Special Issue "Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ali Jamshidi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Science; University of the Sunshine Coast; Queensland 4556, Australia
Interests: pavement design; asphalt binder; asphalt mix; bitumen; rheology; ageing; material characterization; airport pavement; hot mix asphalt; warm mix asphalt; recycled materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pavements are multirole transportation infrastructure assets. This means that the pavement surface should provide a safe surface for the transportation of goods and passengers on the road and in airports and ports. Further, pavements should be resistant enough against structural loads and environmental gradients. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze structural performance and sustainability in pavement construction. The selection of appropriate materials for better performance requires a deep knowledge of rheology, solid mechanic, numerical, and statistical modeling. New research is thus required to update methodologies in the structural design and analysis of pavements considering current and future issues, such as environmental impacts.

The purpose of the Special Issue entitled “Pavement Analysis, Design, and Material Characterization” is to cover various subjects related to the structural and environmental design and analysis of pavement systems. In addition, various characterization methodologies and approaches to modeling will be considered. Studies of the materials used in different pavement alternatives, such as asphalt, concrete, and concrete block, will fall within the scope of this Special Issue. In addition, since pavements are not only designed for roads, research on airport and port pavement design and materials will be highly appreciated.

This call is an invitation to all pavement engineers, material researchers, contractors, and users to contribute with your experience and the results of your research and consultancy projects. It is hoped that this Special Issue will make a significant contribution to the literature on the design and construction of high-strength pavements.

Dr. Ali Jamshidi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Asphalt pavement
  • Concrete pavement
  • Soil stabilization
  • Aggregate material
  • Asphalt rheology
  • Cementitious materials
  • Asphalt mix design
  • Waste material
  • Structural design
  • Structural modeling
  • Hot mix asphalt
  • Warm mix asphalt
  • Emulsion asphalt
  • Pavement maintenance and rehabilitation
  • Pavement recycling
  • Long-term performance
  • Asphalt aging
  • Pavement construction
  • Pavement design and analysis
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Sustainable pavement material
  • Pavement material production
  • Perpetual pavement
  • Sustainable pavement
  • Pavement failures
  • Structural and functional performance
  • Pavement management system
  • Field and laboratory test
  • Full scale simulation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparison of Stress Fields near Longitudinal Construction Joints of Tied and Doweled Sections in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su132011217 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
In Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements, tie bars are commonly used at longitudinal construction joints (LCJs) to prevent the lanes from separating. Meanwhile, the increase in multiple lanes due to greater traffic volumes has raised concerns about potential longitudinal cracking; this has led [...] Read more.
In Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements, tie bars are commonly used at longitudinal construction joints (LCJs) to prevent the lanes from separating. Meanwhile, the increase in multiple lanes due to greater traffic volumes has raised concerns about potential longitudinal cracking; this has led to the use of dowel bars instead of tie bars at LCJs. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on the comparison between the behaviors of concrete pavement based on the restrained conditions provided by tie and dowel bars at LCJs. In this study, we investigated the effects of the placement of tie and dowel bars at LCJs on the potential for longitudinal cracking in response to the increase in concrete stress that may occur when the lanes are tied together in PCC pavements. Field testing verified that the variation in concrete strain was more restrained in the case of a tie bar than a dowel bar, whereas it resulted in higher stress in the concrete element in the tie bar section. However, the use of dowel bars caused more movement in the transverse direction at LCJs as compared with tie bars. Thus, our results indicate that using dowel bars reduces the potential for longitudinal cracking; however, it may increase the potential for lane separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
Effect of Fractured Aggregate Particles on Linear Stress Ratio of Aggregate and Resilience Properties of Asphalt Mixes—A Way Forward for Sustainable Pavements
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8630; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13158630 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The interlocking and packing of aggregate particles play a key role in achieving high level of linear viscoelastic properties and rutting resistance in asphalt mix for sustainable pavements. In this study, the quantitative effect of fractured aggregate particles (FAPs) on loading (i.e., 500 [...] Read more.
The interlocking and packing of aggregate particles play a key role in achieving high level of linear viscoelastic properties and rutting resistance in asphalt mix for sustainable pavements. In this study, the quantitative effect of fractured aggregate particles (FAPs) on loading (i.e., 500 kPa normal stress), along with the resilience properties of asphalt mixes, was evaluated. Linear and nonlinear stress behaviors of aggregates (from direct shear test) and asphalt mixes (from resilient modulus test) were analyzed. A new quantitative parameter (linear stress ratio), i.e., linear stress (Pi)/maximum stress (Pmax), is proposed to be used in selection of aggregates for asphalt mixes. It was observed that 15.5% increase in FAPs caused 19.5% increase in ϕ and 70.7% increase in linear stress ratio (LSR). The same content of FAPs resulted in 29.4% and 36% increases in total resilient modulus (MRT) and 34.2% and 24.5% increases in instantaneous resilient modulus (MRI) for 0.1 and 0.3 s load durations, respectively. The proposed LSR is observed to be superior to conventionally used ϕ for aggregate resistance in design of flexible pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
Development of a Matrix Analysis Methodology for Characterization of Short-Term Aging in Asphalt Binders Modified by Synthetic Wax
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 5784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13115784 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 407
Abstract
In this study, an innovative methodology is proposed to characterize the short-term aging of asphalt binders using the matrix analysis method. The rotational viscosity and complex shear modulus of asphalt binders were chosen as target rheological properties for the analysis of aging. A [...] Read more.
In this study, an innovative methodology is proposed to characterize the short-term aging of asphalt binders using the matrix analysis method. The rotational viscosity and complex shear modulus of asphalt binders were chosen as target rheological properties for the analysis of aging. A set of square matrices was developed based on test temperatures and the synthetic additive wax content. Transformational short-term aging matrices were obtained that characterize the trend of the aging process as a function of binder type, temperature sweep, and additive percentage. The results of the matrix analysis show that the trend of short-term aging depends on the binder performance grade and the rheological characteristic chosen for the analysis of aging. In addition, transformational aging matrices can provide detailed information about the range of the aging rate and the trend in aging for each binder type. Furthermore, the components of the transformational matrices clearly show the sensitivity of the binders to aging. In conclusion, the matrix analysis of aging can be used to compare the effects of short-term aging of different asphalt binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
Reduction of Plastic Deformation in Heavy Traffic Intersections in Urban Areas
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 4002; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13074002 - 03 Apr 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
This study aims to maximize the effects of reducing plastic deformation in heavy traffic intersections in urban areas by improving the aggregates and binders of asphalt mixtures in order to verify the strength effect of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) mixtures compared with that [...] Read more.
This study aims to maximize the effects of reducing plastic deformation in heavy traffic intersections in urban areas by improving the aggregates and binders of asphalt mixtures in order to verify the strength effect of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) mixtures compared with that of fluid-resistant asphalt mixtures. The authors examine the pavement performance and conduct an economic analysis for sustainable urban infrastructure. Additionally, to reduce plastic deformation, the study analyzed an improvement plan through experimental research based on the existing literature. First, we determined the mixing design specifications of the general asphalt fluid-resistant mixture and SMA mixture, which is known to reduce plastic deformation. Next, we confirmed the appropriateness of the raw materials and mixing design results. Finally, a performance test was conducted on plastic deformation resistance. A wheel tracking test was also conducted as a performance experiment. The test body—with a fiber grid reinforcing material installed in the SMA mixture—showed high dynamic stability, which was the most effective for reducing plastic deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
A Synthesis on the Effects of Two Commercial Recycled Plastics on the Properties of Bitumen and Asphalt
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12208594 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The desire to develop sustainable infrastructure, including pavement structures and materials, is ever increasing in recent times. One opportunity is to partially replace high-cost bituminous binder with low-cost recycled plastic in asphalt mixtures. This synthesis combines the various research efforts to understand the [...] Read more.
The desire to develop sustainable infrastructure, including pavement structures and materials, is ever increasing in recent times. One opportunity is to partially replace high-cost bituminous binder with low-cost recycled plastic in asphalt mixtures. This synthesis combines the various research efforts to understand the effects of two commercially available recycled plastics, known as MR6 and MR10, on bituminous binders and asphalt mixtures. Using common test methods from the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia, generally consistent and significant effects were observed in various base bitumen grades and various common asphalt mixture types. Binder resistance to flow and binder elasticity both increased significantly and were associated with the three to four grade increases under the Performing Grading system. Similarly, mixture stiffness and mixture resistance to deformation increased significantly, while crack resistance and moisture damage resistance were not significantly affected. The effects of MR6 and MR10 were generally similar to the effects associated with conventional polymer modification of asphalt binders and asphalt mixtures, particularly those effects associated with plastomeric polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
Relationships between Functional Properties of Pervious Concrete
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12166318 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Pervious concrete is characterized by its open-void structure, which gives it a number of specific properties and allows specific applications, including pervious pavements, residential roads, alleys, sidewalks, parking lots, patios, and so on. Permeable areas are extremely important for the creation of sustainable [...] Read more.
Pervious concrete is characterized by its open-void structure, which gives it a number of specific properties and allows specific applications, including pervious pavements, residential roads, alleys, sidewalks, parking lots, patios, and so on. Permeable areas are extremely important for the creation of sustainable cities in terms of the water cycle. Due to its high void content and low cement/mortar content, pervious concrete generally may have significantly reduced strength when compared with conventional concrete. That is why a wide range of research activities is devoted to the balance between acceptable void content, strength, as well as other significant properties. Knowledge of the relationships between the individual properties is very important for understanding this specific material. In this paper, a wide range of 38 different composition variants has been tested to determine the dependencies between the essential properties of pervious concrete. The variables related to the type of aggregate, maximum grain size, the grain-size composition, the amount of binder, and the kind (composition) of binder. The dependencies reported in the article are defined with high reliability R2 ranging from 0.75 to 0.95. On the basis of the dependencies thus determined, it can be predicted that a density of min. 1740 kg/m3 must be reached to meet the requirement of min. 10 MPa for nonpavement applications, while a density of min. 1960 kg/m3 must be achieved to meet min. 20 MPa for pavement applications. The criteria of the void ratio for pavement applications can be set at 20 ± 3%, while the criteria for nonpavement applications can be set at 28 ± 6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
Effects of Short-Term Aging on the Compactibility and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Using the Response Surface Method
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156181 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Several factors affect asphalt binder and mixture characteristics. This makes pavement performance assessment a mounting task. This paper evaluates the effects of short-term aging on compactibility and volumetric properties of asphalt mixtures using the Response Surface Method (RSM). Three different binders were utilized [...] Read more.
Several factors affect asphalt binder and mixture characteristics. This makes pavement performance assessment a mounting task. This paper evaluates the effects of short-term aging on compactibility and volumetric properties of asphalt mixtures using the Response Surface Method (RSM). Three different binders were utilized to produce mixtures (type AC-14). Aging temperature, aging duration, and duration in a climate chamber with increased humidity and ultraviolet lighting were considered as independent variables (IV), while compactibility and volumetric properties were regarded as dependent variables (DV). The findings revealed significant impacts of aging temperature and duration on compactibility, air voids, voids in mineral aggregate, and voids filled with asphalt, while duration in the climate chamber exhibited no significant influence on the DVs. The effects of IVs on DVs varied by binder type. This was achieved through an elaborate statistical analysis. The study, finally, demonstrates the RSM’s potential to predict changes in responses from mathematical equations—converging with the experimental observation—with excellent accuracy. Potentially, pavement contractors can use this method by replacing haulage duration and mixtures’ temperatures during paving in the developed models. It enables them to predict the pavement density and adjust pressure as well as the number of roller passes to achieve the desired requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Article
Effect of Inappropriate Binder Grade Selection on Initiation of Asphalt Pavement Cracking
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6099; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156099 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 564
Abstract
This paper is aimed at assessing in-service asphalt pavement cracking in order to fully understand its causes as well as reviewing the possible impact of implementing a new mix design method on failures observed. Field and laboratory investigations were conducted as well as [...] Read more.
This paper is aimed at assessing in-service asphalt pavement cracking in order to fully understand its causes as well as reviewing the possible impact of implementing a new mix design method on failures observed. Field and laboratory investigations were conducted as well as a review of design and construction records. Substitution of a Performance Grade (PG) binder with straight run pen grade binder without performing independent Superpave PG verification tests greatly contributed to cracking. A 20/30 pen grade binder which was utilised had already undergone some change in its properties since its manufacture and therefore did not provide the required workability and crack resistance that it would otherwise have been expected to provide. Target mixing and compaction temperature ranges during construction were higher than those recommended confirming that the binder used had already undergone a change in its physical and chemical characteristics between the time of its manufacture and use. Additionally, a lapse in quality control and assurance during asphalt production and laying resulted in a highly voided wearing course which exacerbated the situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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Book Review
Analysis of Pavement Structures. By Animesh Das. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2014; 194p; ISBN 978-1466558557
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6098; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13116098 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Significant differences exist between pavement and building structures, particularly with respect to the type and mode of loading conditions: structural elements, beams and columns of buildings are subjected to static loads and pavement to dynamic loads. However, the design of structural members for [...] Read more.
Significant differences exist between pavement and building structures, particularly with respect to the type and mode of loading conditions: structural elements, beams and columns of buildings are subjected to static loads and pavement to dynamic loads. However, the design of structural members for buildings might need to address temporary dynamic loads due to wind, earthquake or other factors depending on building or structure height and application. In contrast, pavements are subjected to the moving loads of vehicles as well as to further loads due to temperature gradients. Since the layers of various materials used in pavements may vary in thickness and the statically indeterminate nature of pavement (due to the full contact with the bed soil layer or the lower layers), any deformation caused by changes in the moisture content and temperature can result in internal stresses in pavement structures. Consequently, analysis of pavement structures can be very complicated, requiring skills in material characterization, mathematics and modeling. In this regard, a useful book that covers various subjects in the pavement design and analysis was reviewed. Th details of each chapter were briefly explained. This book is recommended for consultant engineers and pavement researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Design, Analysis and Material Characterization)
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