Special Issue "Ochratoxin in Food Safety and Public Health"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dojin Ryu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Idaho, School of Food Science, Moscow, United States
Dr. Hyun Jung Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Idaho, School of Food Science, Moscow, United States
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ochratoxin A (OTA) represents one of the most widespread mycotoxins in agricultural commodities in the world. Among many commodities, OTA has been found in all major cereal grains, including oat, wheat, and barley, as well as in their processed food products. While some processing technologies have shown varying success in reducing OTA contents in certain food products, OTA tends to remain in most processed foods due to its heat stability. As such, contamination of this potent nephrotoxin and possible human carcinogen in foods poses a significant concern in food safety and public health. This Special Issue is dedicated to current understanding of the impact of OTA on human health, including its mechanism and toxicology, risk assessment, processing technologies and surveillance, as well as mycology or fungal biology. Review articles on this topic will also be considered.

Prof. Dojin Ryu
Dr. Hyun Jung Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Ocharatoxin A
  • food safety
  • public health
  • occurrence
  • mechanism
  • toxicology
  • exposure
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Immunohistochemical Review of Leydig Cell Lesions in Ochratoxin A-Treated Fischer Rats and Controls
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 480; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080480 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Ochratoxin A is best known as a potent renal carcinogen in male rats and mice after necessarily protracted ingestion, although valid extrapolation to any human disease has not been verified. The hypothesis that the toxin is a cause of human testicular cancer was [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A is best known as a potent renal carcinogen in male rats and mice after necessarily protracted ingestion, although valid extrapolation to any human disease has not been verified. The hypothesis that the toxin is a cause of human testicular cancer was proposed a decade ago and has proliferated since, partly through incomplete study of the scientific literature. Archived tumorous rat testes were available from Fischer F344 rats exposed to continuous dietary exposure for half of or the whole life in London in the 2000s. Renal cancer occurred in some of these cases and testicular tumours were observed frequently, as expected, in both treated and untreated animals. Application of clinical immunohistochemistry has for the first time consistently diagnosed the testicular hypertrophy in toxin-treated rats as Leydig cell tumours. Comparison is made with similar analysis of tumorous testes from control (untreated) rats from U.S. National Toxicology Program studies, both of ochratoxin A (1989) and the more recent one on Ginkgo biloba. All have been found to have identical pathology as being of sex cord-stromal origin. Such are rare in humans, most being of germinal cell origin. The absence of experimental evidence of any specific rat testicular cellular pathology attributable to long-term dietary ochratoxin A exposure discredits any experimental animal evidence of testicular tumorigenicity. Thus, no epidemiological connection between ochratoxin A and the incidence of human testicular cancer can be justified scientifically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxin in Food Safety and Public Health)
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Article
Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor for Ochratoxin—A Detection Based on CdTe Quantum Dots and (N-Methyl-4-pyridyl) Porphyrin
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 447; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080447 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
With the widespread contamination of ochratoxin A (OTA), it is of significant importance for detecting OTA in foods and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, a novel label-free fluorescent aptasensor utilizing the interaction between OTA-triggered antiparallel G-quadruplex and (N-methyl-4-pyridy) porphyrin (TMPyP) for [...] Read more.
With the widespread contamination of ochratoxin A (OTA), it is of significant importance for detecting OTA in foods and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, a novel label-free fluorescent aptasensor utilizing the interaction between OTA-triggered antiparallel G-quadruplex and (N-methyl-4-pyridy) porphyrin (TMPyP) for the rapid and sensitive determination of OTA was established. The fluorescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) could be quenched by TMPyP. In the presence of analyte (OTA), the aptamer could recognize OTA and transform from a random coil to the antiparallel G-quadruplex. The interaction between G-quadruplex and TMPyP could release CdTe QDs from TMPyP, and thus recover the fluorescence of CdTe QDs. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the designed aptasensor was 0.16 ng mL−1, with a linear range of 0.2 to 20 ng mL−1. Furthermore, this aptasensor showed high selectivity toward OTA against other structural analogs and other mycotoxins, and was successfully applied in Astragalus membranaceus samples. The presented aptasensor for OTA detection could be a promising tool for the field monitoring of food and TCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxin in Food Safety and Public Health)
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Article
Ochratoxin A-Induced Hepatotoxicity through Phase I and Phase II Reactions Regulated by AhR in Liver Cells
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 377; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11070377 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA exists in a variety of foods, including rice, oats, and coffee and is hepatotoxic, with a similar mode of action as aflatoxin B1. The [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA exists in a variety of foods, including rice, oats, and coffee and is hepatotoxic, with a similar mode of action as aflatoxin B1. The precise mechanism of cytotoxicity is not yet known, but oxidative damage is suspected to contribute to its cytotoxic effects. In this study, human hepatocyte HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of OTA (5–500 nM) for 48 h. OTA triggered oxidative stress as demonstrated by glutathione depletion and increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde level, and nitric oxide production. Apoptosis was observed with 500 nM OTA treatment. OTA increased both the mRNA and protein expression of phase I and II enzymes. The same results were observed in an in vivo study using ICR mice. Furthermore, the relationship between phase I and II enzymes was demonstrated by the knockdown of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with siRNA. Taken together, our results show that OTA induces oxidative stress through the phase I reaction regulated by AhR and induces apoptosis, and that the phase II reaction is activated by Nrf2 in the presence of oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxin in Food Safety and Public Health)
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