Special Issue "Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gunther Antonissen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Interests: gut health; fusarium mycotoxins; interaction with bacterial enteric diseases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The assessment of the risk for a given mycotoxin is based on risk characterization, combining three major pillars: hazard identification, hazard characterization, and exposure assessment. In this Special Issue we would like to focus on the first two pillars, aiming to identify and characterize the risk of a given mycotoxin by assessing both its toxicokinetics and its toxicity or toxicodynamics. Toxicokinetics include the so-called ADME processes (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and determines the rate and extent at which the disposition of a toxin takes place. The toxicokinetic properties of a given toxin reflect its absolute internal dose, and comprise processes such as gastric and intestinal stability, rate and extent of oral absorption, presystemic elimination (first pass, metabolism in gut and/or liver), systemic elimination (metabolism and excretion) determining the total body clearance, and specific biological barriers determining the volume of distribution. Each of these processes may show species-specific differences. Next, toxicodynamics describe the toxicological characteristics (among others, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity (mutagenicity and carcinogenicity), mode of action, and dose–response relationship) of mycotoxins. Besides mycotoxin risk assessment, a toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic approach can also be applied to define the efficacy, mode of action, and safety of mycotoxin mitigation strategies.

This Special Issue aims to gather innovative research on toxicokinetics, toxicity, or toxicodynamics, and the integration of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes of mycotoxins in animals and humans, such as papers describing the toxicokinetic properties of emerging mycotoxins, mycotoxin metabolites, or comparative inter-species approaches, as well as new approaches and alternatives for toxicity testing and toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic approaches to evaluating postharvest mycotoxin mitigation strategies.

Prof. Dr. Gunther Antonissen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mode of action
  • Mycotoxin
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicodynamics
  • Toxicokinetics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis of Ochratoxin A-Derived Glucuronides and Mercapturic Acids as Biomarkers of Exposure
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 587; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080587 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread food contaminant, with exposure estimated to range from 0.64 to 17.79 ng/kg body weight (bw) for average consumers and from 2.40 to 51.69 ng/kg bw per day for high consumers. Current exposure estimates are, however, associated with [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread food contaminant, with exposure estimated to range from 0.64 to 17.79 ng/kg body weight (bw) for average consumers and from 2.40 to 51.69 ng/kg bw per day for high consumers. Current exposure estimates are, however, associated with considerable uncertainty. While biomarker-based approaches may contribute to improved exposure assessment, there is yet insufficient data on urinary metabolites of OTA and their relation to external dose to allow reliable estimates of daily intake. This study was designed to assess potential species differences in phase II biotransformation in vitro and to establish a correlation between urinary OTA-derived glucuronides and mercapturic acids and external exposure in rats in vivo. In vitro analyses of OTA metabolism using the liver S9 of rats, humans, rabbits and minipigs confirmed formation of an OTA glucuronide but provided no evidence for the formation of OTA-derived mercapturic acids to support their use as biomarkers. Similarly, OTA-derived mercapturic acids were not detected in urine of rats repeatedly dosed with OTA, while indirect analysis using enzymatic hydrolysis of the urine samples prior to LC–MS/MS established a linear relationship between urinary glucuronide excretion and OTA exposure. These results support OTA-derived glucuronides but not mercapturic acids as metabolites suitable for biomonitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxins)
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Article
Calcination Improves the In Vivo Efficacy of a Montmorillonite Clay to Bind Aflatoxin G1 in Broiler Chickens: A Toxicokinetic Approach
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100660 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The goal of this study was to investigate the toxicokinetic characteristics of aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) in broiler chickens and the effect of calcination of a Tunisian montmorillonite clay on the in vivo absorption of AFG1. In this study, broiler chickens were randomly distributed [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to investigate the toxicokinetic characteristics of aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) in broiler chickens and the effect of calcination of a Tunisian montmorillonite clay on the in vivo absorption of AFG1. In this study, broiler chickens were randomly distributed into four groups of 10 animals. Group 1 was administered AFG1 (2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) by single intravenous injection (IV), group 2 received an intra-crop bolus (PO) of AFG1 without any clay, group 3 was dosed AFG1 PO together with an oral bolus of purified clay (CP), and group 4 received AFG1 PO with an oral bolus of calcined clay. A significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC0-t) was observed for group 4 (6.78 ± 4.24 h*ng/mL) in comparison with group 2 (12.83 ± 4.19 h*ng/mL). A significant reduction of the oral bioavailability of AFG1 was observed for group 4 (7.61 ± 4.76%) compared with group 2 (14.40 ± 4.70%), while no significant effect was observed of CP. In this experiment, no phase I nor phase II metabolites of AFG1 were observed. These findings confirm that calcination of the purified montmorillonite clay enhances the adsorption of AFG1 in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, thereby reducing its bioavailability, thus reducing its toxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxins)
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