Based on the analysis, conclusions have been formulated, which suggest that increasing the tightness may increase the toxicity of the fire environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Preliminary Attempt at the Identification and Financial Estimation of the Negative Health Effects of Urban and Industrial Air Pollution Based on the Agglomeration of Gdańsk
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010042 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
This article marks the first attempt on Polish and European scale to identify the relationship between urban and industrial air pollution and the health conditions of urban populations, while also estimating the financial burden of incidence rates among urban populations for diseases selected [...] Read more.
This article marks the first attempt on Polish and European scale to identify the relationship between urban and industrial air pollution and the health conditions of urban populations, while also estimating the financial burden of incidence rates among urban populations for diseases selected in the course of this study as having a causal relation with such incidence. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study based on general regression models, intended to explore air pollutants with a statistically relevant impact on the incidence of selected diseases within the Agglomeration of Gdańsk in the years 2010–2018. In discussing the city’s industrial functions, the study takes into consideration the existence within its limits of a large port that services thousands of ships every year, contributing substantially to the volume of emissions (mainly NOx and PM) to the air. The causes considered include the impact of air pollution, seasonality, land- and sea-based emissions, as well as their mutual interactions. All of the factors and their interactions have a significant impact (p ≤ 0.05) on the incidence of selected diseases in the long term (9 years). The source data were obtained from the Polish National Health Fund (NFZ), the Agency for Regional Monitoring of Atmosphere in the Agglomeration of Gdańsk (ARMAAG), the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection (GIOŚ), and the Port of Gdańsk Harbourmaster. The study used 60 variables representing the diseases, classified into 19 groups. The resulting findings were used to formulate a methodology for estimating the financial burden of the negative health effects of air pollution for the agglomeration, and will be utilized as a reference point for further research in selected regions of Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Influence of Hydrogen on the Indications of the Electrochemical Carbon Monoxide Sensors
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12010014 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
This article examines electrochemical carbon monoxide (CO) sensors used as mobile devices by rescue and firefighting units in Poland. The conducted research indicates that the presence of chlorine (Cl2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), [...] Read more.
This article examines electrochemical carbon monoxide (CO) sensors used as mobile devices by rescue and firefighting units in Poland. The conducted research indicates that the presence of chlorine (Cl2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nitrogen (IV) oxide (NO2), and sulfur (IV) oxide (SO2) in the atmosphere does not affect the functioning of the electrochemical CO sensor. In the case of this sensor, there was a significant cross effect in relation to hydrogen (H2). It was found that the time and manner of using the sensor affects the behavior in relation to H2. Such a relationship was not recorded for CO. Measurements in a mixture of CO and H2 confirm the effect of hydrogen on the changes taking place inside the sensor. Independently of the ratio of H2 to CO, readings of CO were flawed. All analyses showed a significant difference between the electrochemical CO sensor readings and the expected values. Only in experiments with a 1:3 mixture of CO and H2 was the relative error less than 15%. The relative error in the analyzed concentration range for a sensor with an additional compensation electrode ranged from 7% to 38%; for a sensor without this electrode, it ranged from 23% to 55%. It was ascertained that in the cases of measurements for tests carried out at higher concentrations of H2 in relation to CO, a sensor with an additional electrode is significantly better (more accurate) than a sensor without such an electrode. Differences at the significance level p = 0.01 for measurements made in the CO:H2 mixture at a ratio of 1:3 were ascertained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Preventing Air Pollution Connected to the Explosion of Different Types of Flours in Dedicated Storage and Transportation Systems
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11247256 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
Air pollution, caused by explosion and/or fire of flammable substances, is typical for the majority of technological processes, e.g., flour storage and transportation systems in the food industry. If explosion venting systems are not properly designed, an explosion might lead to many causalities, [...] Read more.
Air pollution, caused by explosion and/or fire of flammable substances, is typical for the majority of technological processes, e.g., flour storage and transportation systems in the food industry. If explosion venting systems are not properly designed, an explosion might lead to many causalities, substantial losses, and significant release of combustion products into the ambient atmosphere. This article presents a study on four selected types of flours: rice flour, oat flour, cornmeal, and chickpea flour. The chosen ignition and explosion indices were determined (heat of combustion, pmax, (dp/dt)max) and TGAs were conducted. The results were used to calculate the explosion venting area according to EN 14491. Despite similar origins, samples were characterized by slightly different courses of explosion, leading to significant differences in required venting areas. Chickpea dust was found to be the most distinguishing sample with the highest values of pmax, (dp/dt)max, and KSt recorded (7.7 bar, 313.08 bar/s, and 85 mbar/s, respectively). To avoid structure failure resulting in the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere, a change in the stored flour type should be preceded by a revision of safety measures taken, as the required vent area might differ significantly depending on the KSt, L/D ratio, and desired maximum static pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Size-Segregated Particulate Matter in a Selected Sports Facility in Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6911; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11246911 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
The aims of this study were to determine the concentration of particulate matter, analyze the percentage share of four particulate matter subfractions (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10) in TSP (total mass of particulate matter (PM)) in [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to determine the concentration of particulate matter, analyze the percentage share of four particulate matter subfractions (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10) in TSP (total mass of particulate matter (PM)) in a typical Polish sports hall at different day periods during heating and non-heating seasons, and compare the average daily doses of respirable dust (PM4) for three groups of the sports hall users (pupils, teachers, and athletes). Gravimetric measurements of PM4 and TSP concentrations and optical measurements of the concentrations of five PM fractions (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, PM100) were conducted for 8 h a day, simultaneously inside and outside the hall, for 20 days each in summer and winter. During training, PM mass was concentrated mainly in coarse particles (PM2.5–100) (summer—55%, winter—35%). Without activity, the main part of PM mass was from fine particles (PM2.5, summer—59%, winter—75%). In summer, PM inside the hall originated mainly from internal sources. In winter, the fine PM concentration was affected by outdoor sources. The daily doses of PM4 for different groups of sports hall users indicate that the health exposure of sports practitioners to PM may be greater than for non-practitioners staying in the same conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of the Impact of Selected Parameters of the Hybrid Extinguishing System on the Fire Environment in a Closed Room
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6867; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11236867 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of some parameters (water mist flow rate and type of gas used) of the hybrid extinguishing system on the fire environment (temperature as well as carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations) in a [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of some parameters (water mist flow rate and type of gas used) of the hybrid extinguishing system on the fire environment (temperature as well as carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations) in a closed room. Hybrid fire-extinguishing systems in which water mist is driven by inert gas combine the advantages of typical fog systems and fixed gas extinguishing devices. They have been developed in the last years but are now being used more and more often and the preparation of standards for them is planned for 2020. For this purpose, many fire tests with this system should be conducted. Some of them are discussed in this paper. Two different flow rates of water mist (1.5 or 3 dm3/min) and inert gas (nitrogen or air) were used during hybrid system testing. Some parameters of the fire environment in the compartment such as temperature measured by thermocouples as well as carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations measured by electrochemical gas sensors are presented here. The characteristic values of the extinguishing process are also included. The assumed times of ensuring safe conditions in the room have been confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Leather Thermal and Environmental Parameters in Fire Conditions
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11226452 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The thermal decomposition of leather-product combustion produces some inflammable and harmful compounds after tanning, fat liquoring, dyeing, and finishing processes. These organic compounds are ignited and release a lot of toxic gases and smoke in fire conditions, polluting the atmosphere air. On this [...] Read more.
The thermal decomposition of leather-product combustion produces some inflammable and harmful compounds after tanning, fat liquoring, dyeing, and finishing processes. These organic compounds are ignited and release a lot of toxic gases and smoke in fire conditions, polluting the atmosphere air. On this account, it is very important to know leather safety performance for fire prevention. The flammability and thermal stability of types of leather at thermal expositions stimulating fire conditions were analyzed. Five types of leather were used in experimental testing, four of animal origin and an artificial one. Results showed that, in the analyzed heat exposure, the highest average heat-release rate (174 kW/m2) and smoke generation, and the lowest temperature of the beginning of thermal decomposition, were recorded for the artificial leather. Leather flammability essentially depends on the type of applied energy stimulus, as well as hide composition and origin. A possible cause for differences in the obtained results of the leather analyses is the percentage of certain leather components and their chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Particulate Matter Concentration Variability and Origin in Selected Urban Areas in Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5735; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11205735 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
The work presents the results of research and analyses related to measurements of concentration and chemical composition of three size fractions of particulate matter (PM), PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0. The studies were conducted in the years 2014–2016 during [...] Read more.
The work presents the results of research and analyses related to measurements of concentration and chemical composition of three size fractions of particulate matter (PM), PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0. The studies were conducted in the years 2014–2016 during both the heating and non-heating season in two Polish cities: Wrocław and Poznań. The studies indicate that in Wrocław and Poznań, the highest annual concentrations of particulate matter (PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10) were observed in 2016, and the mean concentrations were respectively equal to 18.16 μg/m3, 30.88 μg/m3 and 41.08 μg/m3 (Wrocław) and 8.5 μg/m3, 30.8 μg/m3 and 32.9 μg/m3 (Poznań). Conducted analyses of the chemical composition of the particulate matter also indicated higher concentrations of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and water-soluble ions in a measurement series which took place in the heating season were studied. Analyses with the use of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated a dominating percentage of fuel combustion processes as sources of particulate matter emission in the areas considered in this research. Acquired results from these analyses may indicate the influence of secondary aerosols on air quality. In the summer season, a significant role could be also played by an influx of pollutants—mineral dust—originating from outside the analyzed areas or from the resuspension of mineral and soil dust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Research of Modified Atomizers and Their Application for Moistening of Air-Cleaning Device Charges
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5522; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su11195522 - 06 Oct 2019
Viewed by 784
Abstract
The size of sprayed droplets is a very important parameter that influences the operational efficiency of air-cleaning device charges. It is desirable for atomizers to spray droplets that are dispersed as much as technically and economically reasonable and possible. Fine dispersion spraying ensures [...] Read more.
The size of sprayed droplets is a very important parameter that influences the operational efficiency of air-cleaning device charges. It is desirable for atomizers to spray droplets that are dispersed as much as technically and economically reasonable and possible. Fine dispersion spraying ensures effective moistening of the air-cleaning device charges, as well as an optimal consumption of water or other liquids. Three modifications of special atomizers were used for experimental analysis. The atomization of liquid and spraying in the special atomizer occurs when two frontal streams confront each other. Frontal streams are formed by an inner shield located in the special atomizer. The experiment was conducted using different spraying pressures, namely: 6 bar, 4 bar, 2 bar. The evaluation (performed using a microscope) of the size of sprayed droplets shows that the best (finest) spraying was by the special atomizer of modification 3. The depth of the channel of the inner shield is the parameter that has the biggest influence on the size of sprayed droplets. The special atomizer of modification 3 produces droplets with the following size distribution and rates: ≤0.05 mm—63.2 vol%; 0.2–0.6 mm—28.3 vol%; 0.6–1.0 mm—8.1 vol%; ≥1.0 mm—0.4 vol%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Urban Vegetation in Air Quality Management: A Review and Policy Framework
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12031258 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Recent episodes of high air pollution concentration levels in many Polish cities indicate the urgent need for policy change and for the integration of various aspects of urban development into a common platform for local air quality management. In this article, the focus [...] Read more.
Recent episodes of high air pollution concentration levels in many Polish cities indicate the urgent need for policy change and for the integration of various aspects of urban development into a common platform for local air quality management. In this article, the focus was placed on the prospects of improving urban air quality through proper design and protection of vegetation systems within local spatial planning strategies. Recent studies regarding the mitigation of air pollution by urban greenery due to deposition and aerodynamic effects were reviewed, with special attention given to the design guidelines resulting from these studies and their applicability in the process of urban planning. The conclusions drawn from the review were used to conduct three case studies: in Gdańsk, Warsaw, and Poznań, Poland. The existing local urban planning regulations for the management of urban greenery were critically evaluated in relation to the findings of the review. The results indicate that the current knowledge regarding the improvement of urban air quality by vegetation is not applied in the process of urban planning to a sufficient degree. Some recommendations for alternative provisions were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop