Special Issue "Bee Venom Therapies from Basic Science to Clinical Fields"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Venoms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Byung-Cheul Shin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation, Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital, Yangsan, Kyungnam 50612, Korea
Interests: evidence-based medicine; traditional Korean/Chinese medicine; spine & joint diseases; pain medicine;
Dr. Soo-Hyun Sung
Guest Editor
Department of Policy Development, National Development Institute of Korean Medicine, Seoul 04554, Korea

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Bee toxin has historically been used for various pain conditions such as arthritis, rheumatoid diseases, and musculoskeletal pain for therapeutic purposes in many countries. Bee venom contains many bioactive compounds which exert pharmacological effects presenting analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immune-stimulant effects. There were several systematic reviews on the effectiveness and safety of bee venom therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal pain, shoulder pain, and post-stroke shoulder pain. This means bee venom has been used towards therapeutic aims and clinical trials, especially randomized controlled trials, which have been conducted in the effort of determining the effectiveness and safety of bee venom in clinical fields.

However, many concerns should be addressed with regard to bee venom use in the clinical field. How should it be standardized for therapeutic dosage and how can this be used with good safety? What is the mechanism of the effects of bee venom and its compounds? How can we maximize its positive effects?

This Special Issue will focus on the clinical use of bee venom and bee venom acupuncture in the clinical field, but not limited to clinical trials. This includes basic research such as animal experimental studies (in vivo and in vitro), ingredients, surveys on its use, as well as reviews and systematic reviews.

Dr. Byung-Cheul Shin
Dr. Soo-Hyun Sung
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • bee venom
  • bee toxin
  • bee venom acupuncture
  • randomized clinical trial
  • systematic review
  • melittin
  • adolapin
  • apamin
  • Phospholipase A2
  • safety

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Apamin Enhances Neurite Outgrowth and Regeneration after Laceration Injury in Cortical Neurons
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 603; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090603 - 28 Aug 2021
Viewed by 557
Apamin is a minor component of bee venom and is a polypeptide with 18 amino acid residues. Although apamin is considered a neurotoxic compound that blocks the potassium channel, its neuroprotective effects on neurons have been recently reported. However, there is little information [...] Read more.
Apamin is a minor component of bee venom and is a polypeptide with 18 amino acid residues. Although apamin is considered a neurotoxic compound that blocks the potassium channel, its neuroprotective effects on neurons have been recently reported. However, there is little information about the underlying mechanism and very little is known regarding the toxicological characterization of other compounds in bee venom. Here, cultured mature cortical neurons were treated with bee venom components, including apamin, phospholipase A2, and the main component, melittin. Melittin and phospholipase A2 from bee venom caused a neurotoxic effect in dose-dependent manner, but apamin did not induce neurotoxicity in mature cortical neurons in doses of up to 10 µg/mL. Next, 1 and 10 µg/mL of apamin were applied to cultivate mature cortical neurons. Apamin accelerated neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration after laceration injury. Furthermore, apamin induced the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin nerve growth factor, as well as regeneration-associated gene expression in mature cortical neurons. Due to its neurotherapeutic effects, apamin may be a promising candidate for the treatment of a wide range of neurological diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bee Venom Therapies from Basic Science to Clinical Fields)
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