Special Issue "Botulinum Neurotoxin and Parkinson’s Disease"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.
Interests: botulinum-neurotoxin; receptors; imaging; animal models of neurodegenerative diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Interests: botulinum neurotoxin; brain; neurodegenerative disease; animal models of neurodegenerative diseases; parkinson disease; huntington disease; behavior; receptors; morphometry
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and is the second most frequently occurring of this type. The main motor symptoms of PD, such as bradykinesia, akinesia, rest tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disorders, are caused by axonal degeneration of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum and subsequent or parallel loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In addition to these motor symptoms, patients with PD often experience non-motor symptoms, including autonomic dysfunction, olfactory deficits, cognitive decline, sleep disorders, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis.
The non-motor symptoms often appear years before the motor symptoms are first noticed, but they can become major problems for the patients and adversely affect quality of life. Medications used to treat both motor and non-motor symptoms in PD are often inadequately effective and can cause intolerable side effects.
Botulinum toxins, produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, are among the most potent poisons present in nature. They inhibit the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic terminal by affecting SNARE and SNAP proteins. In recent years botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been used for the treatment over 100 different medical indications. Many of the symptoms for which BoNT has been found to be effective occur in a variety of neurological disorders. Especially in Parkinson’s disease, BoNT has been successfully applied to treat various motor symptoms (i.e., limb, cervical, pharyngeal, oromandibular dystonia and rigidity, bruxism, blepharospasm and lid apraxia, dysphagia, hand and jaw tremor, camptocormia, freezing of gait) and non-motor symptoms (i.e., drooling and sialorrhea, seborrhea, hyperhidrosis), gastroenterological symptoms including constipation and overactive bladder, gynecological disorders, pain, and so on.
In this Special Issue, we ask experts to contribute manuscripts that examine the current therapeutic indications and effectiveness of BoNT in PD or respective animal models.Prof. Dr. Andreas Wree
Dr. Veronica Alexandra Antipova
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
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- Parkinson’s disease
- botulinum neurotoxin
- treatment of motor symptoms
- treatment of non-motor symptoms
- clinical studies
- animal models
- peripheral nervous system
- central nervous system
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Use of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Parkinson’s Disease
Authors: Wolfgang H. Jost, Parkinson-Klinik Ortenau, Wolfach
Affiliation: Parkinson-Klinik Ortenau GmbH & Co KG Kreuzbergstr. 12-16 77709 Wolfach
Abstract: For well over 30 years botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been used for a large number of indications, some of which however have not been approved. Admittedly, approval varies in many countries and this permits a large spectrum for evaluation. And thus BoNT is used for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other Parkinson’s syndromes (PS) in varying degrees of frequency. We have to distinguish between (1) indications that are either approved or (2) not approved, (3) those that might be present with PS and (4) finally those which do appear due to PS. The most important indication for BoNT in PS-patients is probably sialorrhea, for which approval has been granted in the majority of countries. Cervical dystonia is a frequent symptom in PS, with anterocollis in aPS as a special entity. A further indication is blephorospasmus which all the different forms, especially the inhibition of eye-lid opening in aPS. The use of BoNT in cases of camptocormia, the Pisa syndrome and neck rigidity, is still a matter of debate. In dystonia of the extremities BoNT can be recommended, especially in dystonia of the feet. One well-known indication for which however sufficient data are still lacking involves treating tremor with BoNT. As to autonomic symptomes, focal hyperhidrosis and detrusor hyperactivity can be mentioned, in this last case it has already been approved. A number of further but rare indications like freezing-of-gait, dyskinesia, and dysphagia will be discussed and evaluated.