Special Issue "Ciguatoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Panagiota Katikou
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Guest Editor
Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Directorate General of Rural Development, Directorate of Research, Innovation and Education, School of Meat Professionals of Thessaloniki, Hapsa & Karatasou 1, 54626, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: marine biotoxins; phycotoxins; harmful algal blooms; toxic pufferfish; emerging marine toxins; tetrodotoxins; lipophilic toxins; toxic episodes management; phycotoxins regulatory monitoring; marine toxins analysis; mouse bioassay; liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui Bottein
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Co-Guest Editor
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, University of Copenhagen, Marine Biological Section, Universitetsparken 4, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: food safety; food security; sustainable development; harmful algal blooms; contaminants; risk management; capacity building; marine biotoxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are responsible for Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), are liposoluble toxins produced by microalgae of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. With an estimated number of 50,000 cases a year worldwide, some fatal, CFP is the most common non-bacterial illness associated with seafood. Until recently, CFP intoxications were considered to be endemic to (sub)tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, but they are nowadays responsible for intoxications in other places around the world. In particular, in Europe, intoxications occur due to both consumption of imported ciguatoxin-contaminated seafood from endemic areas, and consumption of ciguatoxin-contaminated seafood from certain areas of Macaronesia, such as Azores, the Madeira Islands (Portugal), and the Canary Islands (Spain).

The presence of CTXs in fish can be detected via screening methods, such as mouse bioassays, in vitro cell tests, and receptor binding assays, and confirmed using mass-spectrometry-based analyses. However, the lack of commercially available reference materials clearly indicates a challenge for marine toxins research. The increased presence of CTXs, combined with their occurrence in new latitudes and the contribution of climate change, is raising concerns globally. In this context, further investigations regarding CTX presence and origin in aquatic environments, the development of more sophisticated analysis methods, further data on human intoxication incidents, the toxicological potency of CTX analogues, and potential mitigation/regulatory management measures are considered to be extremely important.

This Special Issue aims to focus on new information and scientific evidence mainly with regard to: (i) CTX occurrence in aquatic environments, with an emphasis on edible aquatic organisms; (ii) analysis methods for the determination of CTXs; (iii) advances regarding CTX-producing organisms; (iv) environmental factors involved in the presence of CTXs; and (v) assessment of public health risks related to the presence of CTXs, as well as risk management and mitigation strategies. Studies addressing any other questions of relevance or reviews related to CTXs are also considered to be of interest and welcome for submission.

Dr. Panagiota Katikou
Dr. Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui Bottein
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP)
  • ciguatoxins
  • climate change
  • Gambierdiscus spp.
  • Fukuyoa spp.
  • analytical methods
  • risk management
  • analogues
  • toxicology
  • occurrence and epidemiology

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Asynchrony of Gambierdiscus spp. Abundance and Toxicity in the U.S. Virgin Islands: Implications for Monitoring and Management of Ciguatera
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 413; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060413 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) poses a significant threat to ecosystem services and fishery resources in coastal communities. The CP-causative ciguatoxins (CTXs) are produced by benthic dinoflagellates including Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp., and enter reef food webs via grazing on macroalgal substrates. In this study, [...] Read more.
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) poses a significant threat to ecosystem services and fishery resources in coastal communities. The CP-causative ciguatoxins (CTXs) are produced by benthic dinoflagellates including Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp., and enter reef food webs via grazing on macroalgal substrates. In this study, we report on a 3-year monthly time series in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands where Gambierdiscus spp. abundance and Caribbean-CTX toxicity in benthic samples were compared to key environmental factors, including temperature, salinity, nutrients, benthic cover, and physical data. We found that peak Gambierdiscus abundance occurred in summer while CTX-specific toxicity peaked in cooler months (February–May) when the mean water temperatures were approximately 26–28 °C. These trends were most evident at deeper offshore sites where macroalgal cover was highest year-round. Other environmental parameters were not correlated with the CTX variability observed over time. The asynchrony between Gambierdiscus spp. abundance and toxicity reflects potential differences in toxin cell quotas among Gambierdiscus species with concomitant variability in their abundances throughout the year. These results have significant implications for monitoring and management of benthic harmful algal blooms and highlights potential seasonal and highly-localized pulses in reef toxin loads that may be transferred to higher trophic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Characteristic Distribution of Ciguatoxins in the Edible Parts of a Grouper, Variola louti
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030218 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among [...] Read more.
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among people that the head and viscera are more toxic and should be avoided. Unlike the viscera, scientific data to support the legendary high toxicity of the head is scarce. We prepared tissue samples from the fillet, head, and eyes taken from five yellow-edged lyretail (Variola louti) individuals sourced from Okinawa, Japan, and analyzed the CTXs by LC-MS/MS. Three CTXs, namely, CTX1B, 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B, were confirmed in similar proportions. The toxins were distributed nearly evenly in the flesh, prepared separately from the fillet and head. Within the same individual specimen, the flesh in the fillet and the flesh from the head, tested separately, had the same level and composition of toxins. We, therefore, conclude that flesh samples for LC-MS/MS analysis can be taken from any part of the body. However, the tissue surrounding the eyeball displayed CTX levels two to four times higher than those of the flesh. The present study is the first to provide scientific data demonstrating the high toxicity of the eyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Effects of pH and Nutrients (Nitrogen) on Growth and Toxin Profile of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae)
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 767; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120767 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatera outbreaks are expected to increase worldwide with global change, in particular as a function of its [...] Read more.
Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatera outbreaks are expected to increase worldwide with global change, in particular as a function of its main drivers, including changes in sea surface temperature, acidification, and coastal eutrophication. In French Polynesia, G. polynesiensis is regarded as the dominant source of CTXs entering the food web. The effects of pH (8.4, 8.2, and 7.9), Nitrogen:Phosphorus ratios (24N:1P vs. 48N:1P), and nitrogen source (nitrates vs. urea) on growth rate, biomass, CTX levels, and profiles were examined in four clones of G. polynesiensis at different culture age (D10, D21, and D30). Results highlight a decrease in growth rate and cellular biomass at low pH when urea is used as a N source. No significant effect of pH, N:P ratio, and N source on the overall CTX content was observed. Up to ten distinct analogs of Pacific ciguatoxins (P-CTXs) could be detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clone NHA4 grown in urea, at D21. Amounts of more oxidized P-CTX analogs also increased under the lowest pH condition. These data provide interesting leads for the custom production of CTX standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Evidence for the Range Expansion of Ciguatera in French Polynesia: A Revisit of the 2009 Mass-Poisoning Outbreak in Rapa Island (Australes Archipelago)
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 759; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120759 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) results from the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). This disease is highly prevalent in French Polynesia with several well-identified hotspots. Rapa Island, the southernmost inhabited island in the country, was reportedly free of CP until 2007. This study [...] Read more.
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) results from the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). This disease is highly prevalent in French Polynesia with several well-identified hotspots. Rapa Island, the southernmost inhabited island in the country, was reportedly free of CP until 2007. This study describes the integrated approach used to investigate the etiology of a fatal mass-poisoning outbreak that occurred in Rapa in 2009. Symptoms reported in patients were evocative of ciguatera. Several Gambierdiscus field samples collected from benthic assemblages tested positive by the receptor binding assay (RBA). Additionally, the toxicity screening of ≈250 fish by RBA indicated ≈78% of fish could contain CTXs. The presence of CTXs in fish was confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The potential link between climate change and this range expansion of ciguatera to a subtropical locale of French Polynesia was also examined based on the analysis of temperature time-series data. Results are indicative of a global warming trend in Rapa area. A five-fold reduction in incidence rates was observed between 2009 and 2012, which was due in part to self-regulating behavior among individuals (avoidance of particular fish species and areas). Such observations underscore the prominent role played by community outreach in ciguatera risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Stereoselective Synthesis of the I–L Fragment of the Pacific Ciguatoxins
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120740 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 570
Abstract
The I–L ring system found in all the Pacific ciguatoxins has been prepared from a tricyclic precursor in a highly stereoselective manner. Subtle differences in the reactivity of the enones present in the seven- and eight-membered rings of the tricyclic ether starting material [...] Read more.
The I–L ring system found in all the Pacific ciguatoxins has been prepared from a tricyclic precursor in a highly stereoselective manner. Subtle differences in the reactivity of the enones present in the seven- and eight-membered rings of the tricyclic ether starting material have been exploited to allow selective protection of the enone in the eight-membered ring. Subsequent distereoselective allylation of the seven-membered ring has been accomplished by a palladium-mediated Tsuji-Trost reaction. The K-ring methyl and hydroxyl groups have been installed in a highly stereoselective manner by sequential conjugate reduction and enolate oxidation reactions. Ring L has been constructed by a use of a novel relay ring-closing metathesis reaction to complete the tetracyclic framework, which possesses the functionality necessary for elaboration of rings I and L and the introduction of ring M. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Further Advance of Gambierdiscus Species in the Canary Islands, with the First Report of Gambierdiscus belizeanus
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 692; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110692 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is a human food-borne poisoning that has been known since ancient times to be found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, which occurs when fish or very rarely invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) are consumed. The genus of marine benthic [...] Read more.
Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is a human food-borne poisoning that has been known since ancient times to be found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, which occurs when fish or very rarely invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) are consumed. The genus of marine benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus produces CTX precursors. The presence of Gambierdiscus species in a region is one indicator of CP risk. The Canary Islands (North Eastern Atlantic Ocean) is an area where CP cases have been reported since 2004. In the present study, samplings for Gambierdiscus cells were conducted in this area during 2016 and 2017. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated and identified as G. australes, G. excentricus, G. caribaeus, and G. belizeanus by molecular analysis. In this study, G. belizeanus is reported for the first time in the Canary Islands. Gambierdiscus isolates were cultured, and the CTX-like toxicity of forty-one strains was evaluated with the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (neuro-2a CBA). G. excentricus exhibited the highest CTX-like toxicity (9.5–2566.7 fg CTX1B equiv. cell−1) followed by G. australes (1.7–452.6.2 fg CTX1B equiv. cell−1). By contrast, the toxicity of G. belizeanus was low (5.6 fg CTX1B equiv. cell−1), and G. caribaeus did not exhibit CTX-like toxicity. In addition, for the G. belizeanus strain, the production of CTXs was evaluated with a colorimetric immunoassay and an electrochemical immunosensor resulting in G. belizeanus producing two types of CTX congeners (CTX1B and CTX3C series congeners) and can contribute to CP in the Canary Islands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Assessment of Ciguatera and Other Phycotoxin-Related Risks in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, French Polynesia): Molecular, Toxicological, and Chemical Analyses of Passive Samplers
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 321; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050321 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne illness caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates from the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The suitability of Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology for the monitoring of dissolved CTXs in [...] Read more.
Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne illness caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates from the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The suitability of Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology for the monitoring of dissolved CTXs in the marine environment has recently been demonstrated. To refine the use of this passive monitoring tool in ciguateric areas, the effects of deployment time and sampler format on the adsorption of CTXs by HP20 resin were assessed in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, French Polynesia), a well-known ciguatera hotspot. Toxicity data assessed by means of the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) showed that a 24 h deployment of 2.5 g of resin allowed concentrating quantifiable amounts of CTXs on SPATT samplers. The CTX levels varied with increasing deployment time, resin load, and surface area. In addition to CTXs, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were also detected in SPATT extracts using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), consistent with the presence of Gambierdiscus and Prorocentrum species in the environment, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) metabarcoding analyses conducted on passive window screen (WS) artificial substrate samples. Although these preliminary findings await further confirmation in follow-up studies, they highlight the usefulness of SPATT samplers in the routine surveillance of CP risk on a temporal scale, and the monitoring of other phycotoxin-related risks in ciguatera-prone areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Evaluation of Matrix Issues in the Applicability of the Neuro-2a Cell Based Assay on the Detection of CTX in Fish Samples
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 308; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050308 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are a group of neurotoxins responsible for the syndrome ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) as a result of the consumption of contaminated fish. The presence of these toxins has been detected around the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian coasts. Recent reports indicate the [...] Read more.
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are a group of neurotoxins responsible for the syndrome ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) as a result of the consumption of contaminated fish. The presence of these toxins has been detected around the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian coasts. Recent reports indicate the emergence of CFP in other geographic areas, in particular in European coasts, of the Canary Islands (Spain) and Madeira (Portugal). A neuroblastoma cell line of murine origin (N2a) has been applied to assay different groups of neurotoxins, acting on voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) of excitable cells, N2a-MTT. The great potential of N2a-MTT as a sensitive tool for the CTXs screening is clearly recognized, notably because it allows the detection of these toxins at levels below recommended as security levels. However, the complexity of the matrix is a critical point on the application of N2a-MTT, which needs to be evaluated. The aim of this work is to provide recommendations for an implemented N2a-MTT method for CTXs determination in fish that avoids matrix effects, particularly those related to high lipid content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Article
Use of Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Diversity of Toxins Produced by Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa Species from Balearic Islands and Crete (Mediterranean Sea) and the Canary Islands (Northeast Atlantic)
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050305 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Over the last decade, knowledge has significantly increased on the taxonomic identity and distribution of dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Additionally, a number of hitherto unknown bioactive metabolites have been described, while the role of these compounds in ciguatera poisoning [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, knowledge has significantly increased on the taxonomic identity and distribution of dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Additionally, a number of hitherto unknown bioactive metabolites have been described, while the role of these compounds in ciguatera poisoning (CP) remains to be clarified. Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins are very toxic compounds produced by these dinoflagellates and have been described since the 1980s. Ciguatoxins are generally described as the main contributors to this food intoxication. Recent reports of CP in temperate waters of the Canary Islands (Spain) and the Madeira archipelago (Portugal) triggered the need for isolation and cultivation of dinoflagellates from these areas, and their taxonomic and toxicological characterization. Maitotoxins, and specifically maitotoxin-4, has been described as one of the most toxic compounds produced by these dinoflagellates (e.g., G. excentricus) in the Canary Islands. Thus, characterization of toxin profiles of Gambierdiscus species from adjacent regions appears critical. The combination of liquid chromatography coupled to either low- or high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed for characterization of several strains of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa from the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands. Maitotoxin-3, two analogues tentatively identified as gambieric acid C and D, a putative gambierone analogue and a putative gambieroxide were detected in all G. australes strains from Menorca and Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) while only maitotoxin-3 was present in an F. paulensis strain of the same region. An unidentified Gambierdiscus species (Gambierdiscus sp.2) from Crete (Greece) showed a different toxin profile, detecting both maitotoxin-3 and gambierone, while the availability of a G. excentricus strain from the Canary Islands (Spain) confirmed the presence of maitotoxin-4 in this species. Overall, this study shows that toxin profiles not only appear to be species-specific but probably also specific to larger geographic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Communication
Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Confirmation of Caribbean Ciguatoxin-1 as the Main Toxin Responsible for Ciguatera Poisoning Caused by Fish from European Atlantic Coasts
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040267 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a common seafood intoxication mainly caused by the consumption of fish contaminated by ciguatoxins. Recent studies showed that Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX1) is the main toxin causing CP through fish caught in the Northeast Atlantic, e.g., Canary Islands (Spain) and [...] Read more.
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a common seafood intoxication mainly caused by the consumption of fish contaminated by ciguatoxins. Recent studies showed that Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX1) is the main toxin causing CP through fish caught in the Northeast Atlantic, e.g., Canary Islands (Spain) and Madeira (Portugal). The use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with neuroblastoma cell assay (N2a) allowed the initial confirmation of the presence of C-CTX1 in contaminated fish samples from the abovementioned areas, nevertheless the lack of commercially available reference materials for these particular ciguatoxin (CTX) analogues has been a major limitation to progress research. The EuroCigua project allowed the preparation of C-CTX1 laboratory reference material (LRM) from fish species (Seriola fasciata) from the Madeira archipelago (Portugal). This reference material was used to implement a liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for the detection of C-CTX1, acquisition of full-scan as well as collision-induced mass spectra of this particular analogue. Fragmentation pathways were proposed based on fragments obtained. The optimized LC-HRMS method was then applied to confirm C-CTX1 in fish (Bodianus scrofa) caught in the Selvagens Islands (Portugal). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Ciguatera in the Indian Ocean with Special Insights on the Arabian Sea and Adjacent Gulf and Seas: A Review
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 525; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080525 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus are found in almost all oceans and seas between the coordinates 35° N and 35° S. Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa are producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are known to cause foodborne disease associated with contaminated seafood. The occurrence [...] Read more.
The dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus are found in almost all oceans and seas between the coordinates 35° N and 35° S. Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa are producers of ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are known to cause foodborne disease associated with contaminated seafood. The occurrence and effects of CTXs are well described in the Pacific and the Caribbean. However, historically, their properties and presence have been poorly documented in the Indian Ocean (including the Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf). A higher occurrence of these microorganisms will proportionately increase the likelihood of CTXs entering the food chain, posing a severe threat to human seafood consumers. Therefore, comprehensive research strategies are critically important for developing effective monitoring and risk assessments of this emerging threat in the Indian Ocean. This review presents the available literature on ciguatera occurrence in the region and its adjacent marginal waters: aiming to identify the data gaps and vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Review
Advances in Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish
Toxins 2020, 12(8), 494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080494 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is currently the most common marine biotoxin food poisoning worldwide, associated with human consumption of circumtropical fish and marine invertebrates that are contaminated with ciguatoxins. Ciguatoxins are very potent sodium-channel activator neurotoxins, that pose risks to human health at [...] Read more.
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is currently the most common marine biotoxin food poisoning worldwide, associated with human consumption of circumtropical fish and marine invertebrates that are contaminated with ciguatoxins. Ciguatoxins are very potent sodium-channel activator neurotoxins, that pose risks to human health at very low concentrations (>0.01 ng per g of fish flesh in the case of the most potent Pacific ciguatoxin). Symptoms of CFP are nonspecific and intoxication in humans is often misdiagnosed. Presently, there is no medically approved treatment of ciguatera. Therefore, to mitigate the risks of CFP, reliable detection of ciguatoxins prior to consumption of fish tissue is acutely needed, which requires application of highly sensitive and quantitative analytical tests. During the last century a number of methods have been developed to identify and quantify the concentration of ciguatoxins, including in vivo animal assays, cell-based assays, receptor binding assays, antibody-based immunoassays, electrochemical methods, and analytical techniques based on coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Development of these methods, their various advantages and limitations, as well as future challenges are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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