Special Issue "Therapeutics for Jellyfish Envenomation"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Venoms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Angel A. Yanagihara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, and Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Interests: cubozoan venom biochemical characterization and elucidation of mechanisms of pathogenesis; treatment of cubozoan envenomation induced acute cardiovascular collapse and Irukandji syndrome; cnidarian envenomation associated inflammation; marine toxins; ciguatoxin; detection of toxins; wound healing; marine bio material discovery and characterization

Special Issue Information

Envenomations by the medusozoan cnidarian species (jellyfish) result in a range of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild pain or sting-site inflammation to acute cardiovascular collapse and death. Retrospective studies of first aid and clinical care approaches demonstrate that outcomes can be improved by specific interventions. Conversely, some well-intended approaches have led to the exacerbation of symptoms and arguably the accelerated loss of life. The fundamental pathophysiological mechanisms involved in cubozoan envenomation are still unclear.  For these reasons, in addition to retrospective case studies, focused clinical trials and model systems, studies which aim to elucidate mechanisms of pathogenesis are critically important to inform therapeutic choices and lead to novel, more effective approaches.

This Special Issue of Toxins will focus on recent advances towards these goals and the development of optimized evidence-based care.

Dr. Angel Yanagihara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • envenomation
  • jellyfish sting
  • first aid
  • antidote
  • therapeutics
  • pathophysiology
  • box jellyfish
  • inflammation
  • cardiovascular collapse
  • porin

Published Papers (1 paper)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:


Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Neutralization Efficacy of Novel Jellyfish Antivenoms against Cyanea nozakii Toxins
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020165 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 493
Jellyfish stings are a common issue globally, particularly in coastal areas in the summer. Victims can suffer pain, itching, swelling, shock, and even death. Usually, hot water, vinegar, or alumen is used to treat the normal symptoms of a jellyfish sting. However, a [...] Read more.
Jellyfish stings are a common issue globally, particularly in coastal areas in the summer. Victims can suffer pain, itching, swelling, shock, and even death. Usually, hot water, vinegar, or alumen is used to treat the normal symptoms of a jellyfish sting. However, a specific antivenom may be an effective treatment to deal with severe jellyfish stings. Cyanea nozakii often reach a diameter of 60 cm and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of stings per year in coastal Chinese waters. However, there has been no specific C. nozakii antivenom until now, and so the development of this antivenom is very important. Herein, we collected C. nozakii antisera from tentacle extract venom immunized rabbits and purified the immunoglobulin (IgG) fraction antivenom (AntiCnTXs). Subsequently, two complete procedures to produce a refined F(ab’)2 type of antivenom (F(ab’)2-AntiCnTXs) and Fab type of antivenom (Fab-AntiCnTXs) by multiple optimizations and purification were established. The neutralization efficacy of these three types of antivenoms was compared and analyzed in vitro and in vivo, and the results showed that all types of antibodies displayed some neutralization effect on the lethality of C. nozakii venom toxins, with the neutralization efficacy as follows: F(ab’)2-AntiCnTXs ≥ AntiCnTXs > Fab-AntiCnTXs. This study describes the preparation of novel C. nozakii jellyfish antivenom preparations towards the goal of developing a new, effective treatment for jellyfish stings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutics for Jellyfish Envenomation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop