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Special Issue "Advances in Physical Education, Exercise and Sport: Towards a Healthy and Sustainable Lifestyle"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Health and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Damián Iglesias Gallego
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Juan Pedro Fuentes García
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Didactic and Behavioral Analysis of Sports (ADICODE) Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, The University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
Interests: tennis training; motor learning; psychophysiological evaluation; sports medicine and exercise; brain activity; cardiovascular physiology; rehabilitation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. José Alberto Frade Martins Parraca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Comprehensive Health Research Center (CHRC), Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia – Departamento de Desporto e Saúde, Universidade de Évora, 7000-727 Évora, Portugal
Interests: exercise intervention; exercise physiology; exercise science
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is currently a public health problem that mostly affects young people and their later adult stage. Global data show high percentages of physical inactivity in children and adolescents. Research studies have shown that sedentary behaviors and excessive screen time have negative consequences for physical health. There is also scientific evidence that highlights the harmful effects on the mental health of young people. Therefore, it is suggested that physical activity could be a good means to improve the physical and mental well-being of children and adolescents.

Adolescence is a crucial period in which lifestyles are established, which are difficult to modify in the later adult stage. For this reason, it is important to try to contribute positively from different action scenarios for children and adolescents to adopt healthy lifestyles, where the practice of physical activity is an essential ingredient.

Under this Special Issue, we are interested in receiving studies leading to the increase of physical activity in children and adolescents. Physical education classes assume an appropriate context from which different intervention strategies can be put in place, with the objective of increasing the levels of physical activity practice. The promotion of sports in young people should also be analyzed, trying to ensure that activities generate adherence and continuity.

The objective of this Special Issue is to gather a set of recent investigations that advance our knowledge about how to increase the levels of physical activity practice in children and adolescents. Intervention studies that show evidence of the acquisition of healthy lifestyles in the field of physical education, exercise, and sports are welcome. We are also interested in cross-sectional research that will allow us to advance the knowledge on the topic of this Special Issue. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses will also be welcomed and analyzed by the editorial team.

Finally, we want to send a message so that groups of researchers from all over the world are encouraged to participate in this project, which aims to contribute to the construction of a more sustainable society with healthier citizens.

Dr. Damián Iglesias Gallego
Dr. Juan Pedro Fuentes García
Dr. José Alberto Frade Martins Parraca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health education
  • sustainability education
  • physical education
  • physical activity
  • sport
  • well-being
  • children
  • adolescents
  • adults
  • elderly

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Acute Comparative Effect of Foam Rolling and Static Stretching on Range of Motion in Rowers
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3631; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13073631 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Rowers’ anthropometric characteristics and flexibility are fundamental to increase stroke amplitude and optimize power transfer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of foam rolling and static stretching on the range of motion over time. Eight university rowers (24.8 [...] Read more.
Rowers’ anthropometric characteristics and flexibility are fundamental to increase stroke amplitude and optimize power transfer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of foam rolling and static stretching on the range of motion over time. Eight university rowers (24.8 ± 3.4 yrs., height 182.3 ± 6.5 cm, body mass 79.3 ± 4.6 kg) participated in an alternating treatment design study with two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The sit and reach test was used to measure the range of motion. Both in the foam rolling and in the static stretching method, a pre-test (T0), a post-test (T1), and a post-15-min test (T2) were performed. A significant effect was observed on the range of motion over time (p < 0.001), but not for time x method interaction (p = 0.680). Significant differences were found between T0 and T1 with foam rolling and static stretching (p < 0.001, d = 0.4); p < 0.001, d = 0.6). The differences between T0 and T2 were also significant with both methods (p = 0.001, d = 0.4; p < 0.001, d = 0.4). However, no significant difference was observed between T1 and T2 (p = 1.000, d = 0.1; p = 0.089, d = 0.2). Foam roller and static stretching seem to be effective methods to improve the range of motion but there seems to be no differences between them. Full article
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Article
A Study on Types of Leisure Index Based on National Leisure Activities Survey 2019 in Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3619; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13073619 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
This study investigated differences in main purposes of leisure activities, leisure constraints, and the quality of life among segmented clusters based on leisure condition index, leisure resource index, and leisure attitude index utilizing Korean Better Leisure Index (K-BLI). Characteristics of each cluster were [...] Read more.
This study investigated differences in main purposes of leisure activities, leisure constraints, and the quality of life among segmented clusters based on leisure condition index, leisure resource index, and leisure attitude index utilizing Korean Better Leisure Index (K-BLI). Characteristics of each cluster were aggregated for profiling using data from the ⎡National Leisure Activity Survey 2019⎦ in Korea. Results of this study provide room for debate and response regarding leisure experience and sustainability of recreation service in local community based on characteristics of each cluster. This study semanticized adults living in Gyeonggi-do having the highest population density in Korea by conducting K-means clustering. This study segmented subjects into three clusters. Characteristics of each cluster were determined and t-test was conducted to determine associations among the main purpose of leisure activities, leisure constraints, and quality of life. As a result, adults living in Gyeonggi-do were divided into “dissatisfaction with leisure resource”, “dissatisfaction with the quality of life”, and “sensitive to the leisure constraints” clusters. Their desire for improvement for quality of life and leisure activity were definitely clear. This means that results of this study through segmentation based on leisure index are meaningful as baseline data to suggest an actual policy plan. Full article
Article
The Effect of an Adapted Physical Activity Intervention Program on Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers’ Self-Efficacy towards Inclusion in Saudi Arabia
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13063459 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Self-efficacy of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers is an effective predictor of successful inclusion of students with disabilities. However, physical disability is one of the most challenging disabilities to include in PE settings. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a 6-week [...] Read more.
Self-efficacy of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers is an effective predictor of successful inclusion of students with disabilities. However, physical disability is one of the most challenging disabilities to include in PE settings. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program on the self-efficacy of Saudi pre-service PE teachers towards including students with physical disabilities in general PE classes. Two groups of pre-service PE teachers (35 each in the experimental and control groups; mean age: 22.69 ± 1.17 years) enrolled in two universities in Saudi Arabia were recruited into this study. Self-efficacy was measured before and after the intervention program using the Arabic version of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Physical Education Teacher Education Majors toward Children with Disabilities (SE-PETE-D). One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that a significant improvement in self-efficacy was demonstrated for the experimental group after participation in the intervention program compared to the control group (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.53, large). The results support the systematic implementation of this type of intervention program as an integral part of physical education teacher education programs. Full article
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Article
Test-Retest Reliability of Isokinetic Knee Strength Measurements in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13031343 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Background: Reliability studies are used to verify the evaluation accuracy of a given device. Strength is an important factor for the development of daily activities and its correct management is fundamental. The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of a [...] Read more.
Background: Reliability studies are used to verify the evaluation accuracy of a given device. Strength is an important factor for the development of daily activities and its correct management is fundamental. The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of a concentric strength test in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Twenty-seven individuals with T2DM performed three repetitions of extension-flexion in concentric-concentric action at 60°/s, for both legs, using an isokinetic dynamometer. For the reliability analysis, we performed an intra-session test retest. Results: The total sample and men sub-group intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values were excellent for peak torque and work. In the women sub-group, ICC values were excellent for extensors in both peak torque and work; however, concerning flexor, the ICC values were good for peak torque while, for work, they were good for the right leg and moderate for the left leg. Standard error of measurement (SEM) percentage oscillated from 3.85% to 6.80%, with the smallest real difference (SRD) percentage being from 10.66% to 18.86% for peak torque. Furthermore, the SEM (%) was around 5.5% and SRD (%) was around 15% for work. Conclusions: The isokinetic dynamometry had “good” to “excellent” relative reliability for peak torque (0.862–0.983) and work (0.744–0.982) of extension-flexion in concentric-concentric action at 60°/s. In addition, our study showed that, in general, an SRD < 20% could indicate a true change in strength regarding this protocol in T2DM. Full article
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Article
Hybrid Physical Education Teaching and Curriculum Design Based on a Voice Interactive Artificial Intelligence Educational Robot
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8000; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12198000 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
In order to promote the development of individualized, accurate and intelligent physical education teaching, combined with artificial intelligence technology, the current physical education teaching mode has been improved. Through the establishment of an artificial intelligence educational robot based on voice interaction, a hybrid [...] Read more.
In order to promote the development of individualized, accurate and intelligent physical education teaching, combined with artificial intelligence technology, the current physical education teaching mode has been improved. Through the establishment of an artificial intelligence educational robot based on voice interaction, a hybrid physical education teaching mode is constructed to realize personalized education for students. First, the speech recognition system is designed from three aspects of speech recognition, interaction management and speech synthesis, and the accuracy of recognition is improved by algorithm. Second, a new mode of hybrid physical education teaching is constructed. Through intelligent information technology, the advantages of traditional physical education teaching are combined to improve the classroom efficiency of physical education teaching and personalized education ability for students. Finally, the relevant experimental scheme and questionnaire are designed, and the actual situation of an educational robot introduced into physical education teaching is investigated and evaluated. The results show that the recognition accuracy of the artificial intelligence speech recognition system can reach more than 90%. It can communicate well with students and answer students’ questions. An educational robot is introduced into physical education teaching, and students’ learning attitude and interest are evaluated. The results show that before and after the introduction of an educational robot in physical education teaching, the average score of students’ learning interest increases by 21 points, and the average score of learning attitude increases by 9.8 points. Therefore, the introduction of an artificial intelligence educational robot based on voice interaction in physical education teaching can help to improve the classroom efficiency of physical education teaching and students’ interest. This study provides a reference for the development of artificial intelligence teaching and promoting the development of artificial intelligence. Full article
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Article
The Self-Efficacy of Preservice Physical Education Teachers in Disabilities Education in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7283; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12187283 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
The adapted physical education (APE) field is developing vigorously in China, and an increasing number of students with physical education (PE) as their major will encounter students with disabilities in their future teaching careers. This study thus surveyed PE major students from eight [...] Read more.
The adapted physical education (APE) field is developing vigorously in China, and an increasing number of students with physical education (PE) as their major will encounter students with disabilities in their future teaching careers. This study thus surveyed PE major students from eight Chinese sports colleges and universities in order to explore how perceived social support could affect the self-efficacy of PE major students who are expected to face students with different types of disabilities; furthermore, it aimed to demonstrate the regulating effect of APE studies and internships. The survey found that (1) perceived social support positively affected self-efficacy among Chinese PE majors who would be facing students with different types of disabilities; (2) APE studies and internships positively affected self-efficacy among Chinese PE majors who would be facing students with different types of disabilities, and; (3) APE studies and internships strengthened perceived social support’s effects on self-efficacy among Chinese PE majors who would be facing students with different types of disabilities. Full article
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Article
Autonomic Profile, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index and Academic Performance of School Students
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6718; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12176718 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the autonomic modulation, physical activity, body mass index, and academic performance of preschool and school students by grade. Extracurricular physical activity, heart rate variability, body mass index, and objective and subjective academic performance were analyzed [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the autonomic modulation, physical activity, body mass index, and academic performance of preschool and school students by grade. Extracurricular physical activity, heart rate variability, body mass index, and objective and subjective academic performance were analyzed in 180 preschool and primary school students (7.91 ± 2.29 years). Significant lower heart rate and higher parasympathetic modulation were found in 10–12-year-old primary education students. The 8–9-year-old students obtained the worst results in English and in five of the subjective academic performance items. Students aged 10–12 years old presented the highest body composition values. No significant differences were found on the extracurricular physical activity by age. No correlation between autonomic profile, physical activity, and body composition with objective academic performance was found. Nerveless subjective academic performance perception of teachers presented a negative correlation with body composition and the parasympathetic modulation. School students presented an increased body mass index and parasympathetic modulation by age. Physical activity of all students, independently of the age, were lower than the official recommendations. Full article
Article
Differences in Technical and Tactical Learning of Football According to the Teaching Methodology: A Study in an Educational Context
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12166554 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Football performance requires beginning learners to develop both technical skills and tactical awareness. The aim of this study was to examine and contrast the differences in the learning of football across two different teaching methodologies. A total of 35 students, distributed in two [...] Read more.
Football performance requires beginning learners to develop both technical skills and tactical awareness. The aim of this study was to examine and contrast the differences in the learning of football across two different teaching methodologies. A total of 35 students, distributed in two class-groups at the fifth-grade level of primary education participated in the study. Each class group participated in just one of the intervention programs (tactical program, n = 17; technical program, n = 18). The Instrument for the Measurement of Learning and Performance in Football was used to evaluate each student’s actions and in relation to specific performance indicators. For each one of the play actions analyzed, the Performance Index of Decision-Making, the Performance Index of Technical Execution, and the Performance Index of Final Results were calculated and these scores were summed to generate the Total Performance Index. The differences in technical and tactical learning between the class-groups were calculated using the Total Performance Index. For this assessment, various statistical tests were used: the Mann–Whitney’s U and the Wilcoxon’s T (for the non-parametric variables) and the T-test for Independent Samples, as well as the T-test for Related Samples (for the parametric variables). Likewise, a 2 × 2 ANOVA was conducted to determine whether the students’ previous experience had an effect on the level of learning. The results indicated improvements with both intervention programs; however, the tactical program provided a higher level of learning than the technical program between the assessment tests. The experience of the students had an effect on the play actions of dribbling the ball and in marking the player without the ball. Physical education teachers are recommended to implement comprehensive methods for technical and tactical football teaching at school. Full article
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Article
Normative Values for Muscular Fitness for Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 7–18 Years
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6078; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12156078 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to establish sex and age-specific muscular fitness (MF) norms for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–18 years old. The secondary aim was to compare their MF values with those of children and adolescents in other countries [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study was to establish sex and age-specific muscular fitness (MF) norms for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–18 years old. The secondary aim was to compare their MF values with those of children and adolescents in other countries and regions. The MF of 93,755 participants from China was evaluated by handgrip strength (upper limbs strength), sit-ups (trunk strength) and a standing broad jump (lower limbs strength), with a total of 90,424, 90,281 and 90,663 data values, respectively. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method was used to calculate smooth curves and table data. The MF of Chinese boys was higher than that of girls in all age groups. After the age of 11, the growth rate of boys accelerated while that of girls slowed down. Age-related changes were larger for boys than for girls. In the international comparison, all the MF indicators of Chinese children and adolescents were lower than those of their Japanese peers but were higher than those of their European peers, with the exception of handgrip strength. The results of this study can be used to evaluate, monitor and apply interventions that improve MF. They can also be used to compare trends across countries and regions. Full article
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Article
Accelerometry-Measured Physical Activity in Amateur Footballers. Is It Enough to Obtain Health Benefits?
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4477; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12114477 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Amateur football is played by millions of individuals worldwide, but it has been scarcely researched (almost no studies have targeted this sport). There seems to be a need to fill this gap, because it has an impact in these individuals’ health status. The [...] Read more.
Amateur football is played by millions of individuals worldwide, but it has been scarcely researched (almost no studies have targeted this sport). There seems to be a need to fill this gap, because it has an impact in these individuals’ health status. The aim of our research was to uncover amateur football players’ physical and psychological traits to understand the impact of this sport in their health (physical, mental, and social well-being). Two-hundred footballers (17–40 years) from four regions in Spain (north, central, southwest, southeast), enrolled in 16 different football teams participated. They completed a questionnaire to assess their motives for sport participation, their intention to continue playing football, and their exercise addiction. To objectively measure their physical activity levels, accelerometers were used during practice sessions. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained from coaches prior to and after every practice session and players at the end of every practice. Results showed a mean 140.1 moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)/minutes/week. Players’ RPE scores were similar in the “fairly light” range (6–20 scale) at pre (11.38 ± 1.64) and post training (11.83 ± 1.39), and it was not different between players and coaches (11.50 ± 1.52). Enjoyment was the highest-ranked motive to practice amateur football (6.34 ± 0.67; 1–7 range), followed by fitness (5.68 ± 0.97; 1–7 range), social (4.80 ± 0.85; 1–7 range), and appearance (4.04 ± 1.21; 1–7 range). Players had some symptoms of exercise addiction (21.09 ± 4.53; 1–30 range) and their intentions to continue playing were very high (4.31 ± 1.08; 1–5 range). Moreover, enjoyment was the strongest predictor of these intentions (R2 = 0.260). In conclusion, a weekly amateur football practice almost allows players to meet international MVPA recommendations for health benefits. Enjoyment was their strongest motive to practice, and the players showed some symptoms of exercise addiction. These two variables were the strongest predictors of the participants’ intention to continue playing amateur football. This sport could be considered adequate to help adults maintain an active, healthy lifestyle. Full article
Article
Comparative Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Phase III of a Tennis-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12104134 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of two tennis-based cardiac rehabilitation programs using two protocols: high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in the body composition, physical fitness, heart rate variability, and health-related quality of life. [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of two tennis-based cardiac rehabilitation programs using two protocols: high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in the body composition, physical fitness, heart rate variability, and health-related quality of life. It was performed as a single-blinded randomized controlled trial of 21 people with acute coronary syndrome. The 12-week cardiac rehabilitation program consisted of three sessions per week of 60 min with the main part consisting of 10 sets of 15 s with 15 s of active recovery at 85%–90% of their maximum heart rate or 40 min at 70%–85% of their maximum heart rate in the HIIT and the MICT groups, respectively. Results show that both cardiac rehabilitation programs improved the agility and the mental components of the health-related quality of life (p-value < 0.05). The HIIT protocol also showed a significant improvement in the flexibility of upper and lower limbs (p-value < 0.05). Moreover, significant group × time interaction was found in the handgrip strength in favor of the HIIT group (p-value = 0.035). Nevertheless, no significant effects on cardiorespiratory fitness or heart rate variability were found. Importantly, no adverse event was detected, so HIIT appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the rehabilitation of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Full article
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Review

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Review
Phase Angle from Bioelectric Impedance and Maturity-Related Factors in Adolescent Athletes: A Systematic Review
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4806; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12124806 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Phase angle (PhA) is a body composition (BC) parameter from bioelectrical impedance analysis that is suggested as a marker of cell integrity and general health. In adolescent athletes, PhA values are used to monitor the effects of training and competitions and seem to [...] Read more.
Phase angle (PhA) is a body composition (BC) parameter from bioelectrical impedance analysis that is suggested as a marker of cell integrity and general health. In adolescent athletes, PhA values are used to monitor the effects of training and competitions and seem to vary according to age, having an upward trajectory during puberty. Since adolescence is a period composed of maturation stages, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between PhA and maturation stage in adolescent athletes. A search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, BVS, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, Science Direct, and Academic Search Complete (EBSCO) databases up to May 2020. Eligibility criteria followed the PICOS strategy and studies with healthy athletes aged 10–19 years of any level of competition were included. Six cross-sectional studies and two longitudinal studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that early and mature athletes have higher PhA than those who are non-matured or maturated late. Thus, PhA is influenced by the pubertal status. Considering BC is one of the factors influencing sports performance together with its growth-related changes, practitioners may use PhA values in BC analysis of adolescent athletes. Full article
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Other

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Study Protocol
Cost-Effectiveness of a Whole-Body Vibration Program in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Study Protocol
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13052581 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disorder, with patients exhibiting hyperglycemia in fasting and postprandial states. T2DM has several complications, including loss of sensation in more distal body parts. Good peripheral sensitivity is essential as this affects different parameters [...] Read more.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disorder, with patients exhibiting hyperglycemia in fasting and postprandial states. T2DM has several complications, including loss of sensation in more distal body parts. Good peripheral sensitivity is essential as this affects different parameters related to activities of daily living, such as leg strength and balance. The objectives of this project were to assess the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training program on (1) vibration perception threshold (VPT), (2) balance, (3) strength, (4) lipidic profile, (5) health-related quality of life, (6) diabetic neuropathy, and (7) body composition in T2DM patients. Methods/Design: A double-blind, randomized controlled study, with WBV and placebo groups, was carried out. Both groups performed 8 weeks of intervention, with 3 sessions per week, completing a total of 24 sessions. There were two groups: the experimental group, i.e., the WBV group, who received WBV therapy; and the placebo group, who completed a simulated training program that was developed on a Galileo Fitness platform, connected to software displayed on a screen. The participant could see the parameters of the simulated vibration training (duration, amplitude, and frequency), but it was the software that controlled the speakers placed inside the vibration platform. Ninety patients with T2DM (56 males and 34 females) were recruited for the intervention. Participants were assigned equally to the WBV (n = 45) and placebo (n = 45) groups. Primary outcome measures were (1) HbA1c and (2) vibration threshold. Secondary measures were (1) health-related quality of life, (2) balance, (3) strength, (4) body composition, (5) blood pressure, (6) diabetic neuropathy, and (7) lipidic profile. Statistical analysis was carried out by treatment intention and protocol. Discussion: This project aimed to investigate the effects of WBV training on HbA1c, vibration threshold, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in T2DM patients. In future, guidelines will be provided for the incorporation of the main obtained conclusions into the social-sanitary system and businesses. Full article
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