Special Issue "Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. András Szabó
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Health and Physiology, Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Kaposvár, Hungary
Interests: phospholipids; liver; rat; kidney; fusariotoxins; multitoxic effects
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Feed crops worldwide are very frequently infected with mycotoxin-producing molds. Though we know some basic characteristic symptoms of these mycotoxins already, we are still far from a deep understanding—especially concerning cellular events and their modes of action.

This Special Issue of Toxins is intended to focus on the cellular-level effects of feedborne mycotoxins, mostly in monogastric animals (in vivo) and their cells (in vitro). Though it is known that fusarial toxins like DON and some other trichothecenes provoke gastrointestinal symptoms and are immune suppressive, whereas zearalenone creates estrogen-like disturbances and fumonisins manifest different cell-function disorders, we also only partly understand their multitoxic, interaction-driven effects. As a further important addition, over the basic effects, some secondary (or primary?) ones may also be present—the most widely investigated being oxidative stress.

For this Special Issue we look forward to receiving researchers’ contributions in the form of original research, case studies, or review papers, giving new aspects and results to the understanding of the single or combined effects of various mycotoxins in feed, and their implications for disease development in farm and laboratory animals under both experimental, and preferably under realistic conditions.

Prof. Dr. András Szabó
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • feedborne mycotoxins and nutrition
  • toxic effects and animal health
  • in vivo and in vitro studies
  • cellular and molecular mechanisms
  • multitoxic effects and mycotoxin interactions
  • lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
The Effects of Mixed Fusarium Mycotoxins at EU-Permitted Feed Levels on Weaned Piglets’ Tissue Lipids
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 444; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070444 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
At exactly the individual permitted EU-tolerance dietary limits, fumonisins (FB: 5 mg/kg diet) and mixed fusariotoxins (DZ: 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet, and FDZ: 5 mg fumonisins + 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet) were administered to piglets [...] Read more.
At exactly the individual permitted EU-tolerance dietary limits, fumonisins (FB: 5 mg/kg diet) and mixed fusariotoxins (DZ: 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet, and FDZ: 5 mg fumonisins + 0.9 mg deoxynivalenol + 0.1 mg zearalenone/kg diet) were administered to piglets (n = 6/group) for three weeks. Bodyweights of intoxicated piglets increased, while feed conversion ratios decreased. In FDZ, both the absolute and relative weight of the liver decreased. In the renal-cellular membrane, the most pronounced alterations were in FDZ treatment, followed by individual FB exposure. In both treatments, high proportions of C20:0 and C22:0 with low fatty acid (FA) unsaturation were found. In hepatocyte phospholipids, FDZ toxins exerted antagonistic interactions, and FB had the strongest increasing effect on FA monounsaturation. Among all investigated organs, the spleen lipids were the least responsive, in which FDZ expressed synergistic reactions on C20:0 (↑ FDZ vs. FB) and C22:0 (↓ FDZ vs. DZ). The antioxidant defense of the kidney was depleted (↓ glutathione concentration by FB-exposure). Blood plasma indicated renal injury (profound increase of urea and creatinine in FB vs. DZ and FDZ). FB strongly increased total-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein concentrations, whereas FDZ synergistically increased gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline-phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus levels. Summarized, individual and combined multiple fusariotoxins modified the membrane lipid profile and antioxidant defense of splanchnic organs, and serum biochemicals, without retarding growth in piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Communication
Equations to Predict Growth Performance Changes by Dietary Deoxynivalenol in Pigs
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050360 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 824
Abstract
The objectives of the present work were to assess the accuracy of previously published equations for predicting effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on the growth performance changes of pigs and to update equations based on recently published data. A total of 59 data were [...] Read more.
The objectives of the present work were to assess the accuracy of previously published equations for predicting effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on the growth performance changes of pigs and to update equations based on recently published data. A total of 59 data were employed for the validation of previously published equations. These data were used to update the equations. The REG and CORR procedures of SAS were used. In the present validation test, a linear bias was significant (p < 0.05), indicating that prediction errors were not consistent across the data ranges. The intercept for ΔFI (−7.75 ± 1.19, p < 0.01) representing a mean bias was less than 0, indicating that the predicted mean of ΔFI was greater than the measured mean of ΔFI. Dietary DON concentrations had negative correlations with ΔWG (r = −0.79; p < 0.01) and ΔFI (r = −0.71; p < 0.01). Updated prediction equations were: ΔWG = −5.93 × DON with r2 = 0.77 and ΔFI = −4.42 × DON with r2 = 0.68. In conclusion, the novel equations developed in this study might accurately predict effects of dietary DON on the performance changes of pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Article
Effects of a Low Dose of T-2 Toxin on the Percentage of T and B Lymphocytes and Cytokine Secretion in the Porcine Ileal Wall
Toxins 2021, 13(4), 277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13040277 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Plant materials used in the production of pig feed are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of selected Fusarium species, and it can exert a harmful influence on living organisms. Most mycotoxins enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract, [...] Read more.
Plant materials used in the production of pig feed are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of selected Fusarium species, and it can exert a harmful influence on living organisms. Most mycotoxins enter the body via the gastrointestinal tract, and they can modulate the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function. However, little is known about the influence of low T-2 toxin doses on GALT. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of T-2 toxin administered at 50% of the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) on the percentage of CD2+ T cells, CD4+ T helper cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells, TCRγδ+ cells, CD5+CD8- B1 cells, and CD21+ B2 cells, and the secretion of proinflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12/23p40, IL-17A), anti-inflammatory, and regulatory (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β) cytokines in the porcine ileal wall. The results of the study revealed that T-2 toxin disrupts the development of tolerance to food antigens by enhancing the secretion of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines and decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory TGF-β. T-2 toxin triggered the cellular response, which was manifested by an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and a decrease in the percentage of B2 and Tγδ lymphocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Article
A 65-Day Fumonisin B Exposure at High Dietary Levels Has Negligible Effects on the Testicular and Spermatological Parameters of Adult Rabbit Bucks
Toxins 2021, 13(4), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13040237 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
A 65-day study was undertaken to test the effects of two doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of dietary fumonisin Bs (FB) on the rabbit male reproduction system. Body and testicular weight was not affected by the intoxication, neither the fatty acid composition of [...] Read more.
A 65-day study was undertaken to test the effects of two doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of dietary fumonisin Bs (FB) on the rabbit male reproduction system. Body and testicular weight was not affected by the intoxication, neither the fatty acid composition of the testicular total phospholipids; the testis histological analysis failed to reveal any toxic effect. The FBs increased the testicular concentration and activity of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and decreased initial phase lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and trienes) in a dose dependent manner. Sperm morphology and chromatin condensation were monitored on Feulgen-stained smears. No significant differences were observed between the treatment groups and between sampling time points. The live cell ratio in the sperm (as assessed with flow cytometry) was not different among groups at any of the five sampling timepoints and was also identical within groups. Similarly, the spermatozoa membrane lipid profile was also identical in all three groups after the total intoxication period. In summary, it was demonstrated that FBs in an unrealistic and unjustified high dose still do not exert any drastic harmful effect on the leporine, male reproduction system, meanwhile slightly augmenting testicular antioxidant response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Article
Exposure Assessment of Multiple Mycotoxins and Cumulative Health Risk Assessment: A Biomonitoring-Based Study in the Yangtze River Delta, China
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020103 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
The extensive exposure to multiple mycotoxins has been demonstrated in many countries; however, realistic assessments of the risks related to cumulative exposure are limited. This biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate exposure to 23 mycotoxins/metabolites and their determinants in 227 adults (aged 20–88 [...] Read more.
The extensive exposure to multiple mycotoxins has been demonstrated in many countries; however, realistic assessments of the risks related to cumulative exposure are limited. This biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate exposure to 23 mycotoxins/metabolites and their determinants in 227 adults (aged 20–88 years) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Eight mycotoxins were detected in 110 urine samples, and multiple mycotoxins co-occurred in 51/227 (22.47%) of urine samples, with deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and zearalenone (ZEN) being the most frequently occurring. For single mycotoxin risk assessment, FB1, ZEN, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and ochratoxin A (OTA) all showed potential adverse effects. However, for the 12 samples containing DON and ZEN, in which none had a hazard risk, the combination of both mycotoxins in two samples was considered to pose potential endocrine disrupting risks to humans by hazard index (HI) method. The combined margin of exposure (MOET) for AFB1 and FB1 could constitute a potential health concern, and AFB1 was the main contributor. Our approach provides a blueprint for evaluating the cumulative risks related to different types of mycotoxins and opens a new horizon for the accurate interpretation of epidemiological health outcomes related to multi-mycotoxin exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Article
Effects of Single and Repeated Oral Doses of Ochratoxin A on the Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Mouse Kidneys
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110732 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is a carcinogenic and nephrotoxic mycotoxin, which may cause health problems in humans and animals, and it is a contaminant in foods and feeds. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of oral OTA exposure on the [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is a carcinogenic and nephrotoxic mycotoxin, which may cause health problems in humans and animals, and it is a contaminant in foods and feeds. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of oral OTA exposure on the antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in the kidney. In vivo administration of OTA in CD1, male mice (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight in a single oral dose for 24 h and repeated daily oral dose for 72 h or repeated daily oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight for 21 days) resulted in a significant elevation of OTA levels in blood plasma. Some histopathological alterations, transcriptional changes in the glutathione system, and oxidative stress response-related genes were also found. In the renal cortex, the activity of the glutathione-system-related enzymes and certain metabolites of the lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes, trienes, and thiobarbituric reactive substances) also changed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Article
Zearalenone-Induced Interaction between PXR and Sp1 Increases Binding of Sp1 to a Promoter Site of the eNOS, Decreasing Its Transcription and NO Production in BAECs
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12060421 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin that has various toxicological impacts on mammalian health. Here, we found that ZEN significantly affected the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A promoter [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal mycotoxin that has various toxicological impacts on mammalian health. Here, we found that ZEN significantly affected the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). A promoter analysis using 5′-serially deleted human eNOS promoter revealed that the proximal region (−135 to +22) was responsible for ZEN-mediated reduction of the human eNOS promoter activity. This effect was reversed by mutation of two specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding elements in the human eNOS promoter. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ZEN increased Sp1 binding to the bovine eNOS promoter region (−113 to −12), which is homologous to −135 to +22 of the human eNOS promoter region. We also found that ZEN promoted the binding of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) to Sp1 of the bovine eNOS, consequently decreasing eNOS expression. This reduction of eNOS could have contributed to the decreased acetylcholine-induced vessel relaxation upon ZEN treatment in our ex vivo study using mouse aortas. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ZEN decreases eNOS expression by enhancing the binding of PXR-Sp1 to the eNOS promoter, thereby decreasing NO production and potentially causing vessel dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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Article
Orally Administered Fumonisins Affect Porcine Red Cell Membrane Sodium Pump Activity and Lipid Profile without Apparent Oxidative Damage
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050318 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Weaned piglets (n = 3 × 6) were fed 0, 15 and 30 mg/kg diet fumonisin (FB1, FB2 and FB3, i.e., FBs, a sphinganine analogue mycotoxin), from the age of 35 days for 21 days, to assess [...] Read more.
Weaned piglets (n = 3 × 6) were fed 0, 15 and 30 mg/kg diet fumonisin (FB1, FB2 and FB3, i.e., FBs, a sphinganine analogue mycotoxin), from the age of 35 days for 21 days, to assess mycotoxin induced, dose-dependent changes in the red cells’ membrane. Ouabain sensitive Na+/K+ ATPase activity was determined from lysed red cell membranes, membrane fatty acid (FA) profile was analysed, as well as antioxidant and lipid peroxidation endpoints. Final body weight was higher in the 30 mg/kg group (vs. control), even besides identical cumulative feed intake. After 3 weeks, there was a difference between control and the 30 mg/kg group in red cell membrane sodium pump activity; this change was dose-dependent (sig.: 0.036; R2 = 0.58). Membrane FA profile was strongly saturated with non-systematic inter-group differences; pooled data provided negative correlation with sodium pump activity (all individual membrane n6 FAs). Intracellular antioxidants (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) and lipid peroxidation indicators (conj. dienes, trienes and malondialdehyde) were non-responsive. We suppose a ceramide synthesis inhibitor (FB1) effect exerted onto the cell membrane, proven to be toxin dose-dependent and increasing sodium pump activity, with only indirect FA compositional correlations and lack of lipid peroxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Feedborne Mycotoxins on Animal Health)
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