Special Issue "Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure to Livestock and Poultry"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Duarte Diaz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, William J. Parker Agricultural, Rm. N119, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Interests: mycotoxins; dairy; nutrition; comparative nutrition; animal nutrition; international agri-culture; toxicology; food safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural feedstuffs is a frequent occurrence in modern livestock and poultry operations around the world. Whether the discovery originates from a positive test at the feedmill or occurs as a result of a clinical outbreak, the ramifications of mycotoxin-contaminated feedstuffs have huge economic impacts for animal protein food production worldwide.
This Special Issue of Toxins invites articles that address the impacts of livestock and poultry exposure to dietary mycotoxin, particularly articles related to (a) novel or emerging associations between dietary exposures and disease states; (b) novel biomarkers or analytical techniques for assessment of mycotoxin exposure, metabolism, or clinical diagnosis; (c) the reduction of mycotoxicosis through dietary interventions; and (d) emerging mycotoxins and their impact on livestock and poultry.
As the focus of this Special Issue is on livestock and poultry, papers concerning mycology, contamination surveillance, human health, or other endpoints not directly related to agricultural livestock and poultry exposure or health outcomes are outside of its scope. Econometric research is welcome, provided the analysis specifically concerns the influence of livestock and poultry exposure to mycotoxins. Experimental work in other agricultural species is welcomed, including aquaculture and non-traditional livestock species around the world.
I look forward to reviewing original research and review articles which shed light on the myriad impacts of dietary mycotoxin exposure on livestock and poultry health and productivity around the world.

Dr. Duarte Diaz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • livestock
  • poultry
  • animal nutrition
  • international agriculture
  • toxicology
  • food safety

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Performance of Broilers Fed with Maize Colonized by Either Toxigenic or Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus with and without an Aflatoxin-Sequestering Agent
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11100565 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
In warm agricultural areas across the globe, maize, groundnut, and other crops become frequently contaminated with aflatoxins produced primarily by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Crop contamination with those highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds impacts both human and animal health, as well as [...] Read more.
In warm agricultural areas across the globe, maize, groundnut, and other crops become frequently contaminated with aflatoxins produced primarily by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Crop contamination with those highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds impacts both human and animal health, as well as the income of farmers and trade. In Nigeria, poultry productivity is hindered by high prevalence of aflatoxins in feeds. A practical solution to decrease crop aflatoxin content is to use aflatoxin biocontrol products based on non-toxin-producing strains of A. flavus. The biocontrol product Aflasafe® was registered in 2014 for use in maize and groundnut grown in Nigeria. Its use allows the production of aflatoxin-safe maize and groundnut. A portion of the maize treated with Aflasafe in Nigeria is being used to manufacture feeds used by the poultry industry, and productivity is improving. One of the conditions to register Aflasafe with the national regulator was to demonstrate both the safety of Aflasafe-treated maize to avian species and the impact of Aflasafe as a public good. Results presented here demonstrate that the use of maize colonized by an atoxigenic strain of Aflasafe resulted in superior (p < 0.05) broiler performance in all evaluated parameters in comparison to broilers fed with toxigenic maize. Use of an aflatoxin-sequestering agent (ASA) was not sufficient to counteract the harmful effects of aflatoxins. Both the safety and public good value of Aflasafe were demonstrated during our study. In Nigeria, the availability of aflatoxin-safe crops as a result of using Aflasafe allows poultry producers to improve their productivity, their income, and the health of consumers of poultry products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure to Livestock and Poultry)
Article
Perennial Ryegrass Alkaloids Increase Respiration Rate and Decrease Plasma Prolactin in Merino Sheep under Both Thermoneutral and Mild Heat Conditions
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080479 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
A study was undertaken to determine the effects of feeding two levels of perennial ryegrass alkaloids (nil vs. moderate) under two climatic conditions. Alkaloids were fed via endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass seed and hay. Twenty-four Merino ewe weaners (six months, initial BW 32 ± [...] Read more.
A study was undertaken to determine the effects of feeding two levels of perennial ryegrass alkaloids (nil vs. moderate) under two climatic conditions. Alkaloids were fed via endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass seed and hay. Twenty-four Merino ewe weaners (six months, initial BW 32 ± 1.7 kg) were used in a study that lasted for 21 days after 14 days of adaptation. Sheep were fed either a control or alkaloid (Alk, 110 μg/kg LW ergovaline and 75 μg/kg LW lolitrem B) supplemented diet. Sheep were exposed to either constant thermoneutral (TN, 21–22 °C, 49% RH) or mildly heated (HS, 33 °C 1000–1500 h, 28% relative humidity) conditions. Dietary Alk and HS reduced dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively) with the combination of both reducing DMI by 42%. Reductions in DMI resulted in a lower daily gain in the Alk treatment (p < 0.001). Feed digestibility was reduced in the combined treatment (p = 0.03). Rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature increased in the Alk treatment. Plasma prolactin concentrations were decreased by Alk and increased by mild HS. The data indicate that production is compromised in the presence of Alk and mild HS, with this effect being exacerbated by a combination of both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure to Livestock and Poultry)
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Article
Lack of Toxic Interaction between Fusariotoxins in Broiler Chickens Fed throughout Their Life at the Highest Level Tolerated in the European Union
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 455; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080455 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Fusarium mycotoxins (FUS) occur frequently in poultry diets, and regulatory limits are laid down in several countries. However, the limits were established for exposure to a single mycotoxin, whereas multiple contamination is more realistic, and different studies have demonstrated that it is not [...] Read more.
Fusarium mycotoxins (FUS) occur frequently in poultry diets, and regulatory limits are laid down in several countries. However, the limits were established for exposure to a single mycotoxin, whereas multiple contamination is more realistic, and different studies have demonstrated that it is not possible to predict interactions between mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was thus to compare the toxic effect of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB) and zearalenone (ZON), alone and in combination on broiler chickens, at the maximum tolerated level established by the EU for poultry feed. Experimental corn-soybean diets incorporated ground cultured toxigenic Fusarium strains. One feed was formulated for chickens 0 to 10 days old and another for chickens 11 to 35 days old. The control diets were mycotoxin free, the DON diets contained 5 mg DON/kg, the FB diet contained 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg, and the ZON diet contained 0.5 mg ZON/kg. The DONFBZON diet contained 5, 20, and 0.5 mg/kg of DON, FB1 + FB2, and ZON, respectively. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 70 broilers (male Ross PM3) separated into five groups of 14 chickens each reared in individual cages from one to 35 days of age. On day 35, after a starvation period of 8 h, a blood sample was collected, and all the animals were killed and autopsied. No difference between groups that could be attributed to FUS was observed in performances, the relative weight of organs, biochemistry, histopathology, intestinal morphometry, variables of oxidative damage, and markers of testicle toxicity. A significant increase in sphinganine and in the sphinganine to sphingosine ratio was observed in broilers fed FB. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulatory guidelines established for single contamination of broiler chickens fed with DON, FB, and ZON can also be used in the case of multiple contamination with these toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure to Livestock and Poultry)
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Article
Yellow Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor) Fed Mycotoxin-Contaminated Wheat—A Possible Safe, Sustainable Protein Source for Animal Feed?
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050282 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the potential for accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) reared on high DON Fusarium-infected wheat and investigate the effects on production, survival and nutritional traits. Wheat containing 200 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the potential for accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) reared on high DON Fusarium-infected wheat and investigate the effects on production, survival and nutritional traits. Wheat containing 200 μg/kg DON was used as the control diet. A different source of wheat was sorted into six fractions and mixed to obtain low (2000 μg/kg), medium (10,000 μg/kg) and high (12,000 μg/kg) levels of DON. Each diet was replicated five times with 300 or 200 mealworms per replicate for the feeding and breeding trials, respectively. Trial termination occurred when the first two pupae were observed (32–34 days). There was no difference in the concentrations of DON detected in the larvae between diets that ranged from 122 ± 19.3 to 136 ± 40.5 μg/kg (p = 0.88). Excretion of DON was 131, 324, 230 and 742 μg/kg for control, low, medium and high, respectively. Nutritional analysis of larvae showed maximum crude protein of 52% and crude fat of 36%. Ash, fiber, chitin, fatty-acids and amino-acid content were consistent across diets. Survival was greater than 96% for all life stages and average daily gain ranged from 1.9 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.1 mg/day per mealworm. Larvae accumulated low levels of DON from Fusarium-infected wheat diets suggesting contaminated wheat could be used to produce a sustainable, safe protein source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure to Livestock and Poultry)
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