Special Issue "Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Magdalena Twarużek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of Physiology and Toxicology, Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, PL-85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Interests: mycology; mycotoxin; human health; cell culture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue on Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins, papers describing the worldwide levels and occurrence of mycotoxins modified mycotoxins, masked mycotoxins) in various commodities are welcome, as are papers on the occurrence and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in human food and animal feed.

The control of mycotoxins in food and feed is a constantly evolving process, and the data we have obtained so far are very important for the realization the dietary exposure assessment and health risk assessment to mycotoxins in human and animal. Multiple mycotoxins in feed and food have been recognized by European regulatory bodies as emerging risks in food safety and security with regard to animal and human health. Beyond the most studied ones, though, the number of other mycotoxins and metabolites of potential but largely unknown risk in animals is formidable, and also, knowledge of combined exposure to mycotoxins in highly needed. Surveys using advanced analytic tools are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions for this Special Issue, in the form of original research, case studies, or review papers, shedding light on perspectives on occurrence and control of mycotoxins of various mycotoxins in different commodities and risk assessment.

Prof. Magdalena Twarużek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food, food safety
  • Diet supplements
  • Feed, feed security
  • Biological fluids
  • Occupational environmental samples
  • Risk assessment

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Occurrence of Alternaria and Other Toxins in Cereal Grains Intended for Animal Feeding Collected in Slovenia: A Three-Year Study
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050304 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
In recent years, the less-studied Alternaria mycotoxins have attracted increasing interest due to the lack of survey data and their ability to cause toxic effects in animals and humans. To fill the gap, the aim of this three-year survey was to investigate the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the less-studied Alternaria mycotoxins have attracted increasing interest due to the lack of survey data and their ability to cause toxic effects in animals and humans. To fill the gap, the aim of this three-year survey was to investigate the presence and co-occurrence of Alternaria and other mycotoxins in a total of 433 cereal grain samples from Slovenian farms and agricultural cooperatives from 2014 to 2016. Using the multi-mycotoxin method, 14 mycotoxins were determined. In 53% of 433 analysed samples, contamination with at least one mycotoxin was found. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) were present in 32% and 26% of cereal grain samples, respectively, whereas alternariol (AOH), tentoxin (TEN), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-AcDON), and zearalenone (ZEN) were present in fewer than 15% of the samples. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was found in one rye sample, while diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin, and fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) were not detected. The highest maximum and median concentrations of Alternaria toxins were determined in spelt in 2016 (TeA, 2277 µg/kg and 203 µg/kg, respectively), and those of Fusarium toxins in wheat in 2015 (DON, 4082 µg/kg and 387 µg/kg, respectively). The co-occurrence of two or more mycotoxins was found in 43% of the positive samples. The correlations between Alternaria toxins were very weak but statistically significant (r: 0.15–0.17, p: 0.0042–0.0165). A well-known correlation between Fusarium toxins DON and ZEN was weak and highly significant (r = 0.28, p < 0.0001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Fumonisin Prevention Tool for Targeting and Ranking Agroclimatic Conditions Favoring Exposure in French Maize-Growing Areas
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030214 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The levels of fumonisins (FUMO)—mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides—in maize for food and feed are subject to European Union regulations. Compliance with the regulations requires the targeting of, among others, the agroclimatic factors influencing fungal contamination and FUMO production. Arvalis-Institut du végétal [...] Read more.
The levels of fumonisins (FUMO)—mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides—in maize for food and feed are subject to European Union regulations. Compliance with the regulations requires the targeting of, among others, the agroclimatic factors influencing fungal contamination and FUMO production. Arvalis-Institut du végétal has created a national, multiyear database for maize, based on field survey data collected since 2003. This database contains information about agricultural practices, climatic conditions and FUMO concentrations at harvest for 738 maize fields distributed throughout French maize-growing regions. A linear mixed model approach highlights the presence of borers and the use of a late variety, high temperatures in July and October, and a water deficit during the maize cycle as creating conditions favoring maize contamination with Fusarium verticillioides. It is thus possible to target a combination of risk factors, consisting of this climatic sequence associated with agricultural practices of interest. The effects of the various possible agroclimatic combinations can be compared, grouped and classified as promoting very low to high FUMO concentrations, possibly exceeding the regulatory threshold. These findings should facilitate the creation of a national, informative and easy-to-use prevention tool for producers and agricultural cooperatives to manage the sanitary quality of their harvest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Transformation of Selected Trichothecenes during the Wheat Malting Production
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020135 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and their glucosides (DON3G and NIV3G) during the malting of grains of two wheat varieties was studied. The concentration of DON3G and NIV3G started to increase significantly before the concentration of DON and NIV increased. This [...] Read more.
The transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and their glucosides (DON3G and NIV3G) during the malting of grains of two wheat varieties was studied. The concentration of DON3G and NIV3G started to increase significantly before the concentration of DON and NIV increased. This may reflect the transformation of the parent mycotoxin forms into their glucosides due to xenobiotic detoxification reactions. After a sharp rise during the last 2 days of the process (day 6 and 7), the DON concentration reached 3010 ± 338 µg/kg in the Legenda wheat-based malt and 4678 ± 963 µg/kg in the Pokusa wheat-based malt. The NIV concentration, at 691 ± 65 µg/kg, remained the same as that in the dry grain. The concentration of DON3G in the Legenda and Pokusa wheat-based malt was five and three times higher, respectively, than that in the steeped grain. The concentration of NIV3G in the Legenda wheat-based malt was more than twice as high as that in the steeped grain. The sharp increase in the concentration of DON at the end of the malting process reflected the high pathogen activity. We set aside some samples to study a batch that was left undisturbed without turning and aeration, for the entire period of malting. The concentration of DON in the malt produced from the latter batch was 135% and 337% higher, for Legenda and Pokusa, respectively, than that in the malt produced from the batch that was turned and aerated. The NIV concentration was 22% higher in the latter batch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Drinking Green Tea: Despite the Risks Due to Mycotoxins, Is It Possible to Increase the Associated Health Benefits?
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020119 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Tea has been consumed for thousands of years. Despite the different varieties, particular emphasis has been placed on green tea (GT), considering the associated health benefits following its regular consumption, some of which are due to its polyphenol constituents, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). [...] Read more.
Tea has been consumed for thousands of years. Despite the different varieties, particular emphasis has been placed on green tea (GT), considering the associated health benefits following its regular consumption, some of which are due to its polyphenol constituents, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Tea is not prone to the growth of microorganisms, except fungus, when proper storage, handling, and packing conditions are compromised. Consequently, mycotoxins, secondary metabolites of fungi, could contaminate tea samples, affecting human health. In the present study, we aimed to assess the balance between risks (due to mycotoxins and high levels of EGCG) and benefits (due to moderate intake of EGCG) associated with the consumption of GT. For this, 20 GT samples (10 in bulk and 10 in bags) available in different markets in Lisbon were analyzed through a LC–MS/MS method, evaluating 38 different mycotoxins. Six samples revealed detectable values of the considered toxins. Current levels of mycotoxins and EGCG intake were not associated with health concerns. Scenarios considering an increasing consumption of GT in Portugal showed that drinking up to seven cups of GT per day should maximize the associated health benefits. The present study contributes to the future establishment of GT consumption recommendations in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins and Their Modified Forms in Forage Maize Cultivars
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020110 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Forage maize is often infected by mycotoxin-producing Fusarium fungi during plant growth, which represent a serious health risk to exposed animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important Fusarium mycotoxins, but little is known about the occurrence of their modified [...] Read more.
Forage maize is often infected by mycotoxin-producing Fusarium fungi during plant growth, which represent a serious health risk to exposed animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important Fusarium mycotoxins, but little is known about the occurrence of their modified forms in forage maize. To assess the mycotoxin contamination in Northern Germany, 120 natural contaminated forage maize samples of four cultivars from several locations were analysed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for DON and ZEN and their modified forms deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3G), the sum of 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3+15-AcDON), α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZEL, β-ZEL). DON and ZEN occurred with high incidences (100 and 96%) and a wide range of concentrations, reaching levels up to 10,972 and 3910 µg/kg, respectively. Almost half of the samples (46%) exceeded the guidance value in complementary and complete feeding stuffs for ZEN (500 µg/kg), and 9% for DON (5000 µg/kg). The DON related mycotoxins DON3G and 3+15-AcDON were also present in almost all samples (100 and 97%) with amounts of up to 3038 and 2237 µg/kg and a wide range of concentrations. For the ZEN metabolites α- and β-ZEL lower incidences were detected (59 and 32%) with concentrations of up to 423 and 203 µg/kg, respectively. Forage maize samples were contaminated with at least three co-occurring mycotoxins, whereby 95% of all samples contained four or more mycotoxins with DON, DON3G, 3+15-AcDON, and ZEN co-occurring in 93%, together with α-ZEL in 57% of all samples. Positive correlations were established between concentrations of the co-occurring mycotoxins, especially between DON and its modified forms. Averaged over all samples, ratios of DON3G/DON and 3+15-AcDON/DON were similar, 20.2 and 20.5 mol%; cultivar-specific mean ratios ranged from 14.6 to 24.3 mol% and 15.8 to 24.0 mol%, respectively. In total, 40.7 mol% of the measured DON concentration was present in the modified forms DON3G and 3+15-AcDON. The α-ZEL/ZEN ratio was 6.2 mol%, ranging from 5.2 to 8.6 mol% between cultivars. These results demonstrate that modified mycotoxins contribute substantially to the overall mycotoxin contamination in forage maize. To avoid a considerable underestimation, it is necessary to analyse modified mycotoxins in future mycotoxin monitoring programs together with their parent forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Silver-109/Silver/Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Target Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Mass Spectrometry—The New Methods for an Assessment of Mycotoxin Concentration on Building Materials
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010045 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
This study aimed to detect and quantify mycotoxins on building materials using innovative laser mass spectroscopy methods—silver-109/silver/gold nanoparticle-enhanced target surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (109AgNPs, AgNPs and AuNPs SALDI). Results from SALDI-type methods were also compared with commonly used matrix-assisted laser [...] Read more.
This study aimed to detect and quantify mycotoxins on building materials using innovative laser mass spectroscopy methods—silver-109/silver/gold nanoparticle-enhanced target surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (109AgNPs, AgNPs and AuNPs SALDI). Results from SALDI-type methods were also compared with commonly used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Standards of seven moulds mycotoxin in a final concentration of 100 µg/mL for patulin, citrinin, 3-nitropropionic acid, alternariol and 20 µg/mL for sterigmatocystin, cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine C in the mixture were tested in pure solutions and after extraction from the plasterboards. Among the studied SALDI-type method, the lowest detection limits and the highest signal intensity of the mycotoxins tested were obtained with the use of 109AgNPs SALDI MS. The 109AgNPs method may be considered as an alternative to the currently most frequently used method MALDI MS and also liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS for mycotoxin determination. Future studies should attempt to use these methods for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to evaluate spatial distribution and depth of mycotoxin penetration into building materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Laser Ablation Remote-Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (LARESI MSI) Imaging—New Method for Detection and Spatial Localization of Metabolites and Mycotoxins Produced by Moulds
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 720; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110720 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 885
Abstract
To date, no method has been developed to assess the distribution of mycotoxins on the surface of grains, or other plant material, and the depth of their penetration into the interior. The Infrared (IR) Laser Ablation-Remote-Electrospray Ionization (LARESI) platform coupled to a tandem [...] Read more.
To date, no method has been developed to assess the distribution of mycotoxins on the surface of grains, or other plant material, and the depth of their penetration into the interior. The Infrared (IR) Laser Ablation-Remote-Electrospray Ionization (LARESI) platform coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS), measuring in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, was employed for the targeted imaging of selected metabolites of Aspergillus fumigatus, including mycotoxins in biological objects for the first time. This methodology allowed for the localisation of grain metabolites and fungal metabolites of grain infected by this mould. The distribution of metabolites in spelt grain was differentiated: fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, and fumiquinazoline D were located mainly in the embryo, brevianamide F in the seed coat, and fumagillin in the endosperm. The LARESI mass spectrometry imaging method can be used in the future for the metabolomic analysis of mould metabolites in various plants and agricultural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Italy
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 706; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110706 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium, capable of contaminating several foodstuffs. OTA damages primarily the kidneys, and is suspected to be a carcinogenic substance, thus maximum levels for OTA in foodstuffs have been established in the EU. [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium, capable of contaminating several foodstuffs. OTA damages primarily the kidneys, and is suspected to be a carcinogenic substance, thus maximum levels for OTA in foodstuffs have been established in the EU. Italian Ministry of Health suggested a maximum level of 1 μg/kg OTA in pork meat and derived products. In this study, OTA concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle of 64 wild boars (Sus scrofa) killed in two areas (area A and B) of Parma province (northern Italy), characterized by different habitat types, were assessed by HPLC-FLD technique. OTA was detected in 54% liver, 52% kidney, and 16% muscle samples. OTA levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney compared with muscle, and were above 1 μg/kg in 19 liver, 17 kidney, and 4 muscle samples. OTA levels in wild boars from area A resulted significantly higher with respect to those from area B, suggesting an environmental influence on OTA contamination in wild boars. This study seems to confirm that wild boar meat is a potential source of OTA, thus monitoring the presence of this mycotoxin in game meat might be recommended to prevent risks for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Winter Rye Varieties Cultivated in Poland (2017–2019)
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12060423 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most important cereals and is used in both the food and feed industries. It is produced mainly in a belt extending from Russia through Poland to Germany. Despite the great economic importance of [...] Read more.
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most important cereals and is used in both the food and feed industries. It is produced mainly in a belt extending from Russia through Poland to Germany. Despite the great economic importance of this cereal, there is little research on rye contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, the occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, monoacetoxyscirpenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and zearalenone), as well as ochratoxin A, in 60 winter rye samples of four varieties (KWS Binntto, KWS Serafino, Dańkowskie Granat and Farm Saved Seed) cultivated in three consecutive growing seasons in five different regions of Poland was determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection. Deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and zearalenone had the highest occurrence in samples (90%, 63%, 57%, and 45% positive results, respectively). The mean concentrations of these analytes were 28.8 µg/kg (maximum 354.1 µg/kg), 0.98 µg/kg (maximum 6.63 µg/kg), 2.98 µg/kg (maximum 29.8 µg/kg), and 0.69 µg/kg (maximum 10.2 µg/kg), respectively. The mean concentrations for individual mycotoxins were highest in the 2016/2017 growing season. In the 2016/2017 growing season, at least two mycotoxins were detected in 95% of the samples, while in the 2018/2019 growing season, 70% of samples contained one or no mycotoxins. The frequencies of mycotoxin occurrence in different rye varieties were similar. Although a high frequency of mycotoxin occurrence was noted (especially deoxynivalenol), their concentrations were low, and none of the analyzed rye samples exceeded the maximum acceptable mycotoxin level set by the European Commission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Transformations of Selected Fusarium Toxins and Their Modified Forms During Malt Loaf Production
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12060385 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
An increasing number of studies have found that modified mycotoxins, such as free mycotoxins, naturally occur in food, and severely impact food safety. The present study investigated concentrations of trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN), together with their modified forms, nivalenol-3-glucoside [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies have found that modified mycotoxins, such as free mycotoxins, naturally occur in food, and severely impact food safety. The present study investigated concentrations of trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEN), together with their modified forms, nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV-3G), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), and zearalenone-14-glucoside (ZEN-14G) and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN-14S), respectively, at successive stages of malt loaf production (flour, dough kneading/fermentation, loaf baking). Toxins in bakery products originate in flour produced from wheat grain that is naturally contaminated with Fusarium culmorum. Mycotoxin concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, and did not significantly change during the successive stages of bread production. After the dough kneading/fermentation stage, concentrations of NIV-3G and DON-3G were slightly increased, whereas those of ZEN and ZEN-14S were slightly decreased. The largest average decrease (21%) was found in ZEN-14G. After the baking stage, the average concentrations of NIV-3G, DON-3G, ZEN-14S, and ZEN-14G in the loaf crumb and crust decreased by 23%, 28%, 27%, and 20%, respectively, compared with those in the dough. During this technical process, the concentration of ZEN-14G in loaf crumb significantly decreased by an average of 48%, and those of ZEN, ZEN-14S, and ZEN-14G in loaf crust decreased by an average of 29%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. Considering the possibility of modified mycotoxins degradation to free forms, as well as the ability to synthesize them from free forms during technological processes, it would be prudent to consider them together during analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
A Recent Overview of Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Aflatoxins
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030186 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Aflatoxins (AFs) are some of the most agriculturally important and harmful mycotoxins. At least 20 AFs have been identified to this date. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent fungal toxin, can cause toxicity in many species, including humans. AFs are [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins (AFs) are some of the most agriculturally important and harmful mycotoxins. At least 20 AFs have been identified to this date. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent fungal toxin, can cause toxicity in many species, including humans. AFs are produced by 22 species of Aspergillus section Flavi, 4 species of A. section Nidulantes, and 2 species of A. section Ochraceorosei. The most important and well-known AF-producing species of section Flavi are Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. AFs contaminate a wide range of crops (mainly groundnuts, pistachio nuts, dried figs, hazelnuts, spices, almonds, rice, melon seeds, Brazil nuts, and maize). Foods of animal origin (milk and animal tissues) are less likely contributors to human AF exposure. Despite the efforts to mitigate the AF concentrations in foods, and thus enhance food safety, AFs continue to be present, even at high levels. AFs thus remain a current and continuously pressing problem in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Zearalenone and Its Metabolites—General Overview, Occurrence, and Toxicity
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010035 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi and represent one of the most common groups of food contaminants with low molecular weight. These toxins are considered common and can affect the food chain at various stages of production, harvesting, storage and processing. Zearalenone [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi and represent one of the most common groups of food contaminants with low molecular weight. These toxins are considered common and can affect the food chain at various stages of production, harvesting, storage and processing. Zearalenone is one of over 400 detected mycotoxins and produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium; it mainly has estrogenic effects on various organisms. Contaminated products can lead to huge economic losses and pose risks to animals and humans. In this review, we systemize information on zearalenone and its major metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Presence of Mycotoxins in Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Food Supplements: A Review
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120782 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
The consumption of herbal-based supplements, which are believed to have beneficial effects on human health with no side effects, has become popular around the world and this trend is still increasing. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, commonly known as milk thistle (MT), is the [...] Read more.
The consumption of herbal-based supplements, which are believed to have beneficial effects on human health with no side effects, has become popular around the world and this trend is still increasing. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, commonly known as milk thistle (MT), is the most commonly studied herb associated with the treatment of liver diseases. The hepatoprotective effects of active substances in silymarin, with silybin being the main compound, have been demonstrated in many studies. However, MT can be affected by toxigenic micro-fungi and contaminated by mycotoxins with adverse effects. The beneficial effect of silymarin can thus be reduced or totally antagonized by mycotoxins. MT has proven to be affected by micro-fungi of the Fusarium and Alternaria genera, in particular, and their mycotoxins. Alternariol-methyl-ether (AME), alternariol (AOH), beauvericin (BEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), enniatin A (ENNA), enniatin A1 (ENNA1), enniatin B (ENNB), enniatin B1 (ENNB1), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), T-2 toxin (T-2), tentoxin (TEN), and zearalenone (ZEA) seem to be most significant in MT-based dietary supplements. This review focuses on summarizing cases of mycotoxins in MT to emphasize the need for strict monitoring and regulation, as mycotoxins in relation with MT-based dietary supplements are not covered by European Union legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop