Special Issue "Monitoring of Marine Biotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jane Kilcoyne
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. H91 R673 Galway, Ireland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Toxic microalgae result in significant economic costs relating to impacts on fisheries, human and animal health, tourism and recreation, and management and monitoring. Currently, in the EU shellfish are regulated for six toxin classes, however, increased reporting of new and emerging toxins, as yet unregulated, are posing challenges to monitoring programs and regulators. Added to this is the impact of climate change which is resulting in changes in toxin profiles and distribution. Regulators need to be in a position to identify, rank, and prioritise emerging risks, and monitoring labs need to be equipped to deal with those toxins that may pose a risk in the future.

This Special Issue welcomes contributions on occurrence and monitoring information of algal blooms and toxins, in particular, where new species/toxins are being identified and where changes in profiles and/or distribution have been observed. Further interest lies in the development of advanced monitoring and detection, early warning, and mitigation strategies.

Dr. Jane Kilcoyne
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine biotoxins
  • new advances in monitoring
  • method validation
  • new and emerging toxins
  • monitoring data trends
  • analytical tools
  • HAB forecasting

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Identification of Fish Species and Toxins Implicated in a Snapper Food Poisoning Event in Sabah, Malaysia, 2017
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 657; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090657 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 533
Abstract
In the coastal countries of Southeast Asia, fish is a staple diet and certain fish species are food delicacies to local populations or commercially important to individual communities. Although there have been several suspected cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Southeast Asian [...] Read more.
In the coastal countries of Southeast Asia, fish is a staple diet and certain fish species are food delicacies to local populations or commercially important to individual communities. Although there have been several suspected cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Southeast Asian countries, few have been confirmed by ciguatoxins identification, resulting in limited information for the correct diagnosis of this food-borne disease. In the present study, ciguatoxin-1B (CTX-1B) in red snapper (Lutjanus bohar) implicated in a CFP case in Sabah, Malaysia, in December 2017 was determined by single-quadrupole selected ion monitoring (SIM) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Continuous consumption of the toxic fish likely resulted in CFP, even when the toxin concentration in the fish consumed was low. The identification of the fish species was performed using the molecular characterization of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene marker, with a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Lutjanus. This is the first report identifying the causative toxin in fish-implicated CFP in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring of Marine Biotoxins)
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Article
Identification of 24-O-β-d-Glycosides and 7-Deoxy-Analogues of Okadaic Acid and Dinophysistoxin-1 and -2 in Extracts from Dinophysis Blooms, Dinophysis and Prorocentrum Cultures, and Shellfish in Europe, North America and Australasia
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080510 - 21 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Two high-mass polar compounds were observed in aqueous side-fractions from the purification of okadaic acid (1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (2) from Dinophysis blooms in Spain and Norway. These were isolated and shown to be 24-O-β-d-glucosides of [...] Read more.
Two high-mass polar compounds were observed in aqueous side-fractions from the purification of okadaic acid (1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (2) from Dinophysis blooms in Spain and Norway. These were isolated and shown to be 24-O-β-d-glucosides of 1 and 2 (4 and 5, respectively) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and enzymatic hydrolysis. These, together with standards of 1, 2, dinophysistoxin-1 (3), and a synthetic specimen of 7-deoxy-1 (7), combined with an understanding of their mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns, were then used to identify 15, the 24-O-β-d-glucoside of dinophysistoxin-1 (6), 7, 7-deoxy-2 (8), and 7-deoxy-3 (9) in a range of extracts from Dinophysis blooms, Dinophysis cultures, and contaminated shellfish from Spain, Norway, Ireland, Canada, and New Zealand. A range of Prorocentrum lima cultures was also examined by liquid chromatography–high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS/MS) and was found to contain 1, 3, 7, and 9. However, although 46 were not detected in these cultures, low levels of putative glycosides with the same exact masses as 4 and 6 were present. The potential implications of these findings for the toxicology, metabolism, and biosynthesis of the okadaic acid group of marine biotoxins are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring of Marine Biotoxins)
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