Special Issue "Mycotoxins: Decontamination and Adsorption"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Assist. Prof. Dr. Anna Bzducha-Wróbel
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska Str. 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: food biotechnology; mycotoxins adsorbents; yeast biotechnology; waste valorization; lactic acid bacteria; microbiology; mycology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite many different preharvest measures, harvest management, and postharvest strategies to minimize the risk of mycotoxins contamination, the presence of these harmful substances in animal feedstuff cannot be avoided completely. Deleterious impacts of mycotoxins on livestock may be reduced by various mycotoxin-detoxifying agents, widely studied recently. Special functional group of materials based on, e.g., mineral clays, biomass or cell wall preparations of micro-organisms may act as a chemical sponge that adsorbs mycotoxins from contaminated feed and thus reduces their absorption from the animal’s gastrointestinal track, encouraging their excretion and thus preventing distribution to target organs. Another solution is based on altering the mode of action of mycotoxins through the addition of enzymes or live micro-organisms which are responsible for biotransformation and, thus, detoxification of mycotoxins. These additives have received increasing attention from the feed industry. The possible beneficial effect of such decontamination strategies needs to be well described and confirmed using in vivo tests and mycotoxin biomarkers. This Special Issue of Toxins is devoted to recent advances in mycotoxin decontamination and adsorption studies. Topics of interest will especially include new solutions in mycotoxin-binding materials, in vitro tests on mycotoxin-binding efficiency, gastro-intestinal digestion studies on the stability of the mycotoxin-adsorbent complexes, and in vivo studies on reducing the toxic effect of mold secondary metabolites in the presence of different adsorbents or biotransformation agents. I sincerely invite you to share with the readers the most important achievements of your research work.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Anna Bzducha-Wróbel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxin-binding materials
  • Adsorption
  • Biotransformation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Extrusion and Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and L. uvarum Strains for Improving the Safety Characteristics of Wheat Bran
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020163 - 19 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Processed wheat bran (W) is of great importance for food and feed. Consequently, the biosafety of W should be evaluated and improved with valorisation strategies. This study tested a design combining extrusion (at temperature of 115 and 130 °C; screw speeds of 16, [...] Read more.
Processed wheat bran (W) is of great importance for food and feed. Consequently, the biosafety of W should be evaluated and improved with valorisation strategies. This study tested a design combining extrusion (at temperature of 115 and 130 °C; screw speeds of 16, 20, and 25 rpm) and fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and L. uvarum strains for the valorisation of W to provide safer food and feed stock. The influence of different treatments on biogenic amine formation, mycotoxin content, and free amino acids, as well as acidity, microbiological parameters, and sugar concentration, were analysed. This research showed that a combination of extrusion and fermentation with selected strains can change several aspects of W characteristics. There was a significant effect of applied treatments on acidity and the microbiological parameters of W, as well as biogenic amines content. The lowest total mycotoxin concentration (29.8 µg/kg) was found in extruded (130 °C; 25 rpm) and fermented with L. uvarum sample. Finally, the combination of the abovementioned treatments can be confirmed as a prospective innovative pre-treatment for W, capable of potentially enhancing their safety characteristics and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins: Decontamination and Adsorption)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010027 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
Although previous studies have reported the use of nixtamalization for mycotoxins reduction in maize, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and other nixtamalization cooking ingredients for mycotoxin reduction/decontamination in sorghum and other cereals still need to be determined. The current study investigated the effect [...] Read more.
Although previous studies have reported the use of nixtamalization for mycotoxins reduction in maize, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and other nixtamalization cooking ingredients for mycotoxin reduction/decontamination in sorghum and other cereals still need to be determined. The current study investigated the effect of five nixtamalization cooking ingredients (wood ashes, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and calcium chloride) on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in artificially contaminated maize and sorghum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All tested cooking ingredients effectively reduced levels of mycotoxins in the contaminated samples with reduction initiated immediately after the washing step. Except for the calcium chloride nixtamal, levels of fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in the processed sorghum nixtamal samples were below the limit of detection. Meanwhile, the lowest pH values were obtained from the maize (4.84; 4.99), as well as sorghum (4.83; 4.81) nejayote and nixtamal samples obtained via calcium chloride treatment. Overall, the results revealed that the tested cooking ingredients were effective in reducing the target mycotoxins. In addition, it pointed out the potential of calcium chloride, though with reduced effectiveness, as a possible greener alternative cooking ingredient (ecological nixtamalization) when there are environmental concerns caused by alkaline nejayote. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins: Decontamination and Adsorption)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Physical and Chemical Methods for Reduction in Aflatoxin Content of Feed and Food
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030204 - 12 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Aflatoxins (AFs) are among the most harmful fungal secondary metabolites imposing serious health risks on both household animals and humans. The more frequent occurrence of aflatoxins in the feed and food chain is clearly foreseeable as a consequence of the extreme weather conditions [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins (AFs) are among the most harmful fungal secondary metabolites imposing serious health risks on both household animals and humans. The more frequent occurrence of aflatoxins in the feed and food chain is clearly foreseeable as a consequence of the extreme weather conditions recorded most recently worldwide. Furthermore, production parameters, such as unadjusted variety use and improper cultural practices, can also increase the incidence of contamination. In current aflatoxin control measures, emphasis is put on prevention including a plethora of pre-harvest methods, introduced to control Aspergillus infestations and to avoid the deleterious effects of aflatoxins on public health. Nevertheless, the continuous evaluation and improvement of post-harvest methods to combat these hazardous secondary metabolites are also required. Already in-use and emerging physical methods, such as pulsed electric fields and other nonthermal treatments as well as interventions with chemical agents such as acids, enzymes, gases, and absorbents in animal husbandry have been demonstrated as effective in reducing mycotoxins in feed and food. Although most of them have no disadvantageous effect either on nutritional properties or food safety, further research is needed to ensure the expected efficacy. Nevertheless, we can envisage the rapid spread of these easy-to-use, cost-effective, and safe post-harvest tools during storage and food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins: Decontamination and Adsorption)
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