Special Issue "Botulinum Toxins: An Application in Humans and Animals"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Antonella Giannantoni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Neurosciences, Functional and Surgical Urology Unit, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
Interests: functional urology; female urology; neuro-urology; oncological urology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) represent a sophisticated bioweapon with both therapeutic benefits and toxic effects. The high selectivity of BoNTs for nerve endings, their particular ability in inhibiting neurotransmitter release with limited diffusion from the site of injection, and the reversibility of the effect have allowed to use BoNTs for therapeutic purposes, with great benefits in many fields of application. Over time, a better understanding of BoNTs mode of action coming from in vitro and in vivo studies has led to increased therapeutic applications to treat a wide range of diseases. Indeed, different susceptibilities to various types of BoNTs exist between humans and animals and among different animal species, thus making it difficult to transfer the observations obtained on animal models to humans. Currently, there is also growing evidence that BoNTs exhibit biological effects on various human cell types, as the BoNT receptors and intracellular targets are not limited to neurotransmission, but they have been found also in non-neuronal cells. Probably, marked differences exist in how BoNTs bind to, and act on, neuronal vs. non-neuronal cells. To date, epidermal keratinocytes; mesenchymal stem cells from subcutaneous adipose; nasal mucosal cells; urothelial cells; intestinal, prostate and alveolar epithelial, and many other types of cells have been observed to represent targets for BoNTs’ activity.

The aim of this Special Issue, entitled: Botulinum Toxins: An Application in Humans and Animals,” is to take stock of the situation in the use of BoNTs in both humans and animals, taking into consideration new information on biology, pharmacology, clinical applications, toxicity, and novel indications of these neurotoxins.

Prof. Dr. Antonella Giannantoni
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Botulinum toxins
  • mechanism of action
  • animal models
  • neurotransmission
  • non-neuronal cells
  • human diseases

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections in Childhood Opisthotonus
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020137 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Opisthotonus refers to abnormal axial extension and arching of the trunk produced by excessive contractions of the paraspinal muscles. In childhood, the abnormal posture is most often related to dystonia in the setting of hypoxic injury or a number of other acquired and [...] Read more.
Opisthotonus refers to abnormal axial extension and arching of the trunk produced by excessive contractions of the paraspinal muscles. In childhood, the abnormal posture is most often related to dystonia in the setting of hypoxic injury or a number of other acquired and genetic etiologies. The condition is often painful, interferes with ambulation and quality of life, and is challenging to treat. Therapeutic options include oral benzodiazepines, oral and intrathecal baclofen, botulinum neurotoxin injections, and deep brain stimulation. Management of opisthotonus within the pediatric population has not been systematically reviewed. Here, we describe a series of seven children who presented to our institution with opisthotonus in whom symptom relief was achieved following administration of botulinum neurotoxin injections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botulinum Toxins: An Application in Humans and Animals)
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