Special Issue "Effects of Mycotoxins on Health and Performance in Animals"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Philippe Guerre
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Veterinary School of Toulouse, Université de Toulouse, ENVT, F-31076 Toulouse, France
Interests: Mycotoxins; Contaminants; Animal Toxicology; Analytical toxicology; Oxidative Stress; Sphingolipids; Toxicokinetics; Metabolism of toxic substances - Drug-metabolizing enzymes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effects of mycotoxins on animal heath have been known for many years. Maximum tolerated or recommended doses in food and feed are set for the most well-known mycotoxins in humans and animals.

However, with the development of new analytical methods which allow routine detection of a large number of mycotoxins, knowledge in the field has evolved. Emergent mycotoxins for which toxic effects are not well characterized and no guidelines are available raise new animal health issues. Also, little data is available on the impact that mycotoxins could have in combination or during chronic exposure. Finally, many strategies to avoid the harmful effects of mycotoxins on animal health and performances are still being developed.

The objective of this Special Issue is to focus on the effects of mycotoxins on health and performance in animals, with a particular interest in the following points:

(a) Epidemiological studies permitting a better characterisation of animal exposure to mycotoxins in combination

(b) Studies of the effects of mycotoxins in animals at a realistic exposure level

(c) Chronic and synergic effects of mycotoxins on heath and performances

(d) Strategies to limit the adverse effects of mycotoxins on animal health through the use of adsorbents, enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, etc.

(e) In vitro mechanistic studies showing molecular effects of emergent mycotoxins

(f) Impact of genetic and epigenetic factors on toxic effect of mycotoxins in animals

(g) Literature review articles on this Special Issue

Prof. Dr. Philippe Guerre
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food contaminants
  • feed safety
  • mycotoxins
  • animal health
  • interactions
  • chronic toxicity
  • detoxification
  • adsorbents
  • enzymes
  • prebiotics
  • probiotics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Toxic Effects of Fumonisins, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Alone and in Combination in Ducks Fed the Maximum EUTolerated Level
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020152 - 16 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Toxic effects among fumonisins B (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) administered alone and combined were investigated in 84-day-old ducks during force-feeding. 75 male ducks, divided into five groups of 15 animals, received daily during the meal a capsule containing the desired among [...] Read more.
Toxic effects among fumonisins B (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) administered alone and combined were investigated in 84-day-old ducks during force-feeding. 75 male ducks, divided into five groups of 15 animals, received daily during the meal a capsule containing the desired among of toxin. Treated animals received dietary levels of toxins equivalent to 20 mg FB1+FB2/kg (FB), 5 mg DON/kg (DON), 0.5 mg ZEN/kg (ZEN) and 20, 5 and 0.5 mg/kg of FB, DON and ZEN (FBDONZEN), respectively. Control birds received capsules with no toxin. After 12 days, a decrease in body weight gain accompanied by an increase in the feed conversion ratio was observed in ducks exposed to FBDONZEN, whereas there was no effect on performances in ducks exposed to FB, DON and ZEN separately. No difference among groups was observed in relative organ weight, biochemistry, histopathology and several variables used to measure oxidative damage and testicular function. A sphinganine to sphingosine ratio of 0.32, 1.19 and 1.04, was measured in liver in controls and in ducks exposed to FB and FBDONZEN, respectively. Concentrations of FB1 in liver were 13.34 and 15.4 ng/g in ducks exposed to FB and FBDONZEN, respectively. Together ZEN and its metabolites were measured after enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated forms. Mean concentrations of α-zearalenol in liver were 0.82 and 0.54 ng/g in ducks exposed to ZEN and FBDONZEN, respectively. β-zearalenol was 2.3-fold less abundant than α-zearalenol, whereas ZEN was only found in trace amounts. In conclusion, this study suggests that decreased performance may occur in ducks exposed to a combination of FB, DON and ZEN, but does not reveal any other interaction between mycotoxins in any of the other variables measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on Health and Performance in Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Peroxidases Extracted from the Spent Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) Substrate Significantly Degrade Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010072 - 19 Jan 2021
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Abstract
Little is known about the degradability of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) by the spent mushroom substrate (SMS)-derived manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) and its potential. The present study investigated the growth inhibition of Fusarium graminearum KR1 and the degradation of DON by [...] Read more.
Little is known about the degradability of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) by the spent mushroom substrate (SMS)-derived manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) and its potential. The present study investigated the growth inhibition of Fusarium graminearum KR1 and the degradation of DON by MnP and LiP extracted from SMS. The results from the 7-day treatment period showed that mycelium inhibition of F. graminearum KR1 by MnP and LiP were 23.7% and 74.7%, respectively. Deoxynivalenol production in the mycelium of F. graminearum KR1 was undetectable after treatment with 50 U/mL of MnP or LiP for 7 days. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) content and chitinase activity both increased in the hyphae of F. graminearum KR1 after treatment with MnP and LiP for 1, 3, and 6 h, respectively. At 12 h, only the LiP-treated group had higher chitinase activity and GlcNAc content than those of the control group (p < 0.05). However, more than 60% of DON degradabilities (0.5 mg/kg, 1 h) were observed under various pH values (2.5, 4.5, and 6.5) in both MnP (50 U/g) and LiP (50 U/g) groups, while DON degradability at 1 mg/kg was 85.5% after 50 U/g of LiP treatment for 7 h in simulated pig gastrointestinal tracts. Similarly, DON degradability at 5 mg/kg was 67.1% after LiP treatment for 4.5 h in simulated poultry gastrointestinal tracts. The present study demonstrated that SMS-extracted peroxidases, particularly LiP, could effectively degrade DON and inhibit the mycelium growth of F. graminearum KR1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on Health and Performance in Animals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Biomarkers of Deoxynivalenol Toxicity in Chickens with Special Emphasis on Metabolic and Welfare Parameters
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030217 - 17 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is the most widespread mycotoxin in poultry feed worldwide. Long term-exposure from low to moderate DON concentrations can produce alteration in growth performance and impairment of the health status of birds. To evaluate the [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is the most widespread mycotoxin in poultry feed worldwide. Long term-exposure from low to moderate DON concentrations can produce alteration in growth performance and impairment of the health status of birds. To evaluate the efficacy of mycotoxin-detoxifying agent alleviating the toxic effects of DON, the most relevant biomarkers of toxicity of DON in chickens should be firstly determined. The specific biomarker of exposure of DON in chickens is DON-3 sulphate found in different biological matrices (plasma and excreta). Regarding the nonspecific biomarkers called also biomarkers of effect, the most relevant ones are the impairment of the productive parameters, the intestinal morphology (reduction of villus height) and the enlargement of the gizzard. Moreover, the biomarkers of effect related to physiology (decrease of blood proteins, triglycerides, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes and the increase of alanine transaminase (ALT)), immunity (response to common vaccines and release of some proinflammatory cytokines) and welfare status of the birds (such as the increase of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the stress index), has been reported. This review highlights the available information regarding both types of biomarkers of DON toxicity in chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on Health and Performance in Animals)
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