Special Issue "Application of Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Medicine"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Seong Taek Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Orofacial Pain & Oral Medicine, Yonsei University College of dentistry, Seoul 03722, Korea
Interests: botulinum toxin; anatomy; off-label use; aesthetic; pain; movement disorders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past 25 years, botulinum toxin has emerged as an important clinical tool in the management of a diverse array of medical and aesthetic conditions, including spasticity, focal dystonias, chronic migraine headaches, overactive bladder, and facial wrinkles. The common thread underlying all of these conditions is that their symptoms are dependent on heightened efferent drive and excessive neurotransmitter and/ or neuropeptide release from motor or sensory neurons.

However, recent basic/clinical knowledge has been lacking in the clinical use of botulinum toxins diversely, despite many off-label uses for them.

This Special Issue includes the basic knowledge and clinical experiences of off-label use of botulinum toxin injection.

Prof. Dr. Seong Taek Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • botulinum toxin
  • anatomy
  • off-label use
  • aesthetic
  • pain
  • movement disorders

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Botulinum Toxin Type-A (Botulax®) Treatment in Patients with Intractable Chronic Occipital Neuralgia: A Pilot Study
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050332 (registering DOI) - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Intractable chronic occipital neuralgia (ON) is an uncommon type of headache often experienced by patients in outpatient neurological clinics. Among patients unresponsive to oral neuralgia medications, needling or injections with several drugs were suggested alternatives for treating chronic ON. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Intractable chronic occipital neuralgia (ON) is an uncommon type of headache often experienced by patients in outpatient neurological clinics. Among patients unresponsive to oral neuralgia medications, needling or injections with several drugs were suggested alternatives for treating chronic ON. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injection treatments, where eight patients with unilateral chronic ON received BTX-A injections at the pain sites. The pain relief effect was observed 2 weeks after receiving the injections, gradually showing improvements up to 12 weeks after injection. There were no adverse events or changes from baseline in serologic studies and vital signs in any of the participants. The treatment’s pain-relieving effects were confirmed through regular, 12-week follow-ups, confirming the safety and effectiveness of BTX-A on chronic ON and suggesting that this method is an effective, novel alternative option for chronic ON treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonographic Considerations for Safe and Efficient Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection in Masseteric Hypertrophy
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010028 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
There are still concerns about masseteric bulging due to a lack of knowledge about the internal architecture of the masseter muscle. Further investigations are therefore required of the most-effective botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection points and strategies for managing masseteric bulging. The purpose of [...] Read more.
There are still concerns about masseteric bulging due to a lack of knowledge about the internal architecture of the masseter muscle. Further investigations are therefore required of the most-effective botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection points and strategies for managing masseteric bulging. The purpose of this study was to identify safer and more effective botulinum neurotoxin injection points and strategies by using ultrasonography to determine the structural patterns of the deep inferior tendon. We also measured the precise depths and locations of the deep inferior tendon of the masseter muscle. Thirty-two healthy volunteers participated in this study, and ultrasonography was used to scan the masseter muscle both longitudinally and transversely. Three structural patterns of the deep inferior tendon were identified: in type A, the deep inferior tendon covered the anterior two-thirds of the masseter muscle (21.8%); in type B, the deep inferior tendon covered the posterior two-thirds of the masseter muscle (9.4%); and in type C, the deep inferior tendon covered most of the inferior part of the masseter muscle (68.8%). Depending on the ultrasonography scanning site, the depth from the skin surface to the mandible in the masseteric region ranged from 15 to 25 mm. The deep inferior tendon was typically located 2 to 5 mm deep from the mandible. Ultrasonography can be used to observe the internal structure of the masseter muscle including the deep inferior tendon in individual patients. This will help to reduce the side effects of masseteric bulging when applying retrograde or dual-plane injection methods depending on the structural pattern of the deep inferior tendon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Botulinum Toxin Injection on Asymmetric Lower Face with Chin Deviation
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 456; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070456 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT) in masseter muscle reduction depending on the amount of chin deviation. Exploring distinctive effects of BoNT relative to the characteristics of facial asymmetry will aid in planning and predicting [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin (BoNT) in masseter muscle reduction depending on the amount of chin deviation. Exploring distinctive effects of BoNT relative to the characteristics of facial asymmetry will aid in planning and predicting treatment outcomes. Sixteen adult volunteers were classified into two groups according to the degree of menton deviation observed in posteroanterior cephalograms. Eight had a menton deviation of 3 mm or more and the other eight had less than 3 mm. A total of 25 Units of BoNT was injected into the unilateral masseter muscle of the prominent side for each participant. Changes in the volume and bulkiest height of the lower face on each side were measured with a 3D laser scan at four time points: before and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the injection. Two-way mixed ANOVA was employed for analyses. The volume and bulkiest height of the injected side decreased over time in both types of asymmetry, with significant differences at each time point. The reductions in the volume and bulkiest height were significantly greater in subjects without chin deviation. The reductions in the volume and bulkiest height of the lower face using BoNT are more effective for subjects without chin deviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Medicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Use of AbobotulinumtoxinA for Cosmetic Treatments in the Neck, and Middle and Lower Areas of the Face: A Systematic Review
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020169 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 736
Abstract
AbobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A) has been used for various cosmetic purposes, including minimization of moderate to severe lines, or other cosmetic indications, in the face and neck. We carried out a systematic review to identify all relevant evidence on the treatment approaches and outcomes of [...] Read more.
AbobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT-A) has been used for various cosmetic purposes, including minimization of moderate to severe lines, or other cosmetic indications, in the face and neck. We carried out a systematic review to identify all relevant evidence on the treatment approaches and outcomes of aboBoNT-A as a cosmetic treatment of the middle and lower areas of the face, and the neck. Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, congress proceedings and review bibliographies were searched for relevant studies. Identified articles were screened against pre-specified eligibility criteria. Of 560 unique articles identified, 10 were included for data extraction (three observational studies, 1 randomized controlled trial [with two articles] and five non-randomized trials). The articles provided data on gummy/asymmetric smile (2), marionette lines (5), masseter muscle volume (2), nasal wrinkles (2), perioral wrinkles (3) and the platysma muscle (4). All articles reporting on efficacy of aboBoNT-A demonstrated positive results, including reduction of wrinkles (5), reduction of masseter muscle (2) and degree of gummy smile (1) compared with before treatment. No serious adverse events were reported and patient satisfaction was high. In conclusion, positive findings support further research of aboBoNT-A for the middle and lower areas of the face, and in the neck, which are largely unapproved indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Medicine)
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