Due to scheduled maintenance work on our core network, there may be short service disruptions on this website between 16:00 and 16:30 CEST on September 25th.

Special Issue "Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications"

A special issue of Textiles (ISSN 2673-7248).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Rajesh Mishra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: nano materials; textile structural composites; green composites; nanocomposites; biomechanical engineering of fibrous structures; thermo-mechanical characterization of materials; functional textiles
Dr. Tao Yang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Nanomaterials and Advanced Technologies, Technical University of Liberec, 46117 Liberec, Czech Republic
Interests: acoustic materials; thermo acoustics in textiles; functional textiles
Dr. Veerakumar Arumugam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sportmaster Group (SMG) Innovation Centre, Institute for Sports Research, Nanyang Technological University, Cleantech 2, 3 Cleantech Loop 639798, Singapore
Interests: sports textiles; knitted spacer textile

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce a Special Issue titled “Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications” in Textiles, an open access MDPI journal. Fibrous/textile materials constitute an inseparable component of our day-to-day life. Their importance ranges from baby diapers to life-saving protective textiles in military and space applications. The geometrical flexibility and physical–chemical diversity of functional fibrous materials makes them a preferred substitute over metals, ceramics, and other forms of polymers. Fiber-based functional textiles are widely used in technical applications. e.g., acoustic textiles, electronic textiles, fiber-reinforced structural composites, geotechnical textiles, healthcare and medical textiles, nanoenabled textiles, protective textiles, smart clothing, sports textiles, thermos-regulating textiles, and so on.

A recent trend in fibrous material is to focus on biobased materials to reduce carbon emission, which ultimately hampers our environment. In view of the new challenges faced by humanity, the biological and health-related issues can be tackled to a great extent by suitable innovative materials based on fibrous/textile systems.

The Special Issue is aimed at young researchers working on fiber-based functional materials in any concurrent application area. The exposure of young scientists to open access articles in the selected area will provide new insights for future research and innovation.

Prof. Dr. Rajesh Mishra
Dr. Tao Yang
Dr. Veerakumar Arumugam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Textiles is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Acoustic textiles
  • Fiber-reinforced structural composites
  • Geotechnical textiles
  • Healthcare and medical textiles
  • Nanoenabled textiles
  • Protective textiles
  • Smart clothing
  • Sports textiles

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Evaluating the Potential of Polylactide Nonwovens as Bio-Based Media for Air Filtration
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 268-282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020014 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 330
Abstract
The presented research aims to characterize hydrolytic resistance of highly crystalline and oriented polylactide (PLA) as a prerequisite for exploiting this bio-based material in durable applications. Industrially melt-spun PLA monofilaments and nonwovens have been subjected to environmental aging in a temperature range of [...] Read more.
The presented research aims to characterize hydrolytic resistance of highly crystalline and oriented polylactide (PLA) as a prerequisite for exploiting this bio-based material in durable applications. Industrially melt-spun PLA monofilaments and nonwovens have been subjected to environmental aging in a temperature range of 50–70 °C at a wide range of relative humidity (RH) in order to identify the onset of the material degradation under application conditions. Along with the measurements of mechanical and thermal behavior of the aged samples, the suitability of FTIR spectroscopy to probe the initial changes in the crystalline structure and in chemical composition of the fibers, caused by hydrolytic degradation, has been evaluated. The diagrams of stability and hydrolytic degradation under employed environmental aging for 7–14 days are presented for both types of PLA materials. Assessment of filtration performance of the artificially aged fibrous PLA media indicated a good agreement with the established stability diagram and confirmed the application potential of PLA nonwoven media, spun from currently available PLA grades, in air filtration under moderate climatic conditions up to max 50 °C and 50% RH. The presented results advance the knowledge on hydrolytic resistance of bio-based industry-relevant fibers and therefore open new application areas for sustainable materials with biodegradable components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Application of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach for Prediction of the Kinetic Parameters of Lignocellulosic Fibers
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 258-267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020013 - 07 Aug 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Lignocellulosic fibers are widely applied as reinforcement in polymer composites due to their properties. The thermal degradation behavior governs the maximum temperature at which the fiber can be applied without significant mass loss. It is possible to determine this temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis [...] Read more.
Lignocellulosic fibers are widely applied as reinforcement in polymer composites due to their properties. The thermal degradation behavior governs the maximum temperature at which the fiber can be applied without significant mass loss. It is possible to determine this temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG). In particular, when curves are obtained at different heating rates, kinetic parameters can be determined by using Arrhenius-based equations, and more detailed characteristics of the material are obtained. However, every curve obtained at a distinct heating rate demands material, cost and time. Methods to predict thermogravimetric curves can be very useful in the materials science field, and in this sense, mathematical approaches are powerful tools, if well employed. For this reason, in the present study, thermogravimetric curves from curaua fiber were obtained at four different heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C·min−1) and Vyazovkin kinetic parameters were obtained using free available software. After, the experimental curves were fitted using an artificial neural network (ANN) approach followed by a Surface Response Methodology (SRM) aiming to obtain curves at any heating rate between the minimum and maximum experimental heating rates. Finally, Vyazovkin kinetic parameters were tested again, with the new predicted curves at the heating rates of 7, 15, 30 and 50 °C·min−1. Similar values of the kinetic parameters were obtained compared to the experimental ones. In conclusion, due to the capability to learn from the own data, ANN combined with SRM seems to be an excellent alternative to predict TG curves that do not test experimentally, opening the range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Electrospun Fe3O4-PVDF Nanofiber Composite Mats for Cryogenic Magnetic Sensor Applications
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 227-238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020011 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Magnetically responsive, mechanically stable and highly flexible iron (III) oxide-polyvinylidene fluoride (Fe3O4-PVDF) piezoelectric composite fiber mats were fabricated via one step electrospinning method for magnetic sensing at cryogenic temperature. The properties of Fe3O4-PVDF composite fiber [...] Read more.
Magnetically responsive, mechanically stable and highly flexible iron (III) oxide-polyvinylidene fluoride (Fe3O4-PVDF) piezoelectric composite fiber mats were fabricated via one step electrospinning method for magnetic sensing at cryogenic temperature. The properties of Fe3O4-PVDF composite fiber mats were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, d33 and magnetization test. The fiber diameter decreased as the concentration of Fe3O4 increased. The DSC results suggested a decrease in the crystallinity of the composite fiber mats after adding Fe3O4, and the XRD curves identified that the decrease in crystallinity took place in the β crystalline phases of the fibers. FT-IR results further confirmed the reduction of β phases of the composite fiber mats which dropped the piezoelectric response of the fiber mats by 38% for 5% Fe3O4-PVDF than PVDF fiber but still 400% higher than PVDF pellets. The magnetization test advocated a superparamagnetic state of the fiber at room temperature but a ferromagnetic behavior at a lower temperature. The coercivity values of the mats suggested a homogeneous dispersion of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the PVDF matrix. Young’s modulus (E) of the fibers remained the same before and after the magnetization test, indicating the mechanical stability of the fiber in the range of 5 K to 300 K. Its mechanical stability, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and ferromagnetic at low temperature could open up its application in spintronic devices at cryogenic temperature and cryogenic power electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of Piezoresistive Sensor Yarn to Monitor Local Fabric Elongation
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 170-184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020008 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The performance of bulletproof vests is mainly based on the energy absorption capacity of the flexible fibrous reinforcements. To understand the in situ behaviour of these textile structures during a ballistic impact, we find the use of sensor yarns integrated into these fibrous [...] Read more.
The performance of bulletproof vests is mainly based on the energy absorption capacity of the flexible fibrous reinforcements. To understand the in situ behaviour of these textile structures during a ballistic impact, we find the use of sensor yarns integrated into these fibrous reinforcements to be a non-invasive and reliable solution. Measurements of the dynamic deformation of the sensor yarns will provide a new and useful source of information. The design and manufacturing stages of a sensor yarn, made with the same structural yarns of the fabric, are detailed successively. Then, different batches of sensor yarns were designed, and electromechanical tensile tests were performed in quasi-static mode. These experiments provide encouraging results for the measurement of the deformation of a textile structure subject to a dynamic impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modelling the Woven Structures with Inserted Conductive Yarns Coated with Magnetron Plasma and Testing Their Shielding Effectiveness
Textiles 2021, 1(1), 4-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1010002 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
The paper proposes the analytic modelling of flexible textile shields made of fabrics with inserted conductive yarns and metallic plasma coating in order to calculate their electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (EMSE). This manufacturing process is highly innovative, since copper plasma coating improves EMSE on [...] Read more.
The paper proposes the analytic modelling of flexible textile shields made of fabrics with inserted conductive yarns and metallic plasma coating in order to calculate their electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (EMSE). This manufacturing process is highly innovative, since copper plasma coating improves EMSE on the fabrics with inserted conductive yarns of stainless steel and silver with 10–15 dB in the frequency range of 0.1–1000 MHz, as shown by the measured EMSE values determined according to the standard ASTM ES-07 via the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. On the other hand, modelling of EMSE for such conductive flexible shields gives an insight on estimating EMSE in the design phase of manufacturing the shield, based on its geometric and electrical parameters. An analytic model was proposed based on the sum of EMSE of the fabric with inserted conductive yarns and EMSE of the copper coating. The measurement results show close values to the proposed analytic model, especially in case of fabric with conductive yarns having stainless steel content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
An Overview on Methods for Producing Side-Emitting Polymer Optical Fibers
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 337-360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020017 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
An overview of the most important methods for producing side-emitting polymer optical fibers is given. Based on a systematic literature and patent search, the methods that are applied in practice and explored in research are identified. The fabrication methods are classified into four [...] Read more.
An overview of the most important methods for producing side-emitting polymer optical fibers is given. Based on a systematic literature and patent search, the methods that are applied in practice and explored in research are identified. The fabrication methods are classified into four groups according to the physical phenomenon that hinders total internal reflection: bulk scattering, bending, surface perforations and luminescence. Subdivisions are made regarding the actual processing steps. The production methods are described in detail and discussed with respect to their customizability and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Electrically Conductive Textile Materials—Application in Flexible Sensors and Antennas
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 239-257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020012 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
This paper reviews some prominent applications and approaches to developing smart fabrics for wearable technology. The importance of flexible and electrically conductive textiles in the emerging body-centric sensing and wireless communication systems is highlighted. Examples of applications are discussed with a focus on [...] Read more.
This paper reviews some prominent applications and approaches to developing smart fabrics for wearable technology. The importance of flexible and electrically conductive textiles in the emerging body-centric sensing and wireless communication systems is highlighted. Examples of applications are discussed with a focus on a range of textile-based sensors and antennas. Developments in alternative materials and structures for producing flexible and conductive textiles are reviewed, including inherently conductive polymers, carbon-based materials, and nano-enhanced composite fibers and fibrous structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Overview of Nano-Fiber Mats Fabrication via Electrospinning and Morphology Analysis
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 206-226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020010 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Electrospun nano-fibers exhibit two significant properties: a high surface-to-volume ratio and a relatively defect-free molecular structure. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, electro-spun materials are well suited for activities requiring increased physical contact, such as providing a site for a chemical reaction or [...] Read more.
Electrospun nano-fibers exhibit two significant properties: a high surface-to-volume ratio and a relatively defect-free molecular structure. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, electro-spun materials are well suited for activities requiring increased physical contact, such as providing a site for a chemical reaction or filtration of small-sized physical materials. However, electrospinning has many shortcomings, including difficulties in producing inorganic nanofibers and a limited number or variety of polymers used in the process. The fabrication of nanofiber bundles via electrospinning is explored in this analytical study and the relationship between all effective electrospinning parameters and the relative abundance of various fiber morphologies. Numerous variables could impact the fabrication of nanofibers, resulting in a variety of morphologies such as uniform, entangled, individual beads, beads-on-string, etc. Therefore, adequate ambient conditions and selecting the appropriate polymer and solvent for achieving a homogenous polymer solution and uniform with desired nanofiber properties for different applications of electro-spun materials are examined. Finally, the promising applications of nano-fine fibers in various fields achieved via electrospinning are studied in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Innovation in 3D Braiding Technology and Its Applications
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 185-205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020009 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Braids are generally divided into 2D braids and 3D braids. Two-dimensional braids include flat braids and circular braids. Circular braids represent three-dimensional textiles, as they enclose a volume, but consist of a two-dimensional yarn architecture. Three-dimensional braids are defined by a three-dimensional yarn [...] Read more.
Braids are generally divided into 2D braids and 3D braids. Two-dimensional braids include flat braids and circular braids. Circular braids represent three-dimensional textiles, as they enclose a volume, but consist of a two-dimensional yarn architecture. Three-dimensional braids are defined by a three-dimensional yarn architecture. Historically, 3D braids were produced on row and column braiding machines with Cartesian or radial machine beds, by bobbin movements around inlay yarns. Three-dimensional rotary braiding machines allow a more flexible braiding process, as the bobbins are moved via individually controlled horn gears and switches. Both braiding machines at the Institut für Textiltechnik (ITA) of RWTH Aachen University, Germany, are based on the principal of 3D rotary machines. The fully digitized 3D braiding machine with an Industry 4.0 standard enables the near-net-shape production of three-dimensionally braided textile preforms for lightweight applications. The preforms can be specifically reinforced in all three spatial directions according to the application. Complex 3D structures can be produced in just one process step due to the high degree of design freedom. The 3D hexagonal braiding technology is used in the field of medical textiles. The special shape of the horn gears and their hexagonal arrangement provides the densest packing of the bobbins on the machine bed. In addition, the lace braiding mechanism allows two bobbins to occupy the position between two horn gears, maximizing the number of bobbins. One of the main applications is the near-net-shape production of tubular structures, such as complex stent structures. Three-dimensional braiding offers many advantages compared to 2D braiding, e.g., production of complex three-dimensional geometries in one process step, connection of braided layers, production of cross-section changes and ramifications, and local reinforcement of technical textiles without additional process steps. In the following review, the latest developments in 3D braiding, the machine development of 3D braiding machines, as well as software and simulation developments are presented. In addition, various applications in the fields of lightweight construction and medical textiles are introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Electrospun Polysaccharidic Textiles for Biomedical Applications
Textiles 2021, 1(2), 152-169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1020007 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Recent developments in electrospinning technology have enabled the commercial-scale production of nonwoven fabrics from synthetic and natural polymers. Since the early 2000s, polysaccharides and their derivatives have been recognized as promising raw materials for electrospinning, and their electrospun textiles have attracted increasing attention [...] Read more.
Recent developments in electrospinning technology have enabled the commercial-scale production of nonwoven fabrics from synthetic and natural polymers. Since the early 2000s, polysaccharides and their derivatives have been recognized as promising raw materials for electrospinning, and their electrospun textiles have attracted increasing attention for their diverse potential applications. In particular, their biomedical applications have been spotlighted thanks to their “green” aspects, e.g., abundance in nature, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. This review focuses on three main research topics in the biomedical applications of electrospun polysaccharidic textiles: (i) delivery of therapeutic molecules, (ii) tissue engineering, and (iii) wound healing, and discusses recent progress and prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Review of the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyethylene Fibers
Textiles 2021, 1(1), 86-151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1010006 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Since the 1970s and 1980s, a major effort has been made to study UHMWPE (Ultra-High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene) fibers with remarkable mechanical properties, based on a basic polymer such as PE (PolyEthylene). These performances are above all associated with a very strong alignment [...] Read more.
Since the 1970s and 1980s, a major effort has been made to study UHMWPE (Ultra-High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene) fibers with remarkable mechanical properties, based on a basic polymer such as PE (PolyEthylene). These performances are above all associated with a very strong alignment of the molecules and the microfibrillar structures formed using various processes. However, they vary greatly depending on many parameters, and particularly on the draw ratio. Thus, these characteristics have been extensively analyzed by dynamic, static tensile, and creep tests, and are predominantly viscoelastic. The behavior appears to be associated with physical considerations and with the characteristic orthorhombic-hexagonal solid phase transition. The presence of a hexagonal phase is detrimental to the behavior because the chains slide easily relative to each other. Shifting this transition to higher temperatures is a challenge and many factors influence it and the temperature at which it takes place, such as the application of stress or annealing. The objective here is to give an overview of what has been done so far to understand the behavior of UHMWPE yarns. This is important given future numerical modeling work on the dimensioning of structural parts in which these UHMWPE yarns will be reinforcements within composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Factors Affecting Acoustic Properties of Natural-Fiber-Based Materials and Composites: A Review
Textiles 2021, 1(1), 55-85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1010005 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Recently, very rapid growth has been observed in the innovations and use of natural-fiber-based materials and composites for acoustic applications due to their environmentally friendly nature, low cost, and good acoustic absorption capability. However, there are still challenges for researchers to improve the [...] Read more.
Recently, very rapid growth has been observed in the innovations and use of natural-fiber-based materials and composites for acoustic applications due to their environmentally friendly nature, low cost, and good acoustic absorption capability. However, there are still challenges for researchers to improve the mechanical and acoustic properties of natural fiber composites. In contrast, synthetic fiber-based composites have good mechanical properties and can be used in a wide range of structural and automotive applications. This review aims to provide a short overview of the different factors that affect the acoustic properties of natural-fiber-based materials and composites. The various factors that influence acoustic performance are fiber type, fineness, length, orientation, density, volume fraction in the composite, thickness, level of compression, and design. The details of various factors affecting the acoustic behavior of the fiber-based composites are described. Natural-fiber-based composites exhibit relatively good sound absorption capability due to their porous structure. Surface modification by alkali treatment can enhance the sound absorption performance. These materials can be used in buildings and interiors for efficient sound insulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Washability of E-Textiles: Failure Modes and Influences on Washing Reliability
Textiles 2021, 1(1), 37-54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/textiles1010004 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
E-textiles, hybrid products that incorporate electronic functionality into textiles, often need to withstand washing procedures to ensure textile typical usability. Yet, the washability—which is essential for many e-textile applications like medical or sports due to hygiene requirements—is often still insufficient. The influence factors [...] Read more.
E-textiles, hybrid products that incorporate electronic functionality into textiles, often need to withstand washing procedures to ensure textile typical usability. Yet, the washability—which is essential for many e-textile applications like medical or sports due to hygiene requirements—is often still insufficient. The influence factors for washing damage in textile integrated electronics as well as common weak points are not extensively researched, which makes a targeted approach to improve washability in e-textiles difficult. As a step towards reliably washable e-textiles, this review bundles existing information and findings on the topic: a summary of common failure modes in e-textiles brought about by washing as well as influencing parameters that affect the washability of e-textiles. The findings of this paper can be utilized in the development of e-textile systems with an improved washability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop