Special Issue "Detection and Current Challenges in Marine and Freshwater Biotoxin Monitoring"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ronel Biré
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Paris-Est, ANSES, Maisons-Alfort, Laboratory for Food Safety, Department of Chemical Contaminants in Food, Pesticides and Marine Biotoxins Unit, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France
Interests: Marine Toxins; Mass Spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although produced by different organisms, dinoflagellates and diatoms for the marine toxins and cyanobacteria for the freshwater toxins, both types of toxins have in common the fact that they can have potent effects on human health. For that reason, their presence in the environment as well as in food products and beverages consumed by humans must be monitored as part of surveillance systems, generally put in place on the aegis of the sanitary authorities. The monitoring of these toxins is challenging for several reasons: (i) the monitoring system put in place should be able to apprehend the known and the emerging toxins; (ii) this involves a great diversity of toxins of different chemical nature and properties, with only a small number of them being common to marine and freshwater environments; (iii) toxin standards are not always commercially available, thus impeding the development of the methods of analysis and toxin quantification; (iv) different methods of analysis (chemical methods and biomolecular assays) are available with pros and cons, but for many toxin groups, there is no reference method identified; (v) the complexity of the matrices to be analyzed (e.g., marine and freshwater organisms, water samples, cell biomass) can be problematic for the method of analysis used; (vi) toxicological data are necessary to take into account the toxicity of the different toxin analogues via the use of toxic equivalency factors, for instance, which are rarely available; and (vii) the sampling strategy is primordial and should be thought through to guarantee sample representativeness.

This Special Issue aims to address the topic of monitoring of marine or freshwater toxins in the environment, food products or beverages, in the context of the abovementioned challenges.

Dr. Ronel Biré
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • monitoring
  • environment
  • food products
  • beverages
  • marine toxins
  • freshwater toxins
  • toxin analysis
  • chemical methods
  • biomolecular methods
  • sampling

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
A Generic LC-HRMS Screening Method for Marine and Freshwater Phycotoxins in Fish, Shellfish, Water, and Supplements
Toxins 2021, 13(11), 823; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13110823 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Phycotoxins occur in various marine and freshwater environments, and can accumulate in edible species such as fish, crabs, and shellfish. Human exposure to these toxins can take place, for instance, through consumption of contaminated species or supplements and through the ingestion of contaminated [...] Read more.
Phycotoxins occur in various marine and freshwater environments, and can accumulate in edible species such as fish, crabs, and shellfish. Human exposure to these toxins can take place, for instance, through consumption of contaminated species or supplements and through the ingestion of contaminated water. Symptoms of phycotoxin intoxication include paralysis, diarrhea, and amnesia. When the cause of an intoxication cannot directly be found, a screening method is required to identify the causative toxin. In this work, such a screening method was developed and validated for marine and freshwater phycotoxins in different matrices: fish, shellfish, water, and food supplements. Two LC methods were developed: one for hydrophilic and one for lipophilic phycotoxins. Sample extracts were measured in full scan mode with an Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer. Additionally, a database was created to process the data. The method was successfully validated for most matrices, and in addition, regulated lipophilic phycotoxins, domoic acid, and some paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins could be quantified in shellfish. The method showed limitations for hydrophilic phycotoxins in sea water and for lipophilic phycotoxins in food supplements. The developed method is a screening method; in order to confirm suspected compounds, comparison with a standard or an additional analysis such as NMR is required. Full article
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Article
First Evidence of the Toxin Domoic Acid in Antarctic Diatom Species
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020093 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
The Southern Ocean is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. It is an area heavily dependent on marine primary production and serving as a feeding ground for numerous seabirds and marine mammals. Therefore, the phytoplankton composition and presence of toxic [...] Read more.
The Southern Ocean is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. It is an area heavily dependent on marine primary production and serving as a feeding ground for numerous seabirds and marine mammals. Therefore, the phytoplankton composition and presence of toxic species are of crucial importance. Fifteen monoclonal strains of Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata, a diatom species endemic to the Southern Ocean, were established, which were characterized by morphological and molecular data and then analysed for toxin content. The neurotoxins domoic acid and iso-domoic acid C were present in three of the strains, which is a finding that represents the first evidence of these toxins in strains from Antarctic waters. Toxic phytoplankton in Antarctic waters are still largely unexplored, and their effects on the ecosystem are not well understood. Considering P. subcurvata’s prevalence throughout the Southern Ocean, these results highlight the need for further investigations of the harmful properties on the Antarctic phytoplankton community as well as the presence of the toxins in the Antarctic food web, especially in the light of a changing climate. Full article
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Article
Suspect and Target Screening of Natural Toxins in the Ter River Catchment Area in NE Spain and Prioritisation by Their Toxicity
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 752; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120752 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 900
Abstract
This study presents the application of a suspect screening approach to screen a wide range of natural toxins, including mycotoxins, bacterial toxins, and plant toxins, in surface waters. The method is based on a generic solid-phase extraction procedure, using three sorbent phases in [...] Read more.
This study presents the application of a suspect screening approach to screen a wide range of natural toxins, including mycotoxins, bacterial toxins, and plant toxins, in surface waters. The method is based on a generic solid-phase extraction procedure, using three sorbent phases in two cartridges that are connected in series, hence covering a wide range of polarities, followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The acquisition was performed in the full-scan and data-dependent modes while working under positive and negative ionisation conditions. This method was applied in order to assess the natural toxins in the Ter River water reservoirs, which are used to produce drinking water for Barcelona city (Spain). The study was carried out during a period of seven months, covering the expected prior, during, and post-peak blooming periods of the natural toxins. Fifty-three (53) compounds were tentatively identified, and nine of these were confirmed and quantified. Phytotoxins were identified as the most frequent group of natural toxins in the water, particularly the alkaloids group. Finally, the toxins identified to levels 2 and 1 were prioritised according to their bioaccumulation factor, biodegradability, frequency of detection, and toxicity. This screening and prioritisation approach resulted in different natural toxins that should be further assessed for their ecotoxicological effects and considered in future studies. Full article
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Article
Detection of Cyclic Imine Toxins in Dietary Supplements of Green Lipped Mussels (Perna canaliculus) and in Shellfish Mytilus chilensis
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100613 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Seafood represents a significant part of the human staple diet. In the recent years, the identification of emerging lipophilic marine toxins has increased, leading to the potential for consumers to be intoxicated by these toxins. In the present work, we investigate the presence [...] Read more.
Seafood represents a significant part of the human staple diet. In the recent years, the identification of emerging lipophilic marine toxins has increased, leading to the potential for consumers to be intoxicated by these toxins. In the present work, we investigate the presence of lipophilic marine toxins (both regulated and emerging) in commercial seafood products from non-European locations, including mussels Mytilus chilensis from Chile, clams Tawerea gayi and Metetrix lyrate from the Southeast Pacific and Vietnam, and food supplements based on mussels formulations of Perna canaliculus from New Zealand. All these products were purchased from European Union markets and they were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Results showed the presence of the emerging pinnatoxin-G in mussels Mytilus chilensis at levels up to 5.2 µg/kg and azaspiracid-2 and pectenotoxin-2 in clams Tawera gayi up to 4.33 µg/kg and 10.88 µg/kg, respectively. This study confirms the presence of pinnatoxins in Chile, one of the major mussel producers worldwide. Chromatograms showed the presence of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in dietary supplements in the range of 33.2–97.9 µg/kg after an extraction with water and methanol from 0.39 g of the green lipped mussels powder. As far as we know, this constitutes the first time that an emerging cyclic imine toxin in dietary supplements is reported. Identifying new matrix, locations, and understanding emerging toxin distribution area are important for preventing the risks of spreading and contamination linked to these compounds. Full article
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Article
First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Bivalves and Gastropods from the French Mainland Coasts
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090599 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
In 2015, tetrodotoxins (TTXs) were considered a potential threat in Europe since several studies had shown the presence of these toxins in European bivalve molluscs. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of TTXs in 127 bivalve samples (mussels and oysters) and in [...] Read more.
In 2015, tetrodotoxins (TTXs) were considered a potential threat in Europe since several studies had shown the presence of these toxins in European bivalve molluscs. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of TTXs in 127 bivalve samples (mussels and oysters) and in 66 gastropod samples (whelks) collected all along the French mainland coasts in 2017 and 2018. Analyses were carried out after optimization and in-house validation of a performing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method. The concentration set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) not expected to result in adverse effects (44 µg TTX equivalent/kg) was never exceeded, but TTX was detected in three mussel samples and one whelk sample (1.7–11.2 µg/kg). The tissue distribution of TTX in this whelk sample showed higher concentrations in the digestive gland, stomach and gonads (7.4 µg TTX/kg) than in the rest of the whelk tissues (below the limit of detection of 1.7 µg TTX/kg). This is the first study to report the detection of TTX in French molluscs. Full article
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