Special Issue "H. pylori Virulence Factors in the Induction of Gastric Cancer"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017).
Interests: Helicobacter pylori; host-pathogen interactions in gastrointestinal tract; infection and gastrointestinal cancer; mucosal immunology
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Helicobacter pylori is a class-I carcinogen and one of the most successful pathogens known today. Globally circa 50% of the world´s population is infected with H. pylori. Infection results in long-term chronic gastritis and is associated with increased risk of peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection levels are highest in developing countries where early H. pylori infection in children is associated with important extra-gastric manifestations such as anaemia, growth impairment and increased diarrhoeal disease. With H. pylori infection levels decreasing in developed countries the future areas of high incidence of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer are likely to be in developing countries.
Recent advances in microbial pathogenesis have shed light on the role of H. pylori in neoplasia. Determinants are the manifold strategies of pathogen-host interaction at the epithelial interface that involve different H. pylori factors which interfere with epithelial cells and cells from the immune system. This review series provides the current knowledge on all essential aspects in the rapidly evolving area of H. pylori research. The reviews focus on the vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), which interacts with gastric epithelial cells, but also T cells. The cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) is another important virulence factor of H. pylori functioning as an effector protein, which is translocated through the pilus of a type IV secretion system into the cytoplasm of host cells. Once injected, CagA can deregulate cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Additional H. pylori factors involve γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) or high temperature requirement A (HtrA) representing new players in the complex network of H. pylori mechanisms. The development of appropriate animal models of H. pylori infection has allowed in vivo analysis of the role of specific H. pylori virulence factors in neoplasia. These reviews target both clinicians and microbiologists. They provide an important up-to-date summary of our current knowledge of H. pylori factors and the multiple strategies of how it affects public health all over the world.
Prof. Dr. Jean E. Crabtree
Prof. Dr. Silja Wessler
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