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Topical Collection "Urban Planning and Built Environment"

Editors

Dr. Yupeng Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China
Interests: sustainable urban planning; urban heat island; urban transportation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Liyang Fan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nikken Sekkei Research Institute, Mitsuwa Ogawamachi Bldg. 3F-7-1 Kanda Ogawamachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: smart community planning; smart building management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Shi-Jie Cao
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2. Global Centre for Clean Air Research (GCARE), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: building environment and control; air quality and health; urban environment and design; fast prediction of built environment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Xilian Luo
E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China
Interests: Indoor air Quality; Environmental control; Conservation of cultural heritage.

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleague,

The high density of building development in big cities is increasing population density, leading to the change of urban typology, traffic demand, land surface coverage, and the urban microclimate. Meanwhile, climate change is affecting building energy consumption, and heat emission from buildings is accelerating urban climate change. Currently, the mechanisms of interactions among urban planning, urban climate change, and building energy consumption are attracting more and more attention from academics. Studies to mitigate the urban heat island phenomenon usually rely on the introduction of cool material, heat emission reduction, vegetation from a building-scale viewpoint, or strategies as an instruction of urban park systems, shifting to public transportation systems from a district-scale viewpoint. The current urban planning and building planning methods are mostly based on functional demand and the lack of a quantitative environmental method for evaluating the planning plans. Environmentally-friendly planning methods are yet to be discussed, such as making an effective network of cool spots and the wind path at community scale and district scale. This is an optimal approach, with synergies among various elements and solutions interactively considering existing community structures, energy systems for different building types, traffic strategies, greenery renovation possibility, and city typologies. Studies on environmental urban planning and building design facing the problems occurring in high developed cities are expected for this Special Issue. Papers can be reviews, meta-analyses, case studies, and original research relevant to environmental, ecological, biological, policy, human behaviors, development, and economic or technological aspects of urban sustainability

Dr. Yupeng Wang
Dr. Liyang Fan
Dr. Shijie Cao
Dr. Xilian Luo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Urban climate change
  • Urban heat island
  • Urban ventilation
  • Urban environmental measurements
  • Numerical modelling
  • Indoor and outdoor environmental comfort, safety and health
  • Smart building design and evaluation
  • Indoor environmental evaluation
  • Building energy consumption
  • Building heat emission
  • Control solutions

Published Papers (11 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
The Possibilities of Orthophotos Application for Calculation of Ecological Stability Coefficient Purposes
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3017; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13063017 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 417
Abstract
Hand in hand with the increasing interest in the environment, this work puts the spotlight on ecological stability itself. The Coefficient of Ecological Stability (CES) indicates a chosen region’s stability level that may be calculated using various methodical instructions. For exact [...] Read more.
Hand in hand with the increasing interest in the environment, this work puts the spotlight on ecological stability itself. The Coefficient of Ecological Stability (CES) indicates a chosen region’s stability level that may be calculated using various methodical instructions. For exact CES determination, it is necessary to divide the area of interest correctly into predefined classes and the division quality has a direct impact on the final CES value precision which presents its informative value. For CES calculations in the past, terrestrial measurements and processing were used. Regarding the new methods of spatial data acquisition such as photogrammetry or remote sensing, there comes the question of the usage of these data for secondary purposes, such as for ecology. This articles goal is to test the use of the images taken by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for CES calculation. The main objective is to highlight the possibility of a UAV to measure CES without terrestrial measurements. The second objective is to compare the actual formulas for CES calculation and to observe the differences between the results from different calculations. Another aim is to show the inconsistency of calculations which lead to legislative unification. The aim is to apply a new method of CES calculation using Geographic Information System (GIS) software and modern methods of data acquisition and to point out the benefits, mainly including the time factor, which is closely related to the terrestrial geodetic measurement, when the CES value is about to be calculated for such a spacious area. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
Analysis of the Characteristics of Ecological Security Zoning and Its Dynamic Change Pattern: A Case Study of the Weibei Area
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12177222 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 785
Abstract
The development pattern of agriculture and energy exploitation in the southern marginal area of the Loess Plateau is widespread in the northern part of China. As a typical example, the fragile ecological area in the Weibei region is greatly affected by human factors, [...] Read more.
The development pattern of agriculture and energy exploitation in the southern marginal area of the Loess Plateau is widespread in the northern part of China. As a typical example, the fragile ecological area in the Weibei region is greatly affected by human factors, which makes the local ecological environment and social sustainability disturbed to varying degrees. Taking the Weibei region as the study area, through the comprehensive analysis of social, economic, and climate data, an index system suitable for the ecological security assessment of the Weibei region was constructed. The ecological security of this region was quantitatively evaluated by spatial principal component analysis (SPCA), and its ecological security partition was divided and analyzed. There were five zones at different levels, and I to V represented the development of ecological security from a low level to a high level. The results showed that from 1997 to 2017, the ecological security of different districts and counties in the Weibei region showed different trends. For example, the ecological security index of Tongguan County, Chengcheng County, and Pucheng County continued to decrease, but the overall index value was still high, and the ecological security index of Dali County, Fuping County, and Hancheng County increased. During this period, the ecological security of regions I and II continued to increase, while regions IV and V first decreased and then increased. At the same time, the area of the ecological security buffer region increased year by year. This study can provide a feasible method for assessing ecological security of the current regional model of mixed agriculture and energy extraction industry. Full article
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Article
Perceived Quality of Urban Wetland Parks: A Second-Order Factor Structure Equation Modeling
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12177204 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Wetland in the urban or peri-urban areas has been recognized as an important component of urban ecosystems and provides ecological and environmental services. Wetland park emerged as a kind of restoration of natural wetlands in the context of increasing pressure on land and [...] Read more.
Wetland in the urban or peri-urban areas has been recognized as an important component of urban ecosystems and provides ecological and environmental services. Wetland park emerged as a kind of restoration of natural wetlands in the context of increasing pressure on land and eco-environment caused by urban sprawl, which has played an essential role in providing recreational spaces/opportunities and improving social interactions. However, little research has been conducted on the theoretical formulation elaborating individuals’ perceived quality of wetland parks when people are engaging in activities therein. This study is an attempt to develop a method to measure the quality of wetland parks based on individuals’ various perceptions and attitudes. From the view of human-nature interaction, the perceived quality is hypothetically conceptualized as a composite of two dimensions, such as comfort perception and environmental satisfaction. A series of questionnaire-based surveys were conducted among respondents (N = 936) in Yanghu wetland park in Changsha, China. Based on the measured items from on-site surveys, second-order factor structural equation modeling is applied to estimate the hypothesis of a hierarchical structure for elaborating how the quality of wetland park is perceived by individual respondents. The results test the hypothesis that the quality of wetland park as a second-order theoretical construct can be conceptualized by two first-order theoretical constructs, individuals’ comfort (loading = 0.749), and environmental satisfaction (loading = 0.828). In addition, a significant influence of attitudes toward green space on the perceived quality of wetland park has been identified. Full article
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Article
Effects of Urbanization on Regional Extreme-Temperature Changes in China, 1960–2016
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12166560 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Urbanization in China has been expanding dramatically since 1978, significantly affecting the extreme temperature changes in cities, which is a vital indicator of urban climate change. To assess urban-related effect on regional extreme-temperature changes in China, this study employed high-resolution land use data [...] Read more.
Urbanization in China has been expanding dramatically since 1978, significantly affecting the extreme temperature changes in cities, which is a vital indicator of urban climate change. To assess urban-related effect on regional extreme-temperature changes in China, this study employed high-resolution land use data to divide meteorological stations into rural stations, suburban stations, and urban stations, and evaluated the annual and seasonal changes in extreme minimum temperature (TNN), mean temperature (Tavg) and extreme maximum temperature (TXX) at each meteorological station. The result revealed that extreme temperature indices (TNN, TXX) and Tavg increased significantly from 1960 to 2016 with varied degrees in different seasons and different regions. Extreme temperature indices in high latitudes increased more rapidly than in low latitudes; while the trends in summer are slower than in other seasons. Urbanization effects on the trends of TNN, Tavg and TXX were all statistically significant, but urbanization effects on TNN and Tavg were more significant than TXX. The urbanization effects were more significant in low altitudes, especially in North, South, Northwest and Northeast China. In North, Northwest and Northeast China, the urban-related effects on temperature increase were mainly observed in spring and winter, but in South China, the urban-related effects were more evident in summer. This study is valuable for sustainable urban planning in China. Full article
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Article
Spatiotemporal Patterns of Population Mobility and Its Determinants in Chinese Cities Based on Travel Big Data
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4012; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12104012 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Large-scale population mobility has an important impact on the spatial layout of China’s urban systems. Compared with traditional census data, mobile-phone-based travel big data can describe the mobility patterns of a population in a timely, dynamic, complete, and accurate manner. With the travel [...] Read more.
Large-scale population mobility has an important impact on the spatial layout of China’s urban systems. Compared with traditional census data, mobile-phone-based travel big data can describe the mobility patterns of a population in a timely, dynamic, complete, and accurate manner. With the travel big dataset supported by Tencent’s location big data, combined with social network analysis (SNA) and a semiparametric geographically weighted regression (SGWR) model, this paper first analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of mobile-data-based population mobility (MBPM), and then revealed the socioeconomic factors related to population mobility during the Spring Festival of 2019, which is the most important festival in China, equivalent to Thanksgiving Day in United States. During this period, the volume of population mobility exceeded 200 million, which became the largest time node of short-term population mobility in the world. The results showed that population mobility presents a spatial structure dominated by two east–west main axes formed by Chengdu, Nanjing, Wuhan, Shanghai; and three north–south main axes formed by Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chengdu. The major cities in the four urban agglomerations in China occupy an absolute core position in the population mobility network hierarchy, and the population mobility network presents typical “small world” features and forms 11 closely related groups. Semiparametric geographically weighted regression model results showed that mobile-data-based population mobility variation is significantly related to the value-added of secondary and tertiary industries, foreign capital, average wage, urbanization rate, and value-added of primary industries. When the spatial heterogeneity and nonstationarity was considered, the socioeconomic factors that affect population mobility showed differences between different regions and cities. The patterns of population mobility and determinants explored in this paper can provide a new reference for the balanced development of regional economy. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Design Parameters for Office Buildings with Climatic Adaptability Based on Energy Demand and Thermal Comfort
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12093540 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
According to a Chinese building energy demand report of 2016, building consumption is accelerating at a spectacular rate, especially for urban public buildings. In this study, various design parameters that meet the principle of climate adaptation are proposed to achieve the unity of [...] Read more.
According to a Chinese building energy demand report of 2016, building consumption is accelerating at a spectacular rate, especially for urban public buildings. In this study, various design parameters that meet the principle of climate adaptation are proposed to achieve the unity of energy utilization and indoor thermal comfort level. According to the local energy conservation codes, five typical benchmark geometric models were established in Open Studio (Sketch-Up plug-in) for sites representative of various climates, meanwhile, adopting the engine of Energy Plus (EP-Launch) to calculate the instrument definition file (IDF), respectively, for assessing the coupling relationship between energy consumption as well as thermal comfort. Results implied that based on the time proportion (8760 h) that met the level 1 comfort range, total energy reductions of different Chinese climate regions were different. Among them, the severe cold zone (SCZ—Changchun) and hot summer and cold winter zone (HSCW—Shanghai) appeared to have the greatest energy saving potential with 18–24% and 16–19%, respectively, while the cold zone (CZ—Beijing) and mild zone (MZ—Kunming) approximately equaled 15% and 12–15%, and the saving space of the hot summer and warm winter zone (HSWW—Haikou) appeared relatively low, only around 5–7%. Although the simulation results may be limited by the number of parameter settings, the main ones are under consideration seriously, which is further indication that there is still much room for appropriate improvements in the local public building energy efficiency codes. Full article
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Article
Research on Regional System Planning Method of Rural Habitat in Gully Regions of the Loess Plateau, under the Background of Rural Vitalization Strategy in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12083317 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Against the background of the Rural Vitalization Strategy in the gully regions of the Loess Plateau, large number of residents living in gullies move to tableland. On the one hand, this causes the disappearance of slope villages and gully villages; on the other [...] Read more.
Against the background of the Rural Vitalization Strategy in the gully regions of the Loess Plateau, large number of residents living in gullies move to tableland. On the one hand, this causes the disappearance of slope villages and gully villages; on the other hand, it increases ecological pressure on tableland, which was originally densely populated. The villages’ locations, the developing conditions, and the ecological carrying capacity of the surrounding villages have influence on the development direction of these villages and regional system planning. Through comparative analysis of different analysis methods for determining ecological carrying capacity, this paper takes the limiting factor analysis method as the main method and improves it according to the local conditions. Through the analysis of maximum ecological carrying capacity, current carrying capacity, and current population, we can determine which villages have the potential to support more immigrants and which ones should be integrated with others to improve the human settlement environment. At the same time, villages are graded so that the present and future human settlements’ environment can be further analyzed and predicted, which can be also adopted as an important guide for the local villages’ relocation and combination. Finally, we select a representative region to prove the general applicability of our planning method in the Loess Plateau. Full article
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Article
Analysis on Spatial Pattern and Driving Factors of Carbon Emission in Urban–Rural Fringe Mixed-Use Communities: Cases Study in East Asia
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12083101 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Urban-intensive areas are responsible for an estimated 80% of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The urban–rural fringe areas emit more greenhouse gases than urban centers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial pattern and driving factors of carbon emissions [...] Read more.
Urban-intensive areas are responsible for an estimated 80% of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The urban–rural fringe areas emit more greenhouse gases than urban centers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial pattern and driving factors of carbon emissions in urban–rural fringe mixed-use communities, and to develop planning methods to reduce carbon emissions in communities. This study identifies mixed-use communities in East Asian urban–rural fringe areas as industrial, commercial, tourism, and rental-apartment communities, subsequently using the emission factor method to calculate carbon emissions. The statistical information grid analysis and geographic information systems spatial analysis method are employed to analyze the spatial pattern of carbon emission and explore the relationship between established space, industrial economy, material consumption, social behavior, and carbon emission distribution characteristics by partial least squares regression, ultimately summing up the spatial pattern of carbon emission in the urban–rural fringe areas of East Asia. Results show that (1) mixed-use communities in the East Asian urban–rural fringe areas face tremendous pressure to reduce emissions. Mixed-use community carbon emissions in the late urbanization period are lower than those the early urbanization. (2) Mixed-use community carbon emission is featured by characteristics, such as planning structure decisiveness, road directionality, infrastructure directionality, and industrial linkage. (3) Industrial communities produce the highest carbon emissions, followed by rental-apartment communities, business communities, and tourism communities. (4) The driving factor that most affects the spatial distribution of carbon emissions is the material energy consumption. The fuel consumption per unit of land is the largest driver of carbon emissions. Using the obtained spatial pattern and its driving factors of carbon emissions, this study provides suggestions for planning and construction, industrial development, material consumption, and convenient life guidance. Full article
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Article
Effect of Street Canyon Shape and Tree Layout on Pollutant Diffusion under Real Tree Model
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12052105 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Trees have a significant impact on the airflow and pollutant diffusion in the street canyon and are directly related to the comfort and health of residents. In this paper, OpenFOAM is used for simulating the airflow and pollutant diffusion in the street canyon [...] Read more.
Trees have a significant impact on the airflow and pollutant diffusion in the street canyon and are directly related to the comfort and health of residents. In this paper, OpenFOAM is used for simulating the airflow and pollutant diffusion in the street canyon at different height–width ratios and tree layouts. Different from the drag source model in the previous numerical simulation, this study focuses on the characterization of the blocking effect of tree branches on airflow by using more precise and real tree models. It is found that the airflow is blocked by the tree branches in the canopy, resulting in slower airflow and varying velocity direction; the air flows in the pore area between trees more easily, and the vortex centers are different in cases where the street canyon shape and tree layout are different. Low-velocity airflow distributes around and between two tree canopies, especially under the influence of two trees with different spacing. At the height of the pedestrian, the tree branches change the vortex structure of airflow, and thereby high pollutant concentration distribution on both sides of the bottom of the leeward side of the street canyon changes constantly. In the street canyon, the small change in tree spacing has a very limited influence on the pollutant concentration. The street canyon has the lowest average pollutant concentration at the largest y-axis direction spacing between two trees. Full article
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Article
Effect of Floor Shape Optimization on Energy Consumption for U-Shaped Office Buildings in the Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Area of China
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2079; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12052079 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
This paper explored the effects of the side proportion of building floor shape on building energy consumption. It is based on the analysis of regression models that were developed in the present study. The simplified building models can be used to conduct a [...] Read more.
This paper explored the effects of the side proportion of building floor shape on building energy consumption. It is based on the analysis of regression models that were developed in the present study. The simplified building models can be used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effect of building plane shape parameters on total heating and cooling load. DesignBuilder was used to build and simulate individual building configuration. Energy consumption simulations for forty-eight U-shaped buildings with different plane layouts were performed to create a comprehensive dataset covering general ranges of side proportions of U-shaped buildings and building orientations. Statistical analysis was performed using MATLAB to develop a set of regression equations predicting energy consumption and optimizing floor shapes. Furthermore, perimeter-area ratio (PAR), width ratio, and depth ratio were considered as three factors to characterize the quantitative relationship between floor shape and energy consumption. It is envisioned that the binary quadratic polynomial regression models, visualized as a smooth surface in space and mapped to a vortex image on the plane, can be used to estimate the energy consumption in the early stages of the design when different building schemes and design concepts are being considered. Full article
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Article
Impacts of Urban Form on Thermal Environment Near the Surface Region at Pedestrian Height: A Case Study Based on High-Density Built-Up Areas of Nanjing City in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1737; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12051737 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The continuous worsening of urban thermal environments poses a severe threat to human health and is among the main problems associated with urban climate change and sustainable development. This issue is particularly severe in high-density built-up areas. Existing studies on the thermal environments [...] Read more.
The continuous worsening of urban thermal environments poses a severe threat to human health and is among the main problems associated with urban climate change and sustainable development. This issue is particularly severe in high-density built-up areas. Existing studies on the thermal environments (temperature data extracted from satellite remote sensing images) are mainly focused on urban canopy areas (airspace below the average height of trees or buildings) rather than the near surface region (at pedestrian height). However, the main outdoor activity space of urban residents is the area near surface region. Hence, this study aims to investigate the influence of urban form (i.e., building density, height, and openness) on thermal environment near the surface region. The high-density built-up areas of a typical megacity (i.e., Nanjing) in China were selected, and the thermal environments of 26 typical blocks were simulated using ENVI-met software. Temperature field measurements were carried out for simulation validation. On this basis, a classified and comparative study was conducted by selecting the key spatial form elements that affect thermal environments. The results showed that in actual high-density built-up areas, single urban form parameter does not determine the thermal environments near the urban surface but mainly affected by the use (function) of space. For this study, the overall thermal environment of a street block is optimal when the building density is between 40% and 50% and the average building height is between 8 and 17 stories. Nonetheless, the urban form can be improved to optimize the overall effects on building functions and thermal environments. Furthermore, function-specific urban form optimization strategies were proposed to optimize thermal environments according to specific functional needs. Full article
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