Special Issue "Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Albert Serrà
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Thun, Switzerland
Interests: electrochemistry; electrodeposition; materials science; heterogeneous catalysis; photocatalysis; water decontamination; biotemplating; electrocatalysis; nanomaterials; energy
Prof. Dr. Elvira Gómez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Grup d’Electrodeposició de Capes Primes i Nanoestructures (GE-CPN), Departament de Ciència de Materials i Química Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain and Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Interests: electrochemistry; electrodeposition; nanomaterials; magnetic materials; ionic liquids; biotemplating; electrocatalysis; heterogeneous catalysis; photocatalysis; water decontamination; energy
Dr. Laëtitia V.S. Philippe
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Interests: electrochemistry, electroplating; photoelectrochemistry; catalysis; materials processing; biotemplating; natural lithography; energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Harmful cyanobacterial algal blooms and cyanotoxins currently pose a major threat to global society, exceeding local, national, and state interests due to their extremely destructive effects on the environment and human health. In the near future, the formation of harmful cyanobacterial algal blooms and, in turn, cyanotoxins is expected to become widespread, driven by anthropological and eutrophication activities such as water pollution and promoted by escalating global temperatures. In developing countries, this adverse situation is aggravated by rapid industrialization, which generally increases demands for energy and lenient antipollution regulations that can worsen existing contamination. The global context of the threat thus urges the innovation of simple, sustainable, low-cost strategies and technologies for water decontamination that can be readily implemented worldwide.

In response, this Special Issue aims to highlight novel research on the development or optimization of new technologies or strategies for efficient, practical ways of circumventing the drawbacks of conventional treatments used to combat the spread of cyanobacterial blooms and their products. Indeed, such research paves the way for securing the safety of global water resources. Studies addressing any other aspects of relevance or reviews related to the removal of cyanotoxins or cyanobacteria are also welcome

Dr. Albert Serrà
Prof. Dr. Elvira Gómez
Dr. Laëtitia V.S. Philippe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cyanobacteria
  • harmful cyanobacterial algal blooms
  • cyanotoxins
  • water decontamination
  • advanced oxidation process (AOP)
  • photocatalysis
  • microcystins
  • biodegradation

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 636; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090636 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Harmful cyanobacterial algal blooms and cyanotoxins currently pose a major threat to global society, one that exceeds local and national interests due to their extremely destructive effects on the environment and human health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)

Research

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Article
Oxidation of Cylindrospermopsin by Fenton Process: A Bench-Scale Study of the Effects of Dose and Ratio of H2O2 and Fe(II) and Kinetics
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090604 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 461
Abstract
The cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become a significant environmental and human health concern due to its high toxicological potential and widespread distribution. High concentrations of cyanotoxins may be produced during cyanobacterial blooms. Special attention is required when these blooms occur in sources of [...] Read more.
The cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become a significant environmental and human health concern due to its high toxicological potential and widespread distribution. High concentrations of cyanotoxins may be produced during cyanobacterial blooms. Special attention is required when these blooms occur in sources of water intended for human consumption since extracellular cyanotoxins are not effectively removed by conventional water treatments, leading to the need for advanced water treatment technologies such as the Fenton process to produce safe water. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the application of the Fenton process for the degradation of CYN at bench-scale. The oxidation of CYN was evaluated by Fenton reaction at H2O2/Fe(II) molar ratio in a range of 0.4 to 4.0, with the highest degradation of about 81% at molar ratio of 0.4. Doubling the concentrations of reactants for the optimized H2O2/Fe(II) molar ratio, the CYN degradation efficiency reached 91%. Under the conditions studied, CYN degradation by the Fenton process followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with an apparent constant rate ranging from 0.813 × 10−3 to 1.879 × 10−3 s−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
‘Floc and Sink’ Technique Removes Cyanobacteria and Microcystins from Tropical Reservoir Water
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 405; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060405 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Combining coagulants with ballast (natural soil or modified clay) to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising tool to mitigate nuisance blooms. Nevertheless, the possible effects of this technique on different toxin-producing cyanobacteria species have not been thoroughly investigated. This laboratory [...] Read more.
Combining coagulants with ballast (natural soil or modified clay) to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising tool to mitigate nuisance blooms. Nevertheless, the possible effects of this technique on different toxin-producing cyanobacteria species have not been thoroughly investigated. This laboratory study evaluated the potential effects of the “Floc and Sink” technique on releasing microcystins (MC) from the precipitated biomass. A combined treatment of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) with lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) and/or local red soil (LRS) was applied to the bloom material (mainly Dolichospermum circinalis and Microcystis aeruginosa) of a tropical reservoir. Intra and extracellular MC and biomass removal were evaluated. PAC alone was not efficient to remove the biomass, while PAC + LMB + LRS was the most efficient and removed 4.3–7.5 times more biomass than other treatments. Intracellular MC concentrations ranged between 12 and 2.180 µg L−1 independent from the biomass. PAC treatment increased extracellular MC concentrations from 3.5 to 6 times. However, when combined with ballast, extracellular MC was up to 4.2 times lower in the top of the test tubes. Nevertheless, PAC + LRS and PAC + LMB + LRS treatments showed extracellular MC concentration eight times higher than controls in the bottom. Our results showed that Floc and Sink appears to be more promising in removing cyanobacteria and extracellular MC from the water column than a sole coagulant (PAC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Potential Impacts on Treated Water Quality of Recycling Dewatered Sludge Supernatant during Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020099 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
Cyanobacterial blooms and the associated release of cyanotoxins pose problems for many conventional water treatment plants due to their limited removal by typical unit operations. In this study, a conventional water treatment process consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and sludge dewatering was [...] Read more.
Cyanobacterial blooms and the associated release of cyanotoxins pose problems for many conventional water treatment plants due to their limited removal by typical unit operations. In this study, a conventional water treatment process consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and sludge dewatering was assessed in lab-scale experiments to measure the removal of microcystin-LR and Microcystis aeruginosa cells using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometer (LC-MS) and a hemacytometer, respectively. The overall goal was to determine the effect of recycling cyanotoxin-laden dewatered sludge supernatant on treated water quality. The lab-scale experimental system was able to maintain the effluent water quality below relevant the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for every parameter analyzed at influent concentrations of M. aeruginosa above 106 cells/mL. However, substantial increases of 0.171 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit), 7 × 104 cells/L, and 0.26 µg/L in turbidity, cyanobacteria cell counts, and microcystin-LR concentration were observed at the time of dewatered supernatant injection. Microcystin-LR concentrations of 1.55 µg/L and 0.25 µg/L were still observed in the dewatering process over 24 and 48 h, respectively, after the initial addition of M.aeruginosa cells, suggesting the possibility that a single cyanobacterial bloom may affect the filtered water quality long after the bloom has dissipated when sludge supernatant recycling is practiced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Enhanced Photocatalytic Removal of Cyanotoxins by Al-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles with Visible-LED Irradiation
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010066 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The ZnO-based visible-LED photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of two typical cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and anatoxin-A were examined. Al-doped ZnO nanoparticle photocatalysts, in Al:Zn ratios between 0 and 5 at.%, were prepared via sol-gel method and exhaustively characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, [...] Read more.
The ZnO-based visible-LED photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of two typical cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and anatoxin-A were examined. Al-doped ZnO nanoparticle photocatalysts, in Al:Zn ratios between 0 and 5 at.%, were prepared via sol-gel method and exhaustively characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. With both cyanotoxins, increasing the Al content enhances the degradation kinetics, hence the use of nanoparticles with 5 at.% Al content (A5ZO). The dosage affected both cyanotoxins similarly, and the photocatalytic degradation kinetics improved with photocatalyst concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g L−1. Nevertheless, the pH study revealed that the chemical state of a species decisively facilitates the mutual interaction of cyanotoxin and photocatalysts. A5ZO nanoparticles achieved better outcomes than other photocatalysts to date, and after 180 min, the mineralization of anatoxin-A was virtually complete in weak alkaline medium, whereas only 45% of MC-LR was in neutral conditions. Moreover, photocatalyst reusability is clear for anatoxin-A, but it is adversely affected for MC-LR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Can Cyanobacterial Diversity in the Source Predict the Diversity in Sludge and the Risk of Toxin Release in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant?
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010025 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Conventional processes (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration) are widely used in drinking water treatment plants and are considered a good treatment strategy to eliminate cyanobacterial cells and cell-bound cyanotoxins. The diversity of cyanobacteria was investigated using taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomics over [...] Read more.
Conventional processes (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration) are widely used in drinking water treatment plants and are considered a good treatment strategy to eliminate cyanobacterial cells and cell-bound cyanotoxins. The diversity of cyanobacteria was investigated using taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomics over two seasons in a drinking water treatment plant before, during, and after the bloom. Changes in the community structure over time at the phylum, genus, and species levels were monitored in samples retrieved from raw water (RW), sludge in the holding tank (ST), and sludge supernatant (SST). Aphanothece clathrata brevis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Dolichospermum spiroides, and Chroococcus minimus were predominant species detected in RW by taxonomic cell counts. Shotgun metagenomics revealed that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in RW before and after the cyanobacterial bloom. Taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomic showed that the Dolichospermum bloom occurred inside the plant. Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major bacterial phyla during the bloom. Shotgun metagenomics also showed that Synechococcus, Microcystis, and Dolichospermum were the predominant detected cyanobacterial genera in the samples. Conventional treatment removed more than 92% of cyanobacterial cells but led to cell accumulation in the sludge up to 31 times more than in the RW influx. Coagulation/sedimentation selectively removed more than 96% of Microcystis and Dolichospermum. Cyanobacterial community in the sludge varied from raw water to sludge during sludge storage (1–13 days). This variation was due to the selective removal of coagulation/sedimentation as well as the accumulation of captured cells over the period of storage time. However, the prediction of the cyanobacterial community composition in the SST remained a challenge. Among nutrient parameters, orthophosphate availability was related to community profile in RW samples, whereas communities in ST were influenced by total nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen (N- Kjeldahl), total and particulate phosphorous, and total organic carbon (TOC). No trend was observed on the impact of nutrients on SST communities. This study profiled new health-related, environmental, and technical challenges for the production of drinking water due to the complex fate of cyanobacteria in cyanobacteria-laden sludge and supernatant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Kinetics of Microcystin-LR Removal in a Real Lake Water by UV/H2O2 Treatment and Analysis of Specific Energy Consumption
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120810 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
The hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) represents one of the most toxic cyanotoxins for human health. Considering its harmful effect, the World Health Organization recommended a limit in drinking water (DW) of 1 µg L−1. Due to the ineffectiveness of conventional treatments present [...] Read more.
The hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) represents one of the most toxic cyanotoxins for human health. Considering its harmful effect, the World Health Organization recommended a limit in drinking water (DW) of 1 µg L−1. Due to the ineffectiveness of conventional treatments present in DW treatment plants against MC-LR, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining interest due to the high redox potential of the OH radicals. In this work UV/H2O2 was applied to a real lake water to remove MC-LR. The kinetics of the UV/H2O2 were compared with those of UV and H2O2 showing the following result: UV/H2O2 > UV > H2O2. Within the range of H2O2 tested (0–0.9 mM), the results showed that H2O2 concentration and the removal kinetics followed an increasing quadratic relation. By increasing the initial concentration of H2O2, the consumption of oxidant also increased but, in terms of MC-LR degraded for H2O2 dosed, the removal efficiency decreased. As the initial MC-LR initial concentration increased, the removal kinetics increased up to a limit concentration (80 µg L−1) in which the presence of high amounts of the toxin slowed down the process. Operating with UV fluence lower than 950 mJ cm−2, UV alone minimized the specific energy consumption required. UV/H2O2 (0.3 mM) and UV/H2O2 (0.9 mM) were the most advantageous combination when operating with UV fluence of 950–1400 mJ cm−2 and higher than 1400 mJ cm−2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Diversity Assessment of Toxic Cyanobacterial Blooms during Oxidation
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110728 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Fresh-water sources of drinking water are experiencing toxic cyanobacterial blooms more frequently. Chemical oxidation is a common approach to treat cyanobacteria and their toxins. This study systematically investigates the bacterial/cyanobacterial community following chemical oxidation (Cl2, KMnO4, O3, [...] Read more.
Fresh-water sources of drinking water are experiencing toxic cyanobacterial blooms more frequently. Chemical oxidation is a common approach to treat cyanobacteria and their toxins. This study systematically investigates the bacterial/cyanobacterial community following chemical oxidation (Cl2, KMnO4, O3, H2O2) using high throughput sequencing. Raw water results from high throughput sequencing show that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla. Dolichospermum, Synechococcus, Microcystis and Nostoc were the most dominant genera. In terms of species, Dolichospermum sp.90 and Microcystis aeruginosa were the most abundant species at the beginning and end of the sampling, respectively. A comparison between the results of high throughput sequencing and taxonomic cell counts highlighted the robustness of high throughput sequencing to thoroughly reveal a wide diversity of bacterial and cyanobacterial communities. Principal component analysis of the oxidation samples results showed a progressive shift in the composition of bacterial/cyanobacterial communities following soft-chlorination with increasing common exposure units (CTs) (0–3.8 mg·min/L). Close cyanobacterial community composition (Dolichospermum dominant genus) was observed following low chlorine and mid-KMnO4 (287.7 mg·min/L) exposure. Our results showed that some toxin producing species may persist after oxidation whether they were dominant species or not. Relative persistence of Dolichospermum sp.90 was observed following soft-chlorination (0.2–0.6 mg/L) and permanganate (5 mg/L) oxidation with increasing oxidant exposure. Pre-oxidation using H2O2 (10 mg/L and one day contact time) caused a clear decrease in the relative abundance of all the taxa and some species including the toxin producing taxa. These observations suggest selectivity of H2O2 to provide an efficient barrier against toxin producing cyanobacteria entering a water treatment plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Chitosan as a Coagulant to Remove Cyanobacteria Can Cause Microcystin Release
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 711; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110711 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Chitosan has been tested as a coagulant to remove cyanobacterial nuisance. While its coagulation efficiency is well studied, little is known about its effect on the viability of the cyanobacterial cells. This study aimed to test eight strains of the most frequent bloom-forming [...] Read more.
Chitosan has been tested as a coagulant to remove cyanobacterial nuisance. While its coagulation efficiency is well studied, little is known about its effect on the viability of the cyanobacterial cells. This study aimed to test eight strains of the most frequent bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, exposed to a realistic concentration range of chitosan used in lake restoration management (0 to 8 mg chitosan L−1). We found that after 1 h of contact with chitosan, in seven of the eight strains tested, photosystem II efficiency was decreased, and after 24 h, all the strains tested were affected. EC50 values varied from 0.47 to > 8 mg chitosan L-1 between the strains, which might be related to the amount of extracellular polymeric substances. Nucleic acid staining (Sytox-Green®) illustrated the loss of membrane integrity in all the strains tested, and subsequent leakage of pigments was observed, as well as the release of intracellular microcystin. Our results indicate that strain variability hampers generalization about species response to chitosan exposure. Hence, when used as a coagulant to manage cyanobacterial nuisance, chitosan should be first tested on the natural site-specific biota on cyanobacteria removal efficiency, as well as on cell integrity aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Removal of Positively Buoyant Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Restoration
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110700 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
The combination of a low-dose coagulant (polyaluminium chloride—‘Floc’) and a ballast able to bind phosphate (lanthanum modified bentonite, LMB—‘Sink/Lock’) have been used successfully to manage cyanobacterial blooms and eutrophication. In a recent ‘Floc and Lock’ intervention in Lake de Kuil (the Netherlands), cyanobacterial [...] Read more.
The combination of a low-dose coagulant (polyaluminium chloride—‘Floc’) and a ballast able to bind phosphate (lanthanum modified bentonite, LMB—‘Sink/Lock’) have been used successfully to manage cyanobacterial blooms and eutrophication. In a recent ‘Floc and Lock’ intervention in Lake de Kuil (the Netherlands), cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a was reduced by 90% but, surprisingly, after one week elevated cyanobacterial concentrations were observed again that faded away during following weeks. Hence, to better understand why and how to avoid an increase in cyanobacterial concentration, experiments with collected cyanobacteria from Lakes De Kuil and Rauwbraken were performed. We showed that the Planktothrix rubescens from Lake de Kuil could initially be precipitated using a coagulant and ballast but, after one day, most of the filaments resurfaced again, even using a higher ballast dose. By contrast, the P. rubescens from Lake Rauwbraken remained precipitated after the Floc and Sink/Lock treatment. We highlight the need to test selected measures for each lake as the same technique with similar species (P. rubescens) yielded different results. Moreover, we show that damaging the cells first with hydrogen peroxide before adding the coagulant and ballast (a ‘Kill, Floc and Lock/Sink’ approach) could be promising to keep P. rubescens precipitated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Large-Scale Green Liver System for Sustainable Purification of Aquacultural Wastewater: Construction and Case Study in a Semiarid Area of Brazil (Itacuruba, Pernambuco) Using the Naturally Occurring Cyanotoxin Microcystin as Efficiency Indicator
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110688 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The aquaculture industry in Brazil has grown immensely resulting in the production of inefficiently discarded wastewater, which causes adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystem. The efficient treatment of aquaculture wastewater is vital in reaching a sustainable and ecological way of fish farming. Bioremediation [...] Read more.
The aquaculture industry in Brazil has grown immensely resulting in the production of inefficiently discarded wastewater, which causes adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystem. The efficient treatment of aquaculture wastewater is vital in reaching a sustainable and ecological way of fish farming. Bioremediation in the form of the Green Liver System employing macrophytes was considered as wastewater treatment for a tilapia farm, COOPVALE, in Itacuruba, Brazil, based on previously demonstrated success. A large-scale system was constructed, and the macrophytes Azolla caroliniana, Egeria densa, Myriophyllum aquaticum, and Eichhornia crassipes were selected for phytoremediation. As cyanobacterial blooms persisted in the eutrophic wastewater, two microcystin congeners (MC-LR and -RR) were used as indicator contaminants for system efficiency and monitored by liquid-chromatography–tandem-mass-spectrometry. Two trial studies were conducted to decide on the final macrophyte selection and layout of the Green Liver System. In the first trial, 58% MC-LR and 66% MC-RR were removed and up to 32% MC-LR and 100% MC-RR were removed in the second trial. Additional risks that were overcome included animals grazing on the macrophytes and tilapia were spilling over from the hatchery. The implementation of the Green Liver System significantly contributed to the bioremediation of contaminants from the fish farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Seaweed Essential Oils as a New Source of Bioactive Compounds for Cyanobacteria Growth Control: Innovative Ecological Biocontrol Approach
Toxins 2020, 12(8), 527; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080527 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
The application of natural compounds extracted from seaweeds is a promising eco-friendly alternative solution for harmful algae control in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the anti-cyanobacterial activity of three Moroccan marine macroalgae essential oils (EOs) was tested and evaluated on unicellular Microcystis [...] Read more.
The application of natural compounds extracted from seaweeds is a promising eco-friendly alternative solution for harmful algae control in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the anti-cyanobacterial activity of three Moroccan marine macroalgae essential oils (EOs) was tested and evaluated on unicellular Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterium. Additionally, the possible anti-cyanobacterial response mechanisms were investigated by analyzing the antioxidant enzyme activities of M. aeruginosa cells. The results of EOs GC–MS analyses revealed a complex chemical composition, allowing the identification of 91 constituents. Palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid were the most predominant compounds in Cystoseira tamariscifolia, Sargassum muticum, and Ulva lactuca EOs, respectively. The highest anti-cyanobacterial activity was recorded for Cystoseira tamariscifolia EO (ZI = 46.33 mm, MIC = 7.81 μg mL−1, and MBC = 15.62 μg mL−1). The growth, chlorophyll-a and protein content of the tested cyanobacteria were significantly reduced by C. tamariscifolia EO at both used concentrations (inhibition rate >67% during the 6 days test period in liquid media). Furthermore, oxidative stress caused by C. tamariscifolia EO on cyanobacterium cells showed an increase of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly elevated after 2 days of exposure. Overall, these experimental findings can open a promising new natural pathway based on the use of seaweed essential oils to the fight against potent toxic harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
The Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Mitigating Cyanobacterial Blooms and Altering Microbial Communities across Four Lakes in NY, USA
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070428 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been proposed as an agent to mitigate toxic cyanobacterial blooms due to the heightened sensitivity of cyanobacteria to reactive oxygen species relative to eukaryotic organisms. Here, experiments were conducted using water from four diverse, eutrophic [...] Read more.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been proposed as an agent to mitigate toxic cyanobacterial blooms due to the heightened sensitivity of cyanobacteria to reactive oxygen species relative to eukaryotic organisms. Here, experiments were conducted using water from four diverse, eutrophic lake ecosystems to study the effects of H2O2 on cyanobacteria and non-target members of the microbial community. H2O2 was administered at 4 µg L−1 and a combination of fluorometry, microscopy, flow cytometry, and high throughput DNA sequencing were used to quantify the effects on eukaryotic and prokaryotic plankton communities. The addition of H2O2 resulted in a significant reduction in cyanobacteria levels in nearly all experiments (10 of 11), reducing their relative abundance from, on average, 85% to 29% of the total phytoplankton community with Planktothrix being highly sensitive, Microcystis being moderately sensitive, and Cylindrospermopsis being most resistant. Concurrently, eukaryotic algal levels increased in 75% of experiments. The bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were most negatively impacted by H2O2, with Actinobacteria being the most sensitive. The ability of H2O2 to reduce, but not fully eliminate, cyanobacteria from the eutrophic water bodies studied here suggests it may not be an ideal mitigation approach in high biomass ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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Article
Delayed Release of Intracellular Microcystin Following Partial Oxidation of Cultured and Naturally Occurring Cyanobacteria
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050335 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Oxidation processes can provide an effective barrier to eliminate cyanotoxins by damaging cyanobacteria cell membranes, releasing intracellular cyanotoxins, and subsequently oxidizing these toxins (now in extracellular form) based on published reaction kinetics. In this work, cyanobacteria cells from two natural blooms (from the [...] Read more.
Oxidation processes can provide an effective barrier to eliminate cyanotoxins by damaging cyanobacteria cell membranes, releasing intracellular cyanotoxins, and subsequently oxidizing these toxins (now in extracellular form) based on published reaction kinetics. In this work, cyanobacteria cells from two natural blooms (from the United States and Canada) and a laboratory-cultured Microcystis aeruginosa strain were treated with chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and potassium permanganate. The release of microcystin was measured immediately after oxidation (t ≤ 20 min), and following oxidant residual quenching (stagnation times = 96 or 168 h). Oxidant exposures (CT) were determined resulting in complete release of intracellular microcystin following chlorine (21 mg-min/L), chloramine (72 mg-min/L), chlorine dioxide (58 mg-min/L), ozone (4.1 mg-min/L), and permanganate (391 mg-min/L). Required oxidant exposures using indigenous cells were greater than lab-cultured Microcystis. Following partial oxidation of cells (oxidant exposures ≤ CT values cited above), additional intracellular microcystin and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were released while the samples remained stagnant in the absence of an oxidant (>96 h after quenching). The delayed release of microcystin from partially oxidized cells has implications for drinking water treatment as these cells may be retained on a filter surface or in solids and continue to slowly release cyanotoxins and other metabolites into the finished water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
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