Special Issue "Exposure to Mycotoxins via Food Chain"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Frantisek Malir
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, CZ- 500 03 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Interests: mycotoxins; toxicity; food; feed; carcinogenicity; ochratoxin A
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Vladimir Ostry
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Center for Health, Nutrition and Food, National Institute of Public Health in Prague, Palackeho 3a, CZ-61242 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: food mycology; food toxicology; health risk assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Mycotoxins are the common contaminants of various foodstuffs of both plant and animal origin. Mycotoxins can enter food directly or indirectly during the production, transportation, processing, or storage of food. Mycotoxins contaminate the food chain despite compliance of Good Agricultural Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins represents a significant risk to human and animal health because mycotoxins are both acutely and chronically toxic. Indeed chronic exposure to low mycotoxins doses could be even more hazardous than acute exposure to a high dose. To reduce the risks associated with mycotoxins, and minimize their overall impact on public health, continuous monitoring of their presence in foods is necessary, in conjunction with strict respect of the legislation in the EU and the world. The control of mycotoxins in foods is a constantly evolving process and the obtained data are very important for the realisation the dietary exposure assessment and health risk assessment to mycotoxins.

Prof. Frantisek Malir
Prof. Vladimir Ostry
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Food chain
  • Dietary exposure
  • Health Risk Assessment
  • Human health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Products in Bangladesh
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 440; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070440 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
As milk provides both micro- and macronutrients, it is an important component in the diet. However, the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the feed of dairy cattle results in contamination of milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1 [...] Read more.
As milk provides both micro- and macronutrients, it is an important component in the diet. However, the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the feed of dairy cattle results in contamination of milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a toxic metabolite of the carcinogenic mycotoxin. With the aim to determine AFM1 concentrations in milk and milk products consumed in Bangladesh, in total, 145 samples were collected in four divisional regions (Sylhet, Dhaka, Chittagong, and Rajshahi). The samples comprised these categories: raw milk (n = 105), pasteurized milk (n = 15), ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n = 15), fermented milk products such as yogurt (n = 5), and milk powder (n = 5). AFM1 levels in these samples were determined through competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, AFM1 was present in 78.6% of milk and milk products in the range of 5.0 to 198.7 ng/L. AFM1 was detected in 71.4% of raw milk (mean 41.1, range 5.0–198.7 ng/L), and in all pasteurized milk (mean 106, range 17.2–187.7 ng/L) and UHT milk (mean 73, range 12.2–146.9 ng/L) samples. Lower AFM1 levels were found in yogurt (mean 16.9, range 8.3–41.1 ng/L) and milk powder samples (mean 6.6, range 5.9–7.0 ng/L). About one-third of the raw, pasteurized, and UHT milk samples exceeded the EU regulatory limit (50 ng/L) for AFM1 in milk, while AFM1 levels in yogurt and milk powder samples were well below this limit. Regarding regions, lower AFM1 contamination was observed in Chittagong (mean 6.6, max 10.6 ng/L), compared to Sylhet (mean 53.7, max 198.7 ng/L), Dhaka (mean 37.8, max 97.2 ng/L), and Rajshahi (mean 34.8, max 131.4 ng/L). Yet, no significant difference was observed in AFM1 levels between summer and winter season. In conclusion, the observed frequency and levels of aflatoxin contamination raise concern and must encourage further monitoring of AFM1 in milk and milk products in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure to Mycotoxins via Food Chain)
Article
Determination of Ochratoxin A and Ochratoxin B in Archived Tokaj Wines (Vintage 1959–2017) Using On-Line Solid Phase Extraction Coupled to Liquid Chromatography
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 739; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120739 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
According to the EU legislation, ochratoxin A contamination is controlled in wines. Tokaj wine is a special type of sweet wine produced from botrytized grapes infected by “noble rot” Botrytis cinerea. Although a high contamination was reported in sweet wines and noble [...] Read more.
According to the EU legislation, ochratoxin A contamination is controlled in wines. Tokaj wine is a special type of sweet wine produced from botrytized grapes infected by “noble rot” Botrytis cinerea. Although a high contamination was reported in sweet wines and noble rot grapes could be susceptible to coinfection with other fungi, including ochratoxigenic species, no screening of Tokaj wines for mycotoxin contamination has been carried out so far. Therefore, we developed an analytical method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) and ochratoxin B (OTB) involving online SPE coupled to HPLC-FD using column switching to achieve the fast and sensitive control of mycotoxin contamination. The method was validated with recoveries ranging from 91.6% to 99.1% with an RSD less than 2%. The limits of quantification were 0.1 and 0.2 µg L−1 for OTA and OTB, respectively. The total analysis time of the online SPE-HPLC-FD method was a mere 6 min. This high throughput enables routine analysis. Finally, we carried out an extensive investigation of the ochratoxin contamination in 59 Slovak Tokaj wines of 1959–2017 vintage. Only a few positives were detected. The OTA content in most of the checked wines did not exceed the EU maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg L−1, indicating a good quality of winegrowing and storing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure to Mycotoxins via Food Chain)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Mycotoxins and Microfungi in Spices in the Light of the Last Five Years
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 789; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120789 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Spices are imported worldwide mainly from developing countries with tropical and/or subtropical climate. Local conditions, such as high temperature, heavy rainfall, and humidity, promote fungal growth leading to increased occurrence of mycotoxins in spices. Moreover, the lack of good agricultural practice (GAP), good [...] Read more.
Spices are imported worldwide mainly from developing countries with tropical and/or subtropical climate. Local conditions, such as high temperature, heavy rainfall, and humidity, promote fungal growth leading to increased occurrence of mycotoxins in spices. Moreover, the lack of good agricultural practice (GAP), good manufacturing practice (GMP), and good hygienic practice (GHP) in developing countries are of great concern. This review summarizes recent data from a total of 56 original papers dealing with mycotoxins and microfungi in various spices in the last five years. A total of 38 kinds of spices, 17 mycotoxins, and 14 microfungi are discussed in the review. Worldwide, spices are rather overlooked in terms of mycotoxin regulations, which usually only cover aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In this paper, an extensive attention is devoted to the limits on mycotoxins in spices in the context of the European Union (EU) as well as other countries. As proven in this review, the incidence of AFs and OTA, as well as other mycotoxins, is relatively high in many spices; thus, the preparation of new regulation limits is advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure to Mycotoxins via Food Chain)
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